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»«OriKTT o> 







La handbook op reference on all subjects connected 
bddcation (its history. theoby. and pbactice). comprising 
articles by eminent educational bpecialiats 







J. Uaitlaitd AirDBBsoH, Chief Librarian, 
SI. Andrevjt Univertity. 

MUe A. M. 0. Batlbi, Secrttary to the 
Frodxl Society. 

Mrs. AjnriE Besast. 

Rev. CuroN Blore, D.D., formerly Bead 
Matter of the King'* Schooi, Canterbury. 

H. CoiTBTsoPB BowBir, M.A, 

OsuB BBOVircra, M.A., SiTtg'g College, 

W. Fbbbuki) Oabd, Greemmeh Hoipkal 

J. Spkhcbe OuawBH, Pre*ident of tie Tonic 
Sol-fa College. 

JoexpH Dabe, BA, 

Principal of St. Andrews Umoereity. 

E. T. Elliott, B.A- 

Mrs. Hhhbi FiwoBit. 

BiCHABD Gowme. 

ALSXAirDBS n. G&&HT, M.A. 

J. F. H£i£B, M.A., Magdalen College, 

J. Howard Hmroir, M.A., formerly 
Mathematical Matter, Uppingham School. 

Rev. J. Dbsib Hikd, M.A. 

Rev. J. W. HoHBBLK, M.A. 

Waltbe Low, M.A., Mercer*' School, Col- 
lege HOt. 

Kev. E. F. M. MacCartht, M.A., Sead- 
mastrr. King Edward't School, Fine Wage, Bir- 
mingham, and Vice-chairman of the Birming- 
ham School Board. 

Sir Philip MAainrB, Prme^itU of the Cen- 
tral Technical Inttitution, South Kmdngton. 

P. E. MiTHBsoif, M.A., Fellow of Jfeie 
College, Oxford, and Oxford Secretary to the 

Oxford and Cambridge SchooU Examination 

AXFBBD MlUHBB, M.A., Attittant Secretary, 
London Univeraty. 

E. Kbatlef Moobb, Mub. Bac. 

Rev. H. KiNGBHiLL Moobb, M.A., Prin- 
cipal of the Church of Ireland Training Col- 
lege, Dublin. 

Profeseor A. F. MuBieoir, M.A., Univertity 
College, London. 

Di. mwHBZaiMS, Medicai Officer of Health 
for Brighton, author of ' School Hypene.' 

J. L. Patoh, M.A., Fdlmo of St. John'i 
College, Caaibridge. 

Eev. H. D. RAWwaLST, M.A. 

Davis Sauioii, Head-matter of Belvedere 
Place Board School, Borovgh Mood, London. 

Abthuk SiDSWioK, M.A., Cb^put CMtti 
College, Oxford. 

Ber. A. J. SlCITH, M.A., Head-matter of 
King Edward's School, Camp Hill, Birming- 

Profesflor E. A. SoHBBirflOHEiN, MA., 
Maton College, Birmingham. 

Fbancib Stobb, M.A., Merchaytt Taylort' 

ProfoBBor James Sdlli, M.A., formerly 
Exnminer in Psychology in the University ^ 

William Whitblbt, M.A., Head-matter 
Gloucetter Road Board School, Camberwell. 

RoBBET Wilson, avthor of ' The Life and 
TimeB of Queen Victoria.' 

Miss SraiN WoOD,B.Sc., Training College, 

RiCHABD WoRitBLL, M.A., D.Sc, Head' 
matter, City Corporation Schools. 


The object kept in view by the writers of this work has been to make 
it Dsefiil to all who take an interest in edncational questions, and espe- 
cially to those engaged in the work of teaching, whether in Elementary, 
Secondary, or the Higher Schools. Within the limits of a small 
CycIopEedia an exhaustive treatment of the great variety of subjects 
dealt with is not to be expected. It has therefore been the aim of 
the Contributors to give a telescopic rather than a microscopic view 
of the edncational facts and questions discussed, and to bring their 
porely pedagogic features into clear outline. 

Kefereucea to authorities have been given at the conclnsioa of the 
more im'portant articles only, as a carefully compiled Biblic^raphy of 
Pedagc^ is given as an Appendix to the book. The biographical 
section of the work does not, for obvious reasons, include notices of 
living persons. 


Ana itti »u. 5«* Schools of Anti- 
quiTV, 8CC. Amt/ria. 

ArDftoId, Antoine. See J.uiei!»tsTB 
and TtBKOiiMATioy. 

Arnold, Matthew. Ses Pbdagogt, 

ISKVEriijits, nnd [toVAI. CoHMIS&lOilS. 

Assyria, Schooli ot S«e Schools or 

Atlases. .S'c^ A[ai>h. 

Babylonia. Schools of. S^j: Sckoolb 
or Anticjiu'I'v. 

BedC- ^'m! MlbDLK AriEft (Schools 
OF thk). 

Bentham, Jeremy, Sim Utiutahi- 


Bortiippa. See Scnoots or Axn- 
QOITV, si'L-l. Ansyria. 

BnchanaD, James. SatYovna CniL- 

miEN (EbUCATlyN of), 

BaWOf. Sr-e Rp.fOltMATION. 

OatanbMi. .sw Uxkcikmatio.v. 
Castiglione, Count Baldaisare. See 

Chaldea. Stc Scuooia or Anti- 

Chaacellor. .V Bsctor. 

CbarleiD&gne. Six Middlb Agbs 
(ScHooij* av iiirJ. 

City and Oulds of London Institute. 
See Tkciisicai. Ehucation. 

Commercial Education. Sne TBnn- 


Contortiura ma^istromm. Sur. Rkc- 

Cranfleld, Thomat. iSV« Raogkd 

Cuneiform Chanct«n. Sre Scuoolb 
OB ANTimnrv. 

Ecoledes Arts etXitien. SreTKca- 

StCAL Kl>UrATltiS. 

Bcole dea boni Enfanta. .So« Rk- 

Eeole Ceatiale. ^ecTscintiCAL Bdo- 


Eoole Diderot. Sec TitcuKiOAL £do- 



Erecn. Sc^- Sciioow of Axtiqi'itv. 
Erganzimgsschule. Se« Law (Edv- 


Feltre. Vittorino de. See Rbxau- 


Fletcher, Joseph. See Yovsa ChiL- 


Fortbildun^sEChule. See Law (Edc- 


Oeode«y. ^s^ Matiiehaticai. Ow- 


Oroote, Gerard. -sVn Rknaissaicck, 

Hebdomadal Board. See Univkumtt 

Hieronyciites. .SV« Renaiss-uccb. 

Hnllati, John. Sf Sol-Faisc. 

Jaeotot .s>'' P.osE. 

EiuatgeveTbeschulea. See Tkoh 
S10AL Education. 

Huseoms. .s'or Scibkcb am> 

Newcastle Conunission. 5m Botjj 
Com m issioSM. 

Newman, Cardinal. .S'<« Rkka 
SANCB iind Usivku8it:ks. 

Oberlin, J. P. . Am Young Cuilobi 
(Education or). 

Ober Beal. See Law (Educatiokj 

S«t. .S'OIOJM/. 

Obscurantists, .^rr RitNAllWAItOE, 

Occam, William of. See Bcuql 


Owen, Robert. See Youh« OiiiLDiti 


Ramns, Peter (Pierre de Rain£«) 
Sf Rkfoumation. 

Salmasiua. See Rbformatiok. 

Spalatin. .S'lv: Rbfor)ij.tio9c. 

Stow, David. -Vtx Young Ouilsri 
(Edccation of). 

Tumebus. S'r. RsrosuATtox. 

Waynflete, Bishop. See Midi 
Ages (Schools op tmb). 

Wilderspin, Samuel. Srf Yous 
Cdiluken (Educatios wr). 



Abacus (S0a(. u bourd or slah), origi- 

^ly any table of ruoUingiiUr form. The 

^nn w»s ttluu appUiMl to n bniird or table 

(I which inattieoiaticiiinK drew diiigminK, 

Fhe mbueui^ fts at preMiit usnl to inntruct 

Ktldivn in the use of niiinbcra, consiKts of 

iiininberof [larallel wirt-nmi which IwiuIk 

n stmiig, the upper wire dmotiDg uniU, 

ie oext tens, Ac. 

Abb«7 or Uonastio Schools. — TIick 
•w* two kiiids of syhoolN uiidf r the ilirec- 
tioiiof the moDAsteriea : (1) schools alniost 
ncluaivel}- devoted to tiie lii^ht-r educa- 
bm of Doiicps and those who, hivliig 
toinpl«t«d their proiiatiocL, had tJikeii the 
"i»i (2) schools distinct from these, in 
thith instruction, either f^tuitous or on 
I«yniea(, was given to children of all 
tlkvee of society living iu the iiei;;hliour- 
imi of tJie mODastery. Tlje former were 
Uw prototypes of the collegiate schooU, or 
(alleges, which developed iuto the colle;-es 
tl(h(ford. Cambridge, and. later on, those 
UWinclic6l4T and Eton. From the latter 
tynng nuuiy of the endowed grammar 
•diools (7.V.), which, at tJie dissolution of 
Ibe iDonast«ries, were placed in the hands 
tt Uy tni8tc«« by charter or letters patent 
PiUioTodor sovereigns. Cnthedral schools 
KR (iiniUr to this latter kind of inon- 
Mlie «chon1. 

Abbreviated Longhand.— Hchoolmas- 
'tn do not gMMtrftlly encom-age the prac- 
lice of aklMt!viitt4Kl longhand liy their 
«|ilt,but for their own purposes teachers 
KoU jBtTA mucli time by ndopling the 
>bbt«ri«tta«>t now in gi.^ncml 
■k^nphtst*, journal icts, and 
won^ thn carnmoncr of thi'sc nbbrevia- 
HDB Ant I, the ; o, of ; w, wnth ; c', could ; 
. have ; A', had ; fru, been ; /, for ; /m, 
nm ; nt, not ; t, that ; u'A, who, which, 
what ; jr, ing ; f, tion or tian ; ?nt, 
X ; «A, iball; nbt, about ; nrat, cir- 

Vnatanet* ; ffttt, nirmingham ; L'pool, 

Liverpool, and so on. The general rule 
for alilircviatitig longhand is to omit the 
vowels, except initial vowels and ^ucji as 
it is obviously necessary to retain to pre- 
vent i-onfusion. Scr SiiortiiaM). 

Abbreviations .^Tlie abbreviations in 
seholftstic use are chielly thosi- eniployi'd 
to denote acawleniic attaimiients, us K.A., 
Bachelor of j\rts, M.A,. Master of Artii, 
(to., or to facilitate the working of papt'ni, 
Ac, in matlieniatics and other studies. 
In univprHily e.xamjua lions caiiilidatesurH 
generally permitteiL to abbreviate exten- 
sively ill working geoumtricjil papitrs bv 
using aigua and figures, though many 
l4^achers object to the adoption of this 
practice by young pupils. 

ABC Yethod, by which diildri'n learn 
all the hrtters of the al|)habi^L froni an 
ABC book, from the blackboai-d, from 
cards, Ac. The pupil is instructed to 
point to the letters singly in turn, and 
thus associate the form with the name. 
Thissystem has now generally been super- 
seded by the Word Method (q.v.). 

ABC Shooters (German ABC 
Sc-liUlien). — J ocular nameforUermau chil- 
dren lemming the ABC. ' Kchutzen ' iu 
the Middle Ages were the younger wan- 
dering scholars, who, like fags, were com- 
pelled to find food for tho elder boys by 
begging or ' shooting,' i.e. purloining, stray 
fowls, Ac. In German students' slang 
echietsen (shoot) still this sense. 

Abccedftrian. — This word, composed 
of the first four letters of tho alphabet, 
use by denotes a pupil in the most elementary 
authors. st*ge of education. 

Abelard, Peter, b. at Palais, near 
Nantea, 1079, died IH2. He is one of 
the most famous of thi^ early ^Scholastics. 
Hilt attainments and his etoi]uence com- 
biiKxl t-ogive him an important place as 
an educationist. His father was "N«B.\tV'j, 
and spared jio expense in UU aon'a eAiicV 



tion. Having lounit fri-lirriw, Greek, iind 
lAtin, AtM'!;ird wi-iit to ihn Univpnnty of 
Pariji, which i!iijo_¥t!il at tlmt time a wiili?- 
•prriid fiinin. Then! li« bpc-umo tliu pupil 
of fJuiUiiump de Clmiiipeuux, the moat skil- 
ful dialnctjaaii of the ugt-. AlieUnl soon 
surfHLSsed his uiaHU-r, and often cImlleiiRed 
liim to public disjiu tation a. AI>L-lnril re- 
tired to Meluii and lectured tlien-, whit!n?r 
some of t!ie Parisian students followed 
him. But his health gave n'ay, altliou^'li 
not yet twent.y-tvro, owing to Iiis severe 
Studies : aod for some time he sought 
rest. After many changes we find him 
again in Paris, iis proff.ssor of divinity, 
surrounded by thfimostrminrntscholarsof 
tiis Age. ll[:n: it wu thut he- rnra?iveil 
H^loist', niBCi! of tile rii^h cmnon Kulliert, 
OS II pupil. Hitr philcisophin studies, how- 
ever, ejidt-d in n ronmntin iittathmpnt thut 
hns beL-ome us i'i>lnbn>l«d in litcmture as 
thiit of Swift and Stelk. This disturlied 
the ri«t of Abulard's Ufe, and cuusrul liitn 
much trouble and many eri^iiiies. Iti 
Alwlard's time there were two courst-s 
of scholastic instruction : the ■ trivimn,' 
containing granininr, rhetoric, and dia- 
lectics oi' philosophy; the 'quadrivium,' 
comprising arithmotie, music, geometry, 
astronomy. Abelard's contemporaries 
agree in regarding him as an accom- 
plished master in all these. This must )h> 
understood, of course, with regard to the 
age in which he lived, for it is certain 
tliat no Greek text of the writings of 
Aristotle existi^d at that time id France. 
8ome MS. copif* of hig works remain, and 
they may hp sfinn in thf British Museum. 
In i.hcm and in his printed works all the 
qiiotjitionii from AriBtotln are In liatin. 
Aberdeen University. .SVe Univsk- 


Absenteeism. Sr^ Attrsdasck. 

Absent-miiidedneas. — This term indi- 
cate* that vari«ty of iiibttlpntion which 
arise* from im-ntiil preoccupiition. This 
may hn duo to thn action of soinp rxtj?rnal 
•timulnii, ax when a child fails to listj^n to 
what i» Kaid to him becuuse hv ii watching 
the movrmnnts of a fly on the window. 
In a itpBcinl manner the term refers to tha 
withdrawal of attention from the external 
Rurroundingi as a whole, as when a child 
jg wholly inattentive to wUal it wm and 
hoars liecause it« tboughta are absorbM in 
tho anticipalion of some treat. A Ix^t 
to drunmy imafciaation and reverie i* a 
eonimon cause of absent-minded niuw in 


tetition ^H 
d by t» 

children. As a source of inattention 
must be carefully dislinguiahcd 
teacher from mental sluggisliness, as com- 
monly illustrated in idle wandering of the 
tlioughts, or what Locke calls ' saunter- 
ing.' As tlie history of more than ona 
distinguished man tellfi us, absent- minded - 
iie^s in relation to school lessons tony bo 
a sign of intense mental activity othorviso 
absorbed ; and the game fact ix «lill mora 
strikingly illustrated in tin- habitual ab- 
straction of the Rtudmt from liin «ur- 
roundings. Al.>sent- minded m-ss Bnds its 
proper remedy in the habitual awakening 
of uie child's interest in his surroundinpi, 
in the caricful training of the obsorring 
faculty and thp practical ajititudes, and in 
thd investing of subjecta of iiistructiOQ 
with all ptesible attractiveness. Sm At- 
test) o\. 

Abstract and Concrete.— Tliese refer 
to a fundamnitul distinction in our know- 
ledge. We may have a knowledge of aOiM 
pai-ticular thing in its completeness, as, for 
example, of water as something at once 
6ttid, transparent, Ac. This is knowledge 
of things in the concret*. <>n the other 
hand, we may think about the property 
fluidity apart from water and aJi other 
invrticular subsljiiice.>i. Tli is knowledge of 
c|uatitic5, as distinct from concrete things 
as whales, is said to be knowledge of the 
abstract. In Logic all names of things, 
wliiHber general or singular, are called 
concrete terms, all names of qualities ab- 
stract terms, It is evident from this defi- 
nition tliat the region of abstract' knowledgt 
is tliatwith which science is specially 
cerned ; for all science deals with the c<iin> 
nion qualities or properties of things, such 
as form, chemical qualities, .tc, and the 
general laws which govern thcjic It is a 
fundamental maxim of modern cdu 
that concrete knowledge must pi 
abstract, Before a child cAn gain any 
aljslract ideas, na those of numhi?r, force, 
nmral courage, somn knowlndge of con- 
crete examples is indiiipcTunibhs Ili-neo 
it follows that subjects which drail targi-ly 
with the concrete.asdcscriplivegcogr.iphy, 
narrative history, Ac, should form the 
first part of the currii-uhim. A concn?ta 
presentation of the mori' striking focta of 
physical science by means of obj«ct Im- 
j sons, supplemented by diwcri]>tion, is tlia 
I natural introduction to the more ab»t; 
I consideration of its laws. (On Ui<! tnuid- 
I tJoo from concrete to abstnuit km Hi 



er, SdtKOlion, cbap. ii.; Bain, Edu- 
M Seietu!«, chap, vii.) 
Htnctioit.— In ila wtdeat scope this 
means the wiihdruwal of the niiwl 
3ne object or feature of au object in 
to fix it on Another. It is tu this 
the necessary nccoiu pan intent of all 
ItratioD. In a more speci&l sense 
ien to tlie tumin;; away of the 
lita fnan th« differences among indi- 
: thing* no u to fix them on the 
of sitnilnrity. It is thus tlie opcra- 
'hich imnipdint^ily lends to a know- 
of th« cnmnion (|iin1iti?s of things, 
abstract knnwIfMJ^c. Tlius, in order 
a » dmr iilm of rniindncNU, the rliild 
compare a nuinlHtrof rnund things, 
loll, a marbl<!, nn oriingi-, >i-c.., nnd 
of from till! otlirr and ilistinguiKhing 
H of cut'h, OS thi^ colour of the 
I. Abstnu'tion of a jtiwater or loss 
» of diffieully i* always involvmi in 
loaUou orKeneniliiuition, i.e. the jiro- 
f vbich the mind fonii* the notion 
eneral i-Ioas, as aniuint, toy. &c. It 
nten as (lie main ingredient into 
Ion, i.e. the operation by which the 
pMses from a consideration of par- 
r foots to Uutt i>f tliH general law 
they obey. Sincii in idl cases abs' 
mis a coiilin^ aside or pultin^iout of 
if much tliiit is jiniiiifnt to the mind, 
8 (or ail i-ffort of will. HencH the 
Ity attendinjf the study o£ uU gene- 
B aad abstmet subjerts iii the case of 
<diildreu. Tlie more numerous and 
)g the pmnta of diversity, and thu 
subtle and oljarore t]ie points of 
ri^, the greater the effort of abstrao- 
Njmired. The faculty of abstraction, 
b appearing in a crude form in young 
m, ia the last to reach its full deve- 
nt. The higher abstractions, us those 
tbetnatics, jihysieat science, gr&m- 
ic, should ordy be introduced in the 
■ts^n of education. Tlie natural 
anee of th« child to abstraction 
Im nM by a careful process of pre- 
DB. This includes the accumulation 
ufficient qaaotily of concrete know- 
« jndicious selection of examples 
I head, and a gradual transition 
of an easy character per- 
sen^ble qualities, as weight, 
lo those of a more difficult 
rith recondite qualities. 
JTif Teaehfr'* Ifandbook of 
, chape, xii. sad xiii.) 

Abitract Science.— .\11 science, as 
general knowledge of things, i.e. of things 
so far OS they have common qualities, is 
abstract knowledge. At the same time » 
certain group of the sciences are marked 
off as Abstract and another group as Con- 
crete. The former deal with a fow pro- 
perties common to a wide variety of things. 
Thus unathematics, the best type of an abs- 
tract science, deals with the most general 
upect of things, vIe. quantity ; for all ob. 
jpcta, of whatever nature they may be, 
exhibit, the uttribute of quantity. On the 
other band, the sciences of description and 
cliisxificAtion, as botany, deal with the 
many common qunlitips or characters of a 
c'om]Miratively restricted region of pheno- 
mena. Henctt tliey ore callod Concrete. 
In iiii-iny coses we arc able to distinguish 
an abstract or theoretical and n, concrete 
branch of the siune subject. Thus in me- 
chanics we have a theoretical department 
dealing with the universal laws of equili- 
brium and motion, and concrete iipplicn- 
tiona of these to particular forms snd 
combiiiatiotES of matter, as hydrostjitics. 
The distinction between Alistract an<t Con- 
crete science has an important bt^ariiig on 
the order in which the sciences should be 
studied, Tlie Abstract acieiices, being 
relatively simple and fundamentJil, should 
preL*de the corresiionding Concrete 
sciences. Thus a certain knowledge of 
mathematics is necessary to the study of 
physics, chemistry, Ac. (.^rv Bain, Logie, 
Deduction, Introduction, and 11. Spencer, 
EdwiUioii, chap, i.) 

Academy (Or. 'AKn&j^'a). — A recrea- 
tion ground at Athens, believed to havo 
been named after Academus, an Atlienian 
hero of the time of the Trojan expedition. 
The Academia was the favourite resort of 
Plato. Here he used to lecture to his 
pupils and followers; hence his school of 
philoaophywas called the Academic School. 
After the revi\-al of tetters the term Aca- 
demy cnme to be applied to the higher 
schools of inHtruction, particularly to such 
as were of n unique and special character, 
as the academies of music, fine arts, the 
naval and military academies, Ac, In 
Kngland the application of the word baa 
been considerably extended and appro- 
priated as the jippellation of Schools of 
various grades. A similar abuse of the 
term is also common in the I'nitcd States. 
In Kmuce, however, as in Rus^a., Sweden, 
and other Kuropean countries, ib« \mo <A 



the term is fiow ntmost conlintMl to the 
learned aocieUes for tin* tulvB4it*iiieiit of 
literature, scienr^ nnd •rt. The 
/ran.fnif'' is the fiiml court (if apjwal ou 
queationa relating to French [ilulology, 
grantmar, ic. Thi- Anademie ilea inncrijr- 
lionii et, bellfn-lf.UreK is aiiothf r famous asao- 
ciatioQ of Frcncii aavajiU. The ilesiniblu- 
ness of estiililisliiiig uii Eugliali auadeuiy of 
leurned tuun havuig tho authority of tbe 
Acadfmie Jranfaine lias beeii abty advO' 
catei) bj Mr. Matthew Arnold and others. 

Aocidenoe. See Ubamhar. 

Accidcnta. Sf t^ciiooL Suieosrv. 

AccompliBhments. — This term refcra to 
Uiat part of the ocIucatioD of girls (q.v) 
which includes instruction id those nrts 
which for the most part are onmnietitjil. 
Accompliahiiieiits include drawing nnd 
paintiiiK of a mildly artistic kind, ilancing, 
and that kiud of music whicli tinds fii\our 
in drawing-rooms, Locke attached great 
iiuportauce to dancing its a neceesary ac- 
COUiplislimcnt even for a gentleman, but 
objected to jiainting on the ground that 
'ill painting ifl one of thti worst tilings in 
the world, and to altaia a tolerable degree 
of skill in it rmjuires too iiiucli of a niaii's 
time.' Stn j^Ssthetic Cultuke. 

AconstiGS.^ — The subject of sound has 
two Iminches — one purely observational 
and concerned with the vibrations of ajr 
or of liquids and solids of such a nature 
as to ^imulati; tlie senae of hearing. 
These vibrations are different froin those 
which excite the sense of sight, iiiasniuch 
as they are longitudinal and not trans- 
versftl ; that is, Uiey consist of condensa- 
tions and raraCactious in the direction in 
which the sound travels, not, as in the 
cose of light of vibrations, at right angles 
to the direction in which the disturb- 
ance is propagated. The other branch of 
acoustics oonatstiH in a study of the means 
by which it produces aenaation in the 
brain, and the physical conditions under 
which those sensations am estimated as 
pleJtsunible or painful. All aubatances 
are more or less elastic. When a portion 
of an elastic medium is compressed it 
tends to expand again, and hating ex- 
panded it passes through thii normal con- 
dition to a condition of rarefaction, and 
boforu it comes to itn original condition it 
poRKOs through many ouch phases. Thus 
any violent disturbance of the air prn- 
duMs on alteroato condensation and rare- 
faction called a ware, and this repeats 

itself indefinitely, sprewUng out itit 
the surrounding air, like thi- ripplnii i _ 
smooth lake from » stone which in thrown 
in. Tlie rate at which tliis diaturbancK 
travels is in air aliout 1,000 feet n seootid. 
The distance which a complete w»vo occB- 
pies varies. Tlie central c of the jtiiuiob 
a recurrent wave whose length is abo«t 
ii feet. Hence the number of wavea 
which fall on the ear in a second oui be 
calculated. If each takes up 4 j feet aud 
there are enough of tliem in a second (0 
cover 1,090 feet, tlien we approximatctf 
tind tlie number by dividing 1,090 by 4^, 
which gives us 2G4- Tlie standard nam- 
ber of vibrations for the central 
altered in recent times owiue to a i 
in the standard of pitch. It is now i 
actly 304 vibrations iu a second, 
concussion or rapid disturbance leads! 
the formation of waves in the air 
any medium. These waves are not 
general musical notes. For the prodn»^ 
tiou of the latter regularly recur 
disturbances are necessary, ntid ordin 
noiaea consist of an indelinite numb 
musical notes so mingled togmtlier 
their separate exist«-nces are undiKcernil 
The chief modes of producing mt 
sounds arc by the vibration of a 
of a membrane, and of a thin tongnel 
metal in a current of air. Tlie powerj 
the note produced ia much inten^fied I 
a resounding V>oai-d or n cloaed mass J 
air of such dimenaions as to vibrate 
turaUy iu accord with the note prodnc 
Thus iu an organ the sound is prodn 
by an inaignilicant tongue of mebd, wti 
vibrates with a multitude of notes. 
organ-pipe takes up that one which 
adapted for, and ia the cause of the wl 
volume of sound. If vibrations ere 
certain number in a second they pass 1 
yond the limits of audibility. This 
with different persons. Some can 
the cry of a bat ; it is too slirill for i 
to discern. A whistle has been At 
by Mr. Gallon in which tlie rate of ■ 
tion can be graduitlty altered, and a nd 
is produced which, gradually bccon 
shriller, passes beyond the bearing I 
one tlien of another of a company 
listen to it. When it is inaudible t 
one it will still influence a sensitive I 
Similarly vibrations pass below Ui« li 
of audibility when they beooine 
than a certain rate. 

A most instructive experiment, vrll 

Ea mftny fact* of optics ak wii!1 ns 
Lict, is Uia fnllowing : Wc tnlcn 
lamdg-fofltA of diflcfrant periods of 
itlon. Two KRiitll iKiuiii nre )iung tiy 
^ea<I so that oiu: juit touches tliu ]>rxing 
Lch fork. A thinl tuning-fork in now 
ded which is of tin? sumc- period of 
itiou OA one of th6 forlts. Tim Iwad 
KUdmity to tliat fork will be tlirown 
nd fro, while the Iwad toucliiiiK Uie 
r tuning-fork will remain at rest. This 
rs that the tuniti;;-fork will take up 
I tim air tit? vibration which it itSHif 
give out, and the solid mass of steel 
bn 8«t in motion by tlie extremely 
It* inllufnces of the waves of air, 
mmr oflect is produced with strings 
J «t*T!t*-ln'ii to various degrees of ten- 
Lrt up imitgine a. room to he oom- 
ily filtnl with strings; of one length 
one iti^nr of tension, such that they 
d oil givn out tlin snmr notrr. Let 
a wt of muKi«jil notion tntvorM! the 
, eonnKting of thi! note to which the 
p «ra atbuniul and others as well, 
note wUl Hi-t all tlit! string in vibm- 
Kod in m c(H»ni]U(!n<--e it will ittulf be 
■bed — it will not pass through the 
, vhilw thv othor notns will juiasou, 
wdiig taken up in producing rin effect 
U room. Heri! the room full of 
JB ill of the nnture of a xubiitanoii 
i kbtortM tlint kind of \-ibmti(>n 
ti it, wh(^n itsi^lf »et in vibnition, 
1 give oiiL Therfi arn innny itiKt»ncc£ 
action of tliis kind in heat and light, 
ht wbol« study of x]M>ctruni analysi* 
npoa » siniilar jihenoiuenou in the 
of U|[ht. 

be ribrations of the air are conveyed 
9 brain by a ddicat^^ iijipiirutus, con- 
g o( tJi« following parln : A mem- 
> whieh b agitated by t!i<^ wuvpji 
Bg down the paauge of the ear. To 
nembnuia are attached two bones 
ing a lever and conveying tlie vibra- 
to anotlier membnuie. Tliis latter 
b^oe eudoaes a space titled with 
Wm vestibtUe, and from this space 
Ht two spiral -formed canals and a 
isfaaped like a snail-shell, the cochlea. 
Um fluid of the cochlea project a 
wr of small Bhrea or rods of varying 
hi,uid it is sup})OBed that vi1:irations 
ijilig iat«a an< picliod out by these 
I, «ac3i Chr^ being set in vibration 
I eorTMpoodiog vibration, and eon- 
1 by Ibem to the auditory nerve. 


Although in the air the mnltitudinoiu 
vibrntions of a piece of music are com- 
pounded into a single compies agitation, 
stil! tho car haa the power of picking out 
«ach note, and even the pdrticularkind of 
notis of every in.'strument — that is to aay^ 
IJieru is the power in the e-nr of dis- 
tinguishing tile serend vibrations, how- 
ever compounded. Tlie state of the aif 
through which a numhi-r of musical notes 
is pitssing i.s very complicated. \Vc will 
consider two instances. Take the noto o 
and tlie c above it. When the note O 
sounds, the air has it£ point of greatest 
compression und greatest rarefaction at 
distances of 4 feet from each other. Due 
to the higher c there are compressions 
and rarefactions at distances of 2 feet 
from each other. These will combine into 
a series at a distance of '2 feet, but these 
compressions and rarefactiona will not be 
identical ; where the phases of the two 
notes coincide there will hea more marked 
effect than where they differ. Still tho 
! total seri^ will be regular, and its phases 
will reciir, complicated as they are, within 
ri short interval. If two notes, liowever, 
be sounded together, the periods of which 
differ hut slightly, tjifiy will, if started in 
corresponding phases at one time, augment 
each other considerably, but after a cer- 
tain time, when the faster wave has gained 
sufficiently on the slower wave, tliey will 
almost neutralise each other. Hence, tlm 
sound will rise and fall in intensity at 
appreciable infervals, giving rise to an 
eBoct similar to that of the flickering of 
a candle. Tliis is productive of an un- 
pleus.t.nt jiensation to the ear, and it is 
found tiiat wiiat are called disharmonie* 
in music are notes related in the abovn 
fashion t«) eucli other. For the experi- 
mental and general knowledge of acoiintics 
Tyndall's book on fiound may be consulted. 
Airy's aixl Dotdtin's books give the more 
mathematical treatment. Helmboltoc's 
book on the ^nsationa of Tone has been 
traoalated, and is the authority on tlie 
phenomena of sound in relation to the 
sense of hearing. 

Acquisitioii of Knowledge, or learn- 
ing ill its widest signification, includes 
every operation by which the mind comes 
into posaeasiou of a new fact or truth. 
This may take place either by means of a 
new personal observation, through the in- 
struction of others, or &nally as the T«fti^i^^ 
of refiection and reasoning u^iom wVuL \a 


already known. In the Darrower and 
■ohoUwtic sense it refers to the gimtiiifi of 
kiiowled^ by th« h«Ip of others' instruc- 
Uoo. Ilrnce tJi« n«i)aisitioD of knowledge 
MsoincttimwdictiiigijiKhorlfrom thv child's 
inde^ndv^nt discovpry of it, Leamiog is 
oft«n »pok<!(i i>f an if it wore a. mpre ex- 
ertion of thf fiiniltv of memory, lint 
whirerer new knnielrdgi: is gnini'd there 
in K preliminary nnxt-iw of cnnipri^h ending 
or BAniinilnting Um new miititrisLtii. Thus 
in gcKBpiiig n new fnct in gmgmphy or 
natural liial^My, u child's mind muiit put 
forth activity in lirat aimlysing or n'sol ving 
tlie couples wholu into itM pnrts or elc' 
meats, and then ftyntlietiutlly recombining 
these, and viewing Uieni in Uicir pn)per 
relation one to atiotlier. Not only so. the 
new fact presented can only be gnLK|)ed or 
realised by the iiiiud by the aid of it« 
points of affinity with what is ulreatly 
known. In other words, tlie tiiind liiu to 
asaimilate the new to the old. In the ease 
of learning new concrete fact« by verbal de- 
wcription, this nssiniilrttive process assuuies 
the form of constructing a new pictorial 
reprenentiition out of niiktrrinls supplied by 
tlie reproductivp fiu:ulty. {tiff. 
Tlos.) Where Ui(? now fnet is not only 
imuginntivpty realised, bus also underetoud, 
the proeetu of nuimilation includes the 
refemice of it to some previously know-Q 
cloM, and to some famUiar principle or 
rule. Tt is thus evident that leaniing is 
ne\-er a purely passive process of reception, 
but ulwnys involves the activity of the 
vhild'it own mind. There is do gaining of 
knowledge where there is not close at- 
tention and a xerious effort t« take apart 
And recombiiie the mntt-naln presented by 
the tewher. (Ste K. A. Bchmid's A'ncy- 
clopHdif des yetamml. Enuihtiiu^g- «rid 
UfU«rrickl*we»en, article ' Li-liren und 

AcroMDBtic Hethod (uK^ot/jjiruKJ;, to 
bo heaid), a t«nu applied to the oral 
nwthod of instractiou odo^tted by Aris- 

Activity.— By llie activity of n thing 
is me-nnt the putting forth of it* gpfcilic 
and characteristic force. In a wide sense 
nature a« a whole ts eonKt»ntly active, 
and this activity is a special chnmeteristic 
of living things. In the human Wing we 
hare both a phy&ical or bodily and n 
mental activity. Children, like young 
animals, exhibit a marked tendency to 
spontaneous muscular action, as may bs 

seen in their piny (•(« Pi-av). This 
stinctive impulse to muscular exertion 
an important condition of the grnwth 
the iKKlily powers, anil of th«t aciiuisition 
of the comninnd of the organs of iaor». 
ment by the will {ife Will). Monta] ac- 
tivity, nx distinguished from bodily, is tka 
conscious ejTcrcisn of mfittul ijowiy. ITw 
most gene ml nnmc for this ts Attcntioa 
(which gre). It is now gtrnrrully udmiUnl 
that uU mental developnurut is the rosstt 
of the child's self -activity. A child leonu 
just in proportion to tli*! d^ree in which 
it actively exerts its intellectual faculties. 
Tliis mental ucUvity IS lu tbe «ariitt 
stages of development closely coaaoMl 
with bodily. It is by using tJw or^BDl of 
sense in observation and by experiment- 
ing with the moving organs, more esped- 
aJIy tlie Imnds. tliat Uie child's inUUi- 
gence is called into play, ilence the 
educational )sigiii6cance of the 
spontaneous tendency to moveniflDt, 
significance wliich Froebel was the 
to fully Hee and utilise. Tbe higher fi 
of mental activity shows itself in the 
untary concentration of attention in re- 
producing former iiupressions, and in stPpS' 
rating; and recombiuing these so u U 
carry out the operations of imagination 
and thought. Thin so-called inteJlectusI 
activity is immediately dependent on sb 
exertion of will, aod hence may be said M 
contain a moral ingredient. At the ssmS 
time it is customary to distinguish from 
this intellectual a moral activity, whidl 
shows itself in an effort of will to do what 
is right. Such exertion is the proper m«aii^ 
by which the will is strengthened and 
character formed (*•* OiiAtutrrKii). Thi»» 
we see that the child's physical, int«l' 
iectual, and moral development alike da- 
pond on its self- activity. (i'« K . A- 
.Sehmid's A'B'-^i'fo/«jrfM, article 'Tbati^- 

Adam, Alexander, a celebrated ScoP" 
tiah teacher, lK>ni in Morayshire in 1741 — 
In i'tiy hf succeeded to thi; rectorditp o* 
the High School of Rdinbur^h, wbrre h^ 
distinguished himself by intnxluciiig ih^ 
study of classiciil geogi»phy and liiBtoiy^ 
and hy tejiching his ]>upiU t.he d«ad laii^ 
gunges liy aid of iJiitir native tongue, •' 
methotl which hf proliably l>orr«wed fnni» 
the Port- Royalists (7. v.). Adun pBb^ 
lislied the first Latin grammar written 
English. Previous to him tbe whole 
Um ttxt of grammars was written 


lAtin. nis ill novation was conil«itintHl 
by loany, but soon bet^itie po|>uliir. mid 
edilioii afti'i- ecUUou of Lis frnuiiitmr up- 
penred witli groat r&pidily. Ht^ v/us uJbo 
tli« founder of tltefir«t orguiiittitiou of Scol/- 
tish tutors for mutual benefit. He iIiimI 

Adelaide UiuTerrity. Sue UinvBBai- 


AdmiuistrttUon. Se^ Education Ds- 

Adult Educfttioa. — The promotora of 

Uio various systems of iiduU ixlucatiou con- 

Umd, in tliii tinit plncc, that the insUruction 

n-crav™! in tlir day school ought to Iw con- 

iinumJ, or thnt mnrh of thi; ndvanljige will 

bit lost ; in tlio s<H:oni) ptiu;iT, Uint some 

provision should bi! niiidi^ for lulults to . 

apcnd their iL-iMin.- tinx! in ii iniinnir iit 

ODce «nJoyabl(i an<l i>iiititjLblc. The in- 

lemttji of ouuimerco luivi* l«tl Ui tliR estn- 

Uialinwiit of t4y.'hniciLl ■(^hools, Uin niuiii 

Cibjrct of wbi(;h IK U> iDuki- the workman 

more iiitvUiKA'it ■Hid akilfui. In tliia fp^m;- 

r-kl lu-'tivity hifjber I'lluL-utiun Iiils not bw-n ' 

BotgoU«it,aadiubiUBuf induntryiiinl.'ibility i 

iVe abundant opjiortuniliea at ditTeri^iit 

llCBon and si;liuulk o! Btuilyiii;; a uiiiver- 

ntj course. The luont iiupurtaut institu- 

UonB foundwl fur tlid pnimotion of oilult 

edtmtiou are: 1. Mecfiitnic/ InsrihtCif, 

biliated by Dr. Birkbtdc (^. p.), who de- 

Ihvred a coune of fit* lectuwss to ai-tiaaria 

aObufow in 1800. The first institute 

vu eetabliafied in London in 1S23, iind 

»ce tlml time tliey have spread tiroofth- 

oat the leD^th and breadth of tbe country. 

Tbe preouaes usually include a readtng- 

tima, ciivul&tlof; libi'aiy. leuture-i-oom, 

tnd class-rooQis. Altliou;;li originally iii' 

iminl fo be self-supporting, the subscrip* 

Ibiu of the members are generally supple- 

■at«d by contributions. 2. .Viaht SehooU, 

•cninMtion witli the different elementAry 

■dnols of the country, are found in nearly 

•»wy tonn. They are taught by certifi- 

ttUd teachers, and supported by the fet» 

rfp>|iils,and bygnmt«upon examinAtion 

bjw Edacation l)<^partment. The sub' 

JKbof iostruction include the 'three Rs,' 

fnps|)liy, graatmar, French, iic, as cpe- 

a6u by the Code. 3. SveHtu;/ C'loMfg. — 

U LoMlofi, «t University College, King's 

fW li j i n , the City of London College, 

Bitkbtttk Innituua. Polytechnic (Uc^nt 

ftwe*J,So«th Kensington Museum, Fins- 

hirjTvchitical Collc^ Ac, evening classes 

■xhrld. In tl»e provinciftl colleges (9.1'.) 

eveiiijiK claa!H--3 constituti' an important 
part of tilt? curriculum. A great impetus 
was given to adult pJucntion by the re- 
vival of the nou-t'(ilk-giiit<.' systi^in at Ox- 
ford and Caiuliridge, and th<--fstiib]iKhmont 
of London Univei^ity, fur the purjHi.M- of 
examining and conferriii^ degreen. Dur- 
ham and Dublin also ex&raiti« candidates 
without residence, and so sliuiulaW pri- 
vate study, i. ReereiUiee HixnitujCUuir.*. 
— The most recent scheme for promoting 
adult eilucntioii has Ijeen the establiidi- 
ment of recrentivccvening classes. Auiung 
the foiindera nrp eniinr.nt educationiats, 
and many repreacntdtive working men. 
They ullpgB that girovious efforts have been 
unsutiitfuctory liocaueo the programmes 
hiLve not l>ei-n suHidnntly entertaining. 
Tlieir aim is to provide wholcsoine amuse- 
ment and t«?chni<ail instruction for young 
wt-n liiid IniyK who have left school. The 
distinguisliing features uru modelling in 
cliiy, wood -(Jurying, (.■alisthetiio cxercisi-s 
with dumb belU or wundn to n musical 
accompftuiment. and instruction in instru- 
mental as well as vocal music. 

iEgrotat. — When a candidate for 
honours in any school at Oxfonl, or tripos 
at Cambridge, i^ prevented by ilincKs from 
taking his examination or any part of it, 
llie examiners may grant him what is 
called an a'grulat degree. (Lat. trt/er, sick.) 

iEsthetic Cttlture. - -This conoema it- 
self with the strengthening and develop- 
ing of the H<sthetic feelings and judgment, 
which together constitute what is known 
as tast«. This faculty includes the capa- 
bility of recognising and enjoying all 
manifestations of the lieautiful, both in 
nature and in art, It stands ou the one 
side in clone relation to the two liiglier 
senses, hearing and sight. The most rudi- 
Tiient)Liy form of taste shows itself as a 
ixifincd sensibility to the impressions of 
colour and tone. A fondness for bright 
colours and the combinations of these is 
olwt)rvid>le, not only among young cliildren 
and liackwnrd races, but even among some 
of the lower animals. In its fuller deve- 
lopment tjiate involves the activity of the 
higher inti'lli^ctnal faculties, and more par- 
ticularly the imagination (7. p.). This 
applies evf^n to the appTOciiition of the 
Eights and sounds of nature, which, as 
Alison has shown, owe much of their 
liBiiuty and charm to sugge*tion. In tlie 
case of ceitain arts, as painting and, V'*" 
eminently, literature, t\ie e^fitcXse ol tino 



imagination is tlic chief snurw of tti<! h-k- 
tfaMic delight. Tho nilui^atinn of tiutt- 
. ■Jms at oxpAJidina; and rclinin^ thr titi- 
f tfaetic fmirngs, and ^idifig tlic judgment 
by providing n lixi'd xtaniliird. It is Uiim 
at once a dftvrlojiiin-iit of einotionul sen- 
•JMHty and of intBllpctuul power. In 
order to dnvcloji a, i-hild'-i tuKt*- it is ti«4.'vs- 
G«ry to awiilcfii a KPimiiit- fwling for vrliut 
is prt'tty, ((racptui, pathetic, sultliiue, iic. 
llmtDti tiio i^ducatov inusl bu on hia guard 
ogainit tlie iiiero uffecuilion (g.v.) of 
otiinrn' x'sUieliv tieutiiiieiiis ajid a niecliani- 
cnl rtjpruiluctiou of tlieir iDa.vims. Tliia 
Qvi] miiy be niosl effecluatly prevented by 
curafuUy attending to the way in which 
UuAu lutturaliy develop§, by not forcing n 
muture standard on the anfomi«d childish 
uiiiid, and by allowing, and even encou- 
n^ng. a certain degree of inrjividuality 
ill tdsi«. The education of taste includes 
firet of all the exercise of tlie facility 
in distinguishing and appreciating tho 
beauties of our nntiiml Kun-onnilingi;. 
Tliia branph cnnnccta iUi-lf with the 
training of the ohscrving (uniltif*, mid 
the fosti'ring i>f a lovi- i>f nalun-. An- 
other Inuiich ooncuroB itsflf with thi- \Mrr- 
ccptioii of wliut in gntcoful, noble, u.nil kci 
forth, in human action. And here tlip 
cultivation of tiuiti- becoimts in a nK^iuiure 
ancillnry to moral rilucution. Finally, it 
fiDibmccs it]K<Rial ti-chnicid truinitig in th(^ 
So* art*, nion^ purtic-uliirly iiiunii-, draw- 
ing and painting, and liti^riiry compoKi- 
tion. Hrn- tlni obi«.'t of the educator 
must b«! both to form the ta^tv by IIik pre- 
Mntatioti of gtwd uiodelH, and also to exer- 
cise the child in the neceaaary priM-'eases 
of interpretative rendering, ils in KiuKinK 
and recitation, imitative reproduction, a- 
in dniwinj;;, and original inveuttoii, The 
value of a wide lesthetic culture depends 
on the fact tliat it necessarily involves uii 
liarmoniouB development of ilie feelings 
OS a whole, and so a preparation of the 
child (or the most i-aried and refined en- 
joyments, and also a considemble growth 
of tJii' intellectual faculties. Indeed, the 
iMthiAic feelings form one important 
source of interest in most, if not alt, 
bnneh<-N of Htudy. Tlius tho sciontific 
ohscrvntion of nature is soBtaiood by a 
feeling for ils picturesque and sublime 
n«p<^Tts, and the pursuit of history is com- 
tnonly inspired by an exceptional suscep- 
tibility lo the dramatic ude of human life. 
The connMtioQ bertween lesthetio and in- 

t<!lli>ctunl >>ducntinn liecomM'especTaTTy af 
pirriit in the study of literature, whith ji 
at once iis a n-oord of thought in wonL 
an appeal lo the logicid faculty, and 
a viiripty of art embodying worthy iiri 
nobli- ideas in n fitting hannonious formJ 
a atiioulus to the icsthi-tic feelings and tli 
tritical judjiment. Tlie connection 
tween a^stht- lie culture and moral trainiiii 
is a iiuestion that lias Iteeii niuch disouas 
both in ancient and in niodi-rn writing 
(.SVe Sully, 7V«c/ii»r'ti//uHrf6o'jA. ehap, xviiLj 
and the references lliere appended ; aL 
Sehniid's Stict/clopddie, article * AestliC 
tisclie Bildun;-.) 

Affectation.— This refers to the 
sumption of the external marks of 
worthy feeling as the result of a volur 
t«ry effort', and not as the spontaneou 
manifestation of the feeling itself. It by; 
moans necessarily involves a delilwrate it 
tention to deceive another, as hypocria 
always does, and commonly falls short 
dcci"ptioii as an ' awkward and force 
imitation of what kIiouM l>e grniiino am' (Locke). It Eenprally ini plica an inJ 
tensilied form of self- consciousness. As I 
fonn of insincerity, and having one of it 
chief roots in vanity, it calls for carefu 
watching on tho part of the educator. AJ 
the snnic tiniR it must lie renientl>errd thafi 
it often arises lialf- consciously from thfl 
wish to plciisp and the desire to l>c in syii 
patliy with others. According to Locica 
affectation is not tho product of untnugh 
nature, but grows up in connection wit 
management and instruction. It ix thu 
a failing which a can-li-ss mode of eduei 
tion is exoeeilingly likely tf> encourage, 
where a toother liioks for and even cxn 
the responsive manifestiition of fi-cling 
wliich belong to n latrr stage of dovck 
ment, suah as tho mom refined fornix i 
aesthetic and mnrni fii-linfr. (Srn Idick 
Thou'jhU coiuerjtiiuj Ediii^ati'm, § fiti, an 
MiiB Edge worth, Prrurtifal ErlvciUia 
chap. X.). 

Affection. -Tliis term, once used 
all pLTiuuLiiriit and coiiHlont, na diHtiB 
gULilied frum tratuiitory and variabh 
slates of feeling, has come (o be narrow* 
down to one specific variety of tliiwe, vii 
a feeling of attoohiitent to utiiera. It iIl•^ 
eludes two eleroenlA which it 'a importojib 
to distinguish : a pleasumblc feeling (il| 
tenderness showing itself in a liking fo 
some particular pei-son, and an element] 
of sympathy or kindly sentiment. A tml 

kfleetion it l^JAOStf MMftinnu'Ti t invnli'- 
atg fixed rtkHiMM oE t, happy kinr). nn 
■ccomuUtiou of m«nioriiw, and n, tiniil 
prooeM of reflection. He»Li- it hiu Ihi'h 
sud tbat j;nit^ut uOii-ation tor a jiaixMit or 
a Wkcber is one of ihe lutvat of nttiiiii- 
n«ota. Xlie fact tliat u f^elinK of niTfC' 
tion prompU the subject of it to evf.k to 
plea«e and furtlior the happiness of tlie 
Mioveci object ^ves it a peculiar educa- 
tional vstJup. It is dow conunooly held 
thkt tho iDoet effectual way to inJIuenoe 

■ child is to attach it by Imuds of direc- 
tion. Tliiswork, which vitries in difficulty 
aooording to thn natural disposition of the 
child, is alw-Ays much ciwirr in the case of 

■ pMVBt tlun of n school teacher, for the 
latter, M thi! n^pri'scntativc of a govern- 
mcnt which ix u-ont to appear unnatural 
eimI excentivR, inapt In arouse fanstili; fe<rl- 
ingK. ThcsE ditiRctiltics can only he got 
ovo' by an habitual mnnifi'stntinn of kind- 
nvst, centidttrution, nnil syinpiithy on t.lie 
part of the tciichi-r. .SVi- SvMf Arnv. 

Age in Edacation. — Thr c(mn(H.-tion 
ketween aj^ and educulioo has Imth tlip 
nibjectof much ooiilrovt-rsn', Wt. spwiliing 
(if ibe period up to nuuihood, it has bi-m 
gCBerally a^jjeed that tlittn' an> three iliR- 
(iMt stages in the <l(!vivli>pni«nt of tJie 
nlDdomTeepondingtothrt^ecliuirly inarkptl 
Kriods in the development of Uin Iwidy. 
ibe tliree epochs extend ciM-h over st-vcii 
)i«ia, and are strikiiif-ly distinfruished by 
lifiiological ditTei-eiicea iii the conntitu- 
*nw some of which are exteniu.! and ob- 
tmiL These periods are infancy, child- 
ked, and youth. 

/n/bnc-y, which covers the first seven 
pan of life, is the time of active physical 
4e*riofiiinent and of rapid j^rowtli. Its 
Aw is iDcK<«ted by the shcddiiij* of tJie 
tM^crary toeth nnd The appeartince of 
Ar earliest permanent tcelh. Even dui-- I 
Of ihts hut two or three ycar^ of this 
■(•ge a child is capable of little onginal 
i&rt, and there ani fov manifestations 
<t nental activi^ Ijeyond observation 
lad memory. Instruction during this 
pttM shoold hold, therefore, only a se- 
nadarv plac«, and the education should 
'• rather that of the bwiy than that of 
thu mind. The roice of niilure should 
rale, and it demands considerable freedom 
itum ractmint, exorcise for the body, 
Md for the intellect entertainment and 
•maMincRt which nre not too exciting. 
la the appliotjon of this principle 

them i*, however, ntiieh preparatory work 
to b(! done which will greatly focililate 
future pmgre-sn. Tin- child ^ must be 
brought under training and taught ohc- 
ditrnce by Wing inducer) to rely upon the 
teacln-r, ond no to submit to bin guid- 
ance. Advantage should be taken, too, 
of tlie gniat itittfrest which is natural to 
children in the objects of everyday life, 
especially aniiuals. Simple de(icrii>tionN 
of the food wo eat and of domeatic aniumlii 
afford infinite pleasure to the young, stimu- 
late observation, funiisli the mind with 
useful facts, and strengthen the memory. 
The power of imitation is strong at tliia 
age, and drawing or writing may be a 
source of both pleasure an<l profit. Itead- 
ing nnd arithmetic are usually regarded 
Its tnal(s, nnd only the very rudiments 
should be attenipted. A remarkablo 
trsnsfonnation has taken place in the in- 
fanta' schools of this country by Qw nl- 
niost universal adoption of tlie Kindflr- 
gartcn method (^.u.) of teaching, foundtid 
by Froebel. Its general aim is to amuse 
the child ni such a way as to exercise its 
tiiciiltifs so that it may he educated witli- 
out being conscious of pressure. Th« 
grati^ng results which are obtained by 
this system prove thi; excellence of the 
methods employed. 

C7iilrfiiiiod t;\Utiu\s from the seventli to 
the fourteenth year, or the attainuieut of 
puberty, and ooineides nearly with the 
second dentition. Throughout this period 
the desire for more vigorous physical exer- 
cise is manifested. The child begins to 
feel liis strength, and gives evidence of his 
power and tastes by independent thought 
and action, which point to a future career 
Kalura! propensities are now quickly 
developed, itnpreHsions are received and 
character formed. The desires and aspi- 
rations should be carefully observed by 
the teacher so as to approve and on- 
coui-age what is good, or to rc-strain and 
check the evil. 

Youth embraces the period from foui- 
teen to twenty-one years of ago, dui-ing 
which the development of the body in 
completed, find virility is nltnined. This 
is essentially the time of special prdfrnra- 
tion for the battle of life. Except in the 
case of the wealthy and those intending 
to adopt ft profession, the opportunity of 
giving undivided energy to study has ended 
with boyhood. The faculties of thi- mind 
aro now active and Wgorous, the vma^gi- 





DKtion Ik i]uic)[(-iii>tl, uiid it youth should 
entar upon Lhe sitxdy ui hia Ciivourito lub 
Jeot full of Iiope and leul. To ciiKure 
Bound progi-e8S and to prepare for ri^spun- 
sikilil^ wliith is iiwir at liurid, the twicher, 
while he atill uui-efully f^idt-s, should pro- 
vide less aiisistaiKX' tiud rtv|uii'e gi'euter 
in(Iepeudi?nt cicertiou and original efibrl 
on tiie part of Uie pupiL 

Legislntion in rpferouce to age and 
education varies in different couiiti-iee, 
und even in diflVreut parts of the same 
country. In l^ngland, school Ixtards and 
schiHil nttt'nilnim! conimittt^es may com- 
[Mil iitttindancr at school under the Eie- 
incjitMry Educittion Act from five to four- 
bwn yt^arx of ngn. Between these limits 
Ui« years of bcIiooI iitteiidnnce reiiuired 
by the hye-lnwM of dttlfirrnt school bnnrds 
aiid uoiuuiiltepB vary coimiderably. As 
a rule the period of atteiidatice is shorter 
in afirieultural dislrieta than in towns, 
nun)l>er8 of cliildren iii rural partslies bein); 
allowed to leave auhoul at ten years of 
a^, provided they have pasKed Uie fourth 

Thfl School Board for London compels 
nttMidancr from live years of age until 
«ith)ir (I) the sixth standard 13 passed ; or 
(2) the child ie thirteen years of age aiul 
has pawed the fourlJi standard : or (3) tlie 
child is fourtJwn years of age. In the 
Unit^-d Slnt^i the legal school age U from 
live to lift^'n ; in France from seven to 
twclvn ; in tierinnny from six to fourteen. 
In Switzerland <vich canton legi8lat«s for 
ittielf. In Liiceriicatt«ndancaatdayBchool 
is compulsory from KOven to fourt«en years, 
followed by two y«iars at an evening 
school. In Zurieli tlie nfcn is from sis to 
twelve at day school, and throe ycari at 
an evening school 

A^nts — Scholastic, Hedical, and 
Clerical. — There are nunjeious a^jcncifs 
in London and also in the provinces for 
bringing togetlter parties whose nducu- 
tlona) wants are eouipleineulary. B»ui« 
restrict theniselrea to oti« [Nirtiirular 
hinnch of educational buniriess^for «x- 
ample, there are ' governess a^jenuips,' 
which bring into comuiuntcation gov<-r- 
ncwes and persons lliat wish to (engage 
governesses ; ' medical a^ucies,' wliivh 
limit themselves to the saliafacUuu of tlie 
needs of medical gentlemen that wish to 
6nd situations, and medical gentlemen 
that wish to be provided with assistants, 
partners, or new Bctds of work, and so 

forth. Otbur agents extend their ci 
nucliotiB to all branches. Aftpr due 
(futry tlit^y place on their books the niuoa 
of ladies and gentlemen who wisli to 
situations as assist-ants in scIiooIk, or 
visiting tutors to privatn families, or 
travelling tutors; who wish as princijialal 
engage assistants, who wish to enter 
partnership or to receive a piirtiier,j«f|; 
wish to sell or to purchase a school, 
also recommend to parents and guanll 
satisfactory schools in which to place the 
children, according to the individual 
quirements, both at home and abr 
The commission charged is very 
able at all resjiectable agencies — gen 
rally 5 per cent, on eiigageuienta at hoii 
and 10 per cent, on engagements abr 
and for partnersliips and ti-ansfera 5 
ueiit. on the money (or money value) 
paEses. In spite of tlie aliuse of 
position by some agents, and the delil; 
rate swindling of impostors describii 
themselves as agents, the system is 
doubtedly of great assistance to both 
ties to each transaction, particularly « 
the agent has a goorl connection ar 
competent to judge of the cjualificntio 
and needs of lhe applicants. It is 
that so few agents seem to have had 
soual experience in teaching, or to be i 
such academical standing as to justify ] 
liance on their judgment in the cases tli 
come before them. The fact that 
London agency is personally condi 
by two of high academical 
well as educational standing is sutKcic^nt 
noteworthy ; it is especially cmlitublo I 
the ^atem, and affords exceptional ussu 
ancc of intelligent gujfhtnce. 

Agricola, Kodolph, !>. near Q roning 
in Friesland, in 144.T His lirst niaslerj 
said to have been Thomas A Keiupis. 
I distinguished himself at school, and tin 
I proceeded to Loiniiin, wlii-rc In- gniduat 
I He subscijuenlly studied CJre<'k un<l 
I Theodoi-e Oaxa at Ferrara. Here he 
lectured on the Roman language and 
rature. He n-tunied to Holland, and ' 
professor for a short time in Uroniiid 
III HC2 he removed to Htidelberg. 
the invitation of the Uisliop of Wor 
and therehn was appoint«d professor, 
studied Htfbrew with great success, 
gave lectures on ancient history ; but ; 
sudden illness put an end to his car««r.| 
tlie early afje of forty-two. Agric 
classical attainments were of the high 



r, iukI lie has l>euci gn'ntly praignl l>y 
dd«r KtculiKCr »ii(t RnutiiiUK. His 
work is Df Incmlioiit i)ia}.f.ctica . 
»&» onlert-d by Ili-iiry VIII,, in 
1!>35, U> W tiiu;;[it ill the Utiivcmty of 
Ounbridse U)-^i'i)iei- with tlii? gnnaino 
of Aristotle ; and tlii-'re ix tlu; 
recommeudatiou in tli<? statute of 
Trinity College Osiord. Aki-lcuU iittuoknl 
Scbol«ttinsm vitli great vnvrgy, and tliiK 
done would entillp him to a. [lositiuii 
UDODgst Iho pione«rs of moderu educutiuii. 
Uewas prohnMf the tir&t man who liouKlit 
k mauu of tiducnting the deaf and duuiEi. 
Ht«a« nlsothi' tinit to introduce the Qreek 
UngOKgc into iU^rtaxny. 

AgrioultuKl Education, — ^Igricul- 
tntv, with its viiriouK subdivisions and 
olliiiid ptmuitH, tticluding the tillage of the 
fields, borlicultuiv, llori culture, idTostxy, | 
oud p««U>Tul, (Uirv, and ]>oultry farming, 
a the must uMiftil and universal of all 
hnnclint of human industry. It is the 
B&ii) stKirce of &I1 produotN employed as 
feed tur uii-u aim! doinvsLic animals, or iis 
tbe i«w matcnala for ulothing and many 
ln«Dclie«ofiiuuiuCactnriiij|; industry. Buiug 
• practical art, luvulviu^ a multitude of 
•rolic&tioDB of llie priiii-i[)lt-s of most of the 
[iliyutul scienveK (such as geology and vhp.- 
mistry, illn»tniliiig Uie [[iialitii-s of soils 
And manures, luetisirology, ini>-c)ianics as 
■(■plied to agricultural muehini'ry, vntcri- 
nary medictue and »ur;^-ry us appliiMl to 
donesticamiaais, xooloKy uiid botany, >tic.), 
■gticuiture cannul bt.' punue<l with advan- 
tage in tite |>t«aeiii day without a xouud 
UiraiviicalasweDaspractiealtraining. The 
noognilioD of this tnitli, whidi has bwti 
Wog^t home to tlieduU(>st coin prehension 
Inr ibe vast progress made in aj^ncultuml 
amnistry through the labours of Liebig, 
Liwes, and otiters, has led to the eatJt- 
Uithment in all the civilised countries of 
AewarM of numerous special institution b 
(or the training of yi>uiig meu iutendingto 
tal^e up fanning or any of its allied pur- 
nits as tl>e business of tlieir lives. 

Before the rise of chemistry the pre- 
cept* of agriculture were necessarily e»i- 
ptrical ; but in tliis pre-scieutilic period the 
Bn^&h fiirmer, proceeding by the ' rule of 
Ihamb ' and anoestml traditions, succeeded 
01 Winging practical farming to a wonder- 
Inlly high stato of perfection. 'Ilie varie- 
lie* of otitic^ sh«op, pigs, and homes bred 
in England surpassed anything of the kind 
prodoiMd elsewhere throughout the world. 

To this practical suceoss is probably to he 
itttributed the fact that when ainicuitural 
theory waa revolutionised li'. 'hi' ](rogre8B 
of ehemist.ry the neci-ssit.y ■ i;" .i ili^-nrctieal 
training was less i]iiickly rcen^iised in 
England than in some fon-ign countries. 
One of the iirst attempts in tiie way of a 
swicntilic sschool of agri^'uUuri) was made 
in 1705 byTliaer, at tin- kingdom 
of Hanover, tlii-n part of the doiiiini'itm of 
the Eiiglisii Crown. The iiuece«a attained 
by lliiB geiilleinun waa such tlial be was 
invited by Frederick Williaui III. of 
Prussia to estabUsli a higher agricultura] 
college in that kiogdoui, and tlie institu- 
tion he founded in 1801}. atMoglin, iu (he 
province of Diundenburg, in combination 
■with a model farm, has been the pioneerof 
a host of similar establishnicnU in alt parts 
of Gcnnany. The agriciiltuml nciidemies 
nt ilohenheiin in Wiirtenil>erg, I'roskau in 
Silesia, Weihensleplian in Bavaria, Waldnu 
in East Prussia, and otht^rs, wern all nio- 
dellefl on that of Miiglin. At Jeiiii Stunn 
founded an institute whose pupiU attimdcd 
the university eludes in the winter.and tt 
course of pnu!lieal training on well-man- 
aged farms in tin' saminer. At Popjiels- 
dorf and at Eldcnii there wore special 
agricultural acailemiea eonnecti'd with the 
Universities of Bonn and Greifswald ve- 
Bpectively, while other aradpinica were as- 
sociated with the Polytechnic Uigh Schools 
of Brunswick, Carlsruhe, Darmatadt> and 
Mutiicb in Germany, and Zurich in Swit- 
zerland. Neuriy all Uie Pi-ussian nniver- 
sitiifs now have agricultural institutes con- 
rettpd with tlieut, special attention being 
paid to agricultural chemistry. In addi- 
tion to this highest collegiate class there 
exist in (ieniiauy two other grades of in- 
stitutions— thf middle agricultural schools 
and tht? elementiiry or lower grade schools. 
Of the last mentioned there were lifty- 
three in Prussia alone in the year IS78, 
L'Oiii prising' tweiity-six agricultural schools 
open winter and summer, fourteen winter 
schools, ihi-ee schools of pastoral fanning, 
and ten schools of horticulture and fruit 
oulture. Tiie Pi'ussian (Jovenimcnt grants 
to these establish ntente nearly .'lO.OOOf. 
annually. In several other parts of (Jrr- 
many agricultural educational institutions 
are, if ituything, relatively mofi' numerous 
than even in Prussia, In WiirtemlJcrg, 
t)esides the higher establishnie.nts, there 
are 783 agricultural continuation seJiools, 
attended by upwardB0f6evea^««Qt,Vt>ias(>X(& 



•cholnni. In Knssin, in France, nnt) in 
Belgium, ax well iu( in xaast other Conti- 
lumtol oountriuH, ngriouhura,1 iniitnicUon 
hasalso received grcjit nttention. Aiuitria 
poaaMSed in 1879, in nddition to the Agri- 
oultaral CoH^f-e at Vicnnu (with nenrly 
five hunilred ^tuilt^nt^), n.i nuiny aa sixty- 
eigiit in^tittitioris devut4.-i] to ugriuulturo, 
horticulture, ftiid forestry; and the iiictional 
budget ill that empii'e, as w«U as in other 
countries of the Oontiueiit, every yea,r sets 
sKide large sums for the support of these 

In Oreiit BritAin there are no Govern- 
ment institutions of this class, the field 
lieingntillirftt^privnteontorprise. Chnira 
of ftgricultiiro, howpvcr, have been founded 
in somfl of tht? BHtiRh universities. The 
Royal AgricultumI CoUfge. at Cirencester 
was foundeii in IS45. Tlie studenta, who 1 
go throiij,'li a ('oursi! of twfi ypars" instruc- 
tion, are [iiirtly resident, piirtly nou-rPsi- 
deiit, thn fees iiriiiiuuling to from 40/. u year 
for the tatter to 801. for th.i former. The 
currieuluiu eiubracfs a thorough scientific 
and practit^l truiuing in the coltogu c^lusses 
and taboralories and on the ext<»isive fiirm 
attached to the college. 

The authorities of several provincial 
colleges of the United Kingdom htive in- 
troduced Uie principles of agriculture into 
th« course of trainitig, and instru<-tJnn in 
the subject ix t*ncourage<l and iiidnd with 
grants id the elementary si^liorda. l.'nder 
the Code, the principles of agriculture may 
be taken up^l) by tlje scholars in ele- 
mentary schools, as a branch of elementary 
Kcience, whicli is recogiuaed as a cliis.1 aub- 

{'ixt ; (2) by the older scholars, in the three 
liehoKt Stftndnrds, as a specific tubject ; 
(3) by pupil ■tr'nr hers and asaistaiit- teach - 
«ni, «]■ an optional subject, during the 
oounn of thfir engagement. If they do 
bike it up and paw sticcosafuliy at one of 
the (Mny) I'xnminationE held Viy the Sci- 
enti' untl Art iJep^irtnH-nt, grants are made 
on thwr Iwhalf hy that Ocpartmont, while 
tiieir succi'sx is n-gistercfi and marks al* 
low^cil for it in any examination they 
RulHMHincntly ntttnid an cjindidates either 
for ndmisxion to a training colii^ge or for 
n certrificato of merit ; r4) by iicuilent« in 
tnuninff, a* u xpocial ncirncft subject, dur- 
ing either or both of the two years of 
their residence in a training college. (For 
full information nilating to the exatnina- 
tiwu in the principleji of agriculture, in- 
dlituted by the Committ<<e of Council on 

Education, «sr the 

linhint/ and Cnnducthi^ Snetiet and Art 
SekooU, aimualiy issued by the Education 
De]iartuietit : Eyre i S|>attis(voode, E*»t 
Harding Street, Fleet Street, Londo 
E.C. Price 6d.) 

Ill Ireland the Commissioners of Na 
tional Education have paid much att 
tion to"this department of education, 
twenty years ago there were 160 
schools in aciivo operation, ail with Ian 
attachtxl ranging from two to a hundr 
and twenty acres. Of these nearly 
(seventy- ai):) were workhouse agrictiltur 
schools, while forty-eight were ordir 
agricultural schools. The instruction giv 
in these, however, is oidy of the 
elementary description, training nrdinn 
school children in the common operatic 
of gardening mid the field. Of high* 
pretensions than these are the thirty-scva 
model agricultural schools in various par 
of the ishind. Besides tliese there is or 
superior establishment, the Moilel TniiB 
ing Farm at Clasneviu, founded in 18.1 
where a hundred young men selected 
the minor schools receive a more complt 
course of instruction. A considernli 
number of tliejttudente here receive boar 
lodging, and two years' education grutu 
tously, with a view to liecoming farm 
nagers or stewards ; while anotlier sectic 
consists of school- teachers, who in the 
later career have to eonduct the lov 
classes of agricultural schools. At Tem^ 
nioyle, in Derry, there is another agricii 
tural seminary, which lias turned 
thousand well-trained agriculturists in < 
first thirty years of its existence, 
total number of pupils in all the agriou 
tural flchools and academies in Ireland 
upwards of three thousand, and the 
penditure involved is upwards of 
thonmnd a year. {i<ff. Forkstrt.) 

Ahn, Jolui Frank (6. 1796. d. ISfiS).- 
In lS2i he aViniidoried commerce for studS 
and spent two years at the college at . 
la-Chapellp. He subsequently founded '; 
cfimmercial school, which was the 
attempt at a pmfoKsional school in 
Uhenish provinces. It proved a 
failure, and after two years he shut 
In 18.14 he published, in Worman, 
Praetifal iiftlJtnd for the Rapid ntut Ea 
Study of Freneh. The work was an in 
nicnse success, and was translated 
many lunguoj^. His principle was 
apply to the leuniing of foreign langu 


foUaws ill 
Tliere was 
with, aud the 
faolv wiw uranged in a ptaji of lhr«e 
(ONUMa. His mi^thod, no doubt, gmvc an 
'%^>uInc to thr study of modem Injiguages. 
Aleilin{rit'>(?) KD4),iin«<iuinente«clesi- 
utie and reviver nf k'nming in the ]nitt«r 
oMt of the i:ightli onntury, wivs bom in 
Vocluhirv. Hewa«inriU<xll>yChnrIenia^e 
to usict liiin in hiit cducntional KclieiiifS, 
and wu placed ut Utii hciuJ of the Palju.'e 
School «Uacbe<l to llio Court., when- he 
iitttruet«d Clmrleiuigtiic and his faiiiilj, 
smomgst oUwrs, iu rlictorio, logic, iniithi)- 
matia, and di\-iai(y. Under Ak-uin'a di- 
lectiODS a scheme of educuliou wait druwti 
up, which became the mod«! for iho otlnM- 
preai schools ectablished at Touw, Foute- 
nelle, Lyons, Osnaburir, Mi-lj;, ic, — iusli- 
Intions whicli nbly gustAiJied t)ie traditiuii 
el edncation on the Continent till auper- 
teded by tbc ni.<w methods and new leani- 
iagof tbccomnwnppmont of the university 
mvt. In 801 Alciiin obtained leave to ru- 
tin from court tn the nblwy of HU Martin 
at Toon, of which In- had biM-n appointed 
the h«ail. Hi-rv his rnmivincd and tnuj;ht 
till hi* tk-utl> in 80-1. A life of Alcuin by 
hunaa w>a puhlishrd in I8'29, and wmi 
tniwlnted into English by Slec in 1837. 

Algebra, to iisr^ Newton's expression, 
it ' tinivcn«l arithmetic.' Whereas arith- 
■etic deal* with piirticnlar numlwrs, a!- 
pfam deal* with numlicrs in genornl ; and 
itlMnau thv fnrmrr tn*ii<« of numbers in 
eouiMction with cotii:ri't4< things, the latter 
Inata oS nunibiir in thi? nbxtmct. These 
m obI/ two of th<^ inoitt marked diKtinc- 
tioBC, atxted broadly. Thttre i^ nnotlier, 
•hicb'iK «vtai laotf funditmetitnl. The 
iifwiationa of uritlimctii; art* eupiihle of 
direcliHterpretatioapi^rii'; thoneof [tigebra 
•» t4liea ouly to l» int«rprtttcd in relation 
to tbv lUKUmpltons on wlijcli tliey an> 
laanL For example, in arithmotia proper 
tke operation!) di*not*?J hyindicHis are very 
Baited ; bat withiu tlioai' liniiU Uic ititf-r- 
petatioD b perfectly detiiiili? — they refer 
to oettatD &r«u, certain cuhi-s, ^c.—^nd it 
il dear that Uiese indioeH munt hn whole 
ntnnlKn, with refpird to whi<^li the ideiui of 
/uwiVi'n and fwi^/iivare inapplit^able. In 
»ll5eb*» we ito beyond this, mid work with 
UMlicea which are frautional, and to whieh 
»e do apply the idtua of pntitivf and 
ifjo/ir*; aiul the operationii performed i^an 
l^and are interpreted ; but only in rela- 

tion to the assumption on which tte wbol« 
theory of indices is based, vii. thai the cuiil* 
tiplication of II" by «* shall fl^twtys give a"^" 
ti& » result, whatever a, and in and n may 
denote. It is true that it is very common 
in schools to divorce the arithmetic from 
concrete reality, and to work with the 
symbols merely ns symlmln. Hut even then 
tho operations employed arc only the 
writing in symbols of certain particular 
delinite operations, which might bo nndcr- 
Btood all along, and which tun Ix- at onCB 
interpreted by themselves. In algebra, on 
tlie other hand, we look upon our ojiera- 
tionsmaintyusthemaiitpulutionof symbolii 
pure and simple; and when we have arrived 
at results we seek iiiterpretatiiiiis of them 
by euuipariiig them with our aSBumptinns. 
The treatiiie written by Diophantus in 
the middle of the foui'th century may be 
taken as the foundation of Greek algebra ; 
and from him and other Greeks the Ara- 
bians pcobably gained much of their know- 
ledge. Uut it is to the Arabians themselves 
that Europe rf*>ec//y owes it« kiiowloclgc of 
algebra, as the name implies \al - the, and 
j'fiJf^ con solid a ting]. Theirmethodawere 
introdilceil into Europe by Leonardo, ft 
merchant of Pisa, in iL'Oi; A.P. The first 
printed Algebra was by Lucas do Burgo, a 
Minorite friar, in 1494 A.n. The lirst 
English treatise on Algebra was by Itobert 
Recorde, teacher of mathematics ami prac- 
titioner in physic at Cambridge. It was 
called the ' Whelatone of Wit,' and was 
published in 1.55T. As regards the method 
of teaching algebra important develop- 
ments have tuken place, and new <lepar- 
tures have Iteeii adopte<l recently. On the 
subject of tlie newalgebiu tJio reader may 
consult Professor Chrystal'a and Mr. W. 
Steadman Aldis's excellent text-books. 

AUeyn, Edward. — A celnbratetl autor, 
who <ievoti.d hifi wealth to the foundation 
of Dulwidi Colk-ge, in 1019. The college 
was recoustiluted by Act of Parliament in 
18.58. It consiatA of an educutiuiiul »iul 
eleemosynary branch, a chapel, library, 
and a. fine picture-gallery, the last be- 
queathed, in 1810, by Sir P. F. Uourgeoia. 
Tlie educational branch compriM>s tlie up- 
per school and the lower school, In the 
upper school there are eight exldbitions of 
50<. a year each, temible for four years at 
the uiiivei-^lies, or by any student of a 
learned or scientitic pi-ofession or of the 
fine artfi ; also thirty-six scholarships ot 
20/. a year each, awarddd U> \>o^»V>Kt'N««i( 





twplvp ftnirfoiirt4?Mi y«iir* <if iigi>. In the 
lower schuol grutuitii-i of 20/. nn<l lOA are 
gTAiiIcil, nt thi- iiniiuni i-xnininutian, to 
thp mnsi (It'-icrvinji intys tiwn leaving the 
Alma Uater (Latin, almun, ch^riBliiiig, 
dcKr), thr rmmi-' applied in EiiKl^nd to the 
particulitr university which a student has 

Alphabet is the t«rm applied to a col- 
lection of ayinbols used to express the 
iMiunds tliat occur in a language. The 
tprm is derivetl from tin- first, two letters 
of the Greek alphahnt, Alphn Beta, which 
tttok the Iiatin form AlplmbrJum, hut that 
word does not occur in iiny prose writr 
before Tertullian. All nlphithets may bp 
traced back to fivr (iirms— the Egyptian, 
cunsifonn, Chinf•sl^, MRxiciin or Axiec, 
Tacutnn, and Ontrid Amcriciin. The 
Egyptians siTin firiit to h.ive iiiventwl thu 
nlphnl>v<tirn1 system, iuid their eiirliest form 
was thfi liirroglyphicB. These hierogly- 
phics wiTc pictoriiil, and indicated words. 
They are noiiietiines spoken of as ' th<3 
Hcral letters'; and there seem to he aomt? 
coaea where tlie hieroglyphs were used tu 
ri-presenl articuhite sounds, Derived f i-oni 
tlie hieroj[lyphics by a proceaa of deRrada- 
tion \% another net of cliaraeters, ealle<l 
tli« Enchurial (t.e. of the people). These 
Bnohoriala seem Grst to have bi>on phonetic 

?iwer», perhaps syllahleB, then mere lett«rH. 
he Phwuicians are said to have derived 
thpir symbols from the Egyptians. Our 
alphalx-t is derived from the Phteniciiui ; 
ftiid the same Is true of Hebi^w, Syriac, 
Arabic, Greek. Latin, and German. But 
the names given by Phwnieians to letters 
did not reprwent the sounds. The Ro- 
Buuu sc^m tii-st to liiivo named thoir letters 
from sounds, and pi-obahly thp order of 
the letters is based on a. classification of 
sounds, though it is now diHicult t« trace 
its development. 

Aluomat {alf^v, to nourish, mcil. lAt. 
alutmuitvni), the appclUtion of institu- 
tions in Oenoany where, in addition to 
Aducation, hoard and lodging nro provided 
for students. In the Middle Ages such 
iiistltutions were connected with monas- 
teriea. and the pupils, in return for their 
gratuitous instruction and board, per- 
ionued various servicns for t\if. church and 
80ho6L Maurice of Saxony founded some 
of the more oeiebrat*d of these schools in 
tlie sixteen li century. 

Alamnus is r«ally a lAtin adjective, de- 

rived from alo, to feed, to bring up ; 
is chiefly used as a. substantive; (1) 
rally=a nursling, in tlus sense chiefly 
Latin poets ; (ii) trop. = a jiupil. Cicef 
appears first to liaxe used it in this ' 
in ref«rence to the disciples of Plato, 
passed froni that source into our own Ian 
guage when Ivitin was so commonly us 
and it still remains, whether applied 
student of liis college or to a pupil t 
professor or tutor. 

America, Education in. Sf-e LaH 


American uniTersities. .^or XTntvei 


AmorOBs. Don Fraocisoo {h, in Sp 
1770, d. at Paris 184S), spent his 
years in the army, and saw active servie 
In ISOS he superintended the direction i 
B. military institute at Madrid for the 
formation of public education in Spa 
He adopted the method of Pestalo;i 
He was taken prisoner in 1S08, at thecl 
of the revolution, but soon released. Lat 
he lied to France, and offered his servie 
to Napoleon. He was made a member ■ 
the ' Society (or Rleinentary Education ' i 
Pari£,and published a work on the luethc 
of Pest-iloiiKi. Soon he was able to cob 
inence a course of teaching in the oapit 
He hail many pupils, and received govp 
ment support. In 1819 a military i 
was founded, and ho was appointed 
rector. His method consisted in gmduftt 
exerciser for full physical develi 
iLiid was especially noted for the fact ths 
this physical development was made 
contribute to the unfolding of the mor 

Analogy. — Reasoning by analogy ooi 
monly means inference from one case 
another on the ground of resemhlanc&l 
It diflers from the stricter forms of logic 
reasoiiing, inasuiueh us we are not cert 
that the points of resemblance observe 
are necessarily connected with the matt 
inferred In many cases, too. of argument 
from analogy the resetnblance is onl) 
slight and superficial, and this makes 
reasoning still more precarious, Tfa 
applies to all reasoning from facts 
laws of the phyaioal world to anu.loj 
processes in the mental and moral world 
as when we illustrate tlie operation 
acquiring knowledge l>y analogies wit 
the physiological prooeaies, digestion, i 
mtlation,&c Children's rea«caungs.bef or 
they become capable of tli« mora ex 



logioal (omu,iir«Kmun(lMl on Ui« [M-rc^p- 
bon of rtseinbliince. uuil iu> iimy Im> Ak- 
•allied A3 aiiuIo^iokL In illuHlrutin;; iii^w 
mbjects to cbildreai, the teaclinr fnaiuwilly 
(bill it o«cM8Kry to reaorl to ftualojjy. 
Gfnti eaix*f sliould li^re ho Lakeii to i-liooee 
■uitalile aaalofpes, And nut to strabi tbem, 
■o M to make llieni prove more tliaii theiy 
m capable of jiroviiig. Sioce analogy is 
■ ilefective form of reasoning, only useful 
«li»« tbe uiorv perfect forme are inapplic- 
able, it sitould be resorted to less and less 
as the child's reasoning faculty devdops. 
(On the logifsl WW of nnnlogy, «(W J. 8. 
Mill, Loffie, bk. iii. chap. xx. Tho nm 
of analogy in itiagtrating siiVijrctA of in- 
nniction in dealt with by [huut Tnylnr, 
tlcrtnr KJwali'iii, cilinn. xi.) 

Aii>ly<isKnd Syntneiii. — Ity Annlysiis 

ti nwnnt Uh' revolving of a complex wholn ' 

into ib* parts or dementa ; niid by ^yii 

tbecis, tnc- rrvi-n«' prooOBs of combining ' 

part* or clc rikhUi into n vbole. PbyKJcal 

aatlyau and t(yntJie«ua are )H*3t lUuHtnLtcd 

B> tlie chemical proceiises. As iippUM to 

hBrilect«al opemtioua the t«rnia ure some- 

wliat kiaUKUOUK- One clear instance of 

!jmt is supplied by iibs traction, in 

ibe mi ltd breaks up ibe concrew 

ipvax in pc'ropptiun int/) a iiuuiber 

mutituent pro|wrties. (.SVr- Abstrag- 

WW.) Aa wppiemi-nUvry to this we have 

apraoeBBof synthetic oonslruction, as when 

the nund through the mediuu of verbal 

4(tthpUun forma an idea of an unknown 

dumical suliBtanue by a new combination 

tif known qualities. In a somewhat loose 

mauer, Anahnis is used to denote induc' 

titm. Syiiihflsia deduction. A stricter 

Htployuent of tli« term ' analysis ' in con- 

■MtiiMi with reasoniii;; confines it to the 

nnlBtion of oouiplex efTects into their 

■juate pans, and tlie reference of these 

t> tkeir proper causes. The wttdk hare 

■m* to Im employed in education to Hcnoti* 

acmtrastof metiiod. Thus it is customary 

tDiliitiii|riibli between an analytical and n 

^tketioal way of teaching a langUHgo, 

■od Uie iDeauiiig of the phrase 'gmm- 

Battcal analysis' has become well drliniKl. 

Ib gMmetiy, again, which is Inrgcly an 

iUiiniatkm oi the synthetic building up of 

<(i^ln[ ideas out of simple onns, iLniLiyMH 

occupies a subordinate plncf. Wliilr 

nntitbeau has thus a ccrtnin ngniti- 

lOF ud BtOity, its vague and lluctunting 

_ aeeDU to render it, unfit to Kcnre 

fuulaiiMntal distinction in edttcAtional 

method. (Stif Jevons, £1. Lf»»ons in 
Loyic, xxiv. ; Bain, Ed. an .S'l-t'nw, chap, 
iv., and Compayr^, Coitnt dt r^d)igoyi«, 
pt, ii. l6i;oii i.) 

Anstyiis of Sentences. — Two different 
processes are ofl*ii L*i.iiopri.*tHl iinticr this 
t^rra ; (1) ' gramniaticar analysis (pars- 
ing); (2) 'logical' analysis. TtieditFiTcnce 
between them is essentially one of the 
dpgreRof detail to which theaimlysiaof the 
sentence isonrried. Logical analysis deals 
with groups of words and assijfns the part 
playod by each in tho structure of the 
stMitcnco ; parsing directs attention to tlie 
part playetl by each Mipnrate word and tho 
various clianicters which may he aacribMl 
to it. It follows tfiat analysis ouffht to 
precede parsing : thi-> Iiroiwi outlines of 
the sentence should be marked out before 
the question of the function nf each word 
is raised. Thus it is diflictilt to dctine a 
noun except in relation to the ideas of 
subject (or object) ; adverlm, prepoxitions, 
and conjunctions cannot 1h> tnily distin- 
guished except by consideration of their 
function in the senteii«'. Rxperience 
seems to show that chitdnm <l(-al mors 
naturally with groups of words ('thought- 
units') than with individual words, and 
tind their way without Hi-riotts difficulty 
through the outlines of tho analysis of 
simple and compound (compli-x) sentences. 
A noun clause is to them a many worded 
noun. To he able to recognise ' when I 
come ' a« nn adverb clause is certainly 
easier than to assign its pi-ecimi func- 
tion and character to ' when.' Thi« is 
es]ipcially applicable to tJie teaching of 
English. Owing to tho loss of inilecliona 
in modem English, words do not any 
longer henr their character staniped upon 
them or tell their own tale. A large 
number of words may serve as various 
parts of speech, as L>r. Alihott Laa shown. 
Thr treatment of words in group* is thus 
imposed by the genius of the m'«lern 
language, and to this fact the widespread 
adoption of analysis in English-speaking 
countries beiirs wiItipss. Parsing may 
easily become an exercise worse than use- 
less in English teaching, if it degenerates 
into a tedious enumeration of all the cha- 
racters which may he assigned to any 
single word ; still more if it leads lo tho 
disciivery of characters in words which 
they do not really possess {c.i/. gender in 
nouns) : and the protest which has arisen^ 
on many aides i« liiorougUy jttatvfiw.\. ¥i\xt 



(mninff ^miM||^lbiu ntml«<l by fnlse 
u)»thoQ8 n^vimBSniT nnd useful niljunct 
of analysis, A vara of <»L<ition : Mudi 
time would Im Kaved if tt^iicticrx, instead 
of asking the pupil to ' piirso ' fvery vronl 
about wbicli nny (|u«stioii arises, would 
direct his Ritentton to tlm piirti<!ular [lotnt 
at issue — ^.g. by uskiiig, ' Wliat is tho 
t«nsp of this VPrb ) ' ' Whut is Uie ftme of 
this pronoun I ' ' \Vhat iit the perfect par- 
ticiple of this verb T ' 

The metliod of so-called ' logical ' ana- 
IvBia in of comparatively recent dat«. It 
wna originated iii Oeriiiany by K. F. 
BeL'kur {Deutscftf Syr<u-hkkrf, 1S27). In 
oppositiou to the empirical methods theo 
ill vogue, lie based his grauiinar upon 
thought relations and logicjil distinctions. 
Becker's syst«m exorcised agreat influpiice 
not oidy upon the t«iching of liBminn, 
but aUu upon that of IaUii and Greek ; 
it vraa introduced ijito England by Dr. 
Morell. and various improvpini-nts in ile- 
tail were made by Mr. C. P. Miison. It 
baa been much criticised frooi various 
point« of view, iiut ii<it superseded. Pro- 
bably its defeats have arisen from a mis- 
taken view of the relation of grannuar to 
logic, from which Becker himself was uot 
free. Grammar and logic are not coin- 
cident, though they have their points of 
contact. Thus logic is ju&tified from its 
own point of view iti casting every judg- 
ment into the mould of subject, copula, 
and predicate. But logic neglect* many 
finer sha<les of meaning which are gram- 
matically of tlie highest interest (' Birds 
fly ' is not=' Birds are &y'\ng ') ; and in 
many otlier ways ji^rammar may be vitiated 
by the intrusion of logic. Foi" logic con- 
cerns itself only with the import of pro* 
positions ; grammar with their import ne 
expressed iu a certain form of language. 
notice ail analysis which conte.nts itsolf 
with stretching every sentence upon the 
Procrustean bed of the logical judgment 
may easily do violence to language. A 
wamiag Is needed against ftnalyning in the 
way in which ' a butcher annlyae* sheep ' 
(Mr. H. Brnd-ley, Amiiriny, January 
1886). The process of sentence analysis 
must be conducted on true grammatical 
lines ; ao oonduct^id it forms a Hound 
baais of rational grammar teaching, not 
merely in Buglish, but in foreign languages 


^le grammatical division of the sen- 
tence Is into two parts, corrcspooding to 


the two elementg in every 'oompE 

thought ' : 


The man w a traitor. 

Bird* I /y. 

Whether every sentence can be tiif 
into this fonn is a matter of opiniotl. 
question is adniirubty discussed in Pan 
PriuPtpiendrr Spraeh^eaehich te(tmnslat 
by Professor Strong), tn connection 
the views of Miktosich as to ' sulijectl 
sentences ' (e.g. tjieak, plnii) and the did 
cultjes involved in defining the U:Txa 'i 
tence.' The tenus ' subject ' and ' pr 
cate'are incapable of de£nitian exeeptj 
reference to one another. The ' subject '| 
the word or group of words denoting i 
of which the actioti denoted by the pr 
cate is declared; the 'pre<licate'isUie> 
or tiio group of words denoting tliat wfc 
is doclarcil of the thing denoted by 
'subject,' Any more confined defiiut 
of these terras must be imperfect ; if' 
say, as is very commonly said, 'The sa 
ject is the word or group of words deno 
ing that of which KO'ncthiny is decL 
or ' The subject is the word or gronp ( 
words denoting //in( viliich i« rpohm t 
the delinition may practically answer 1 
purpose ; for experience w-ill show 
pupils what is really meant. But, stric 
speaking, ' aorwihing ' is declared of ot 
parts of the sentence besides the ' subje 
For instance, in such sentences as ' '7 
ambition I do not share-,' ' At loven' i 
juries Jove laughs,' ' g<tmrthinif ' is sail 
'this ambition ' (i.e. that I do not 
it), and of ' lovers' ]>erjuries ' {i.e. 
Jove laughs at them) ; anil these notig 
being in fact the emphatic jwirta of 
sentence naturally present themsplvca 
the uiind when tlie question is asks 
'About what is something said in 
sentence I ' Cliildren before thej- have i 
quired grammatical experience are apt i 
a«ugn Uie same word as subject of tlie f 
lowing sentences, ' Wf Ilingtoii conquer 
tlie French at Waterloo,' and ' The Fn-j 
were conquered by Wellinglon at Wat 
loo.' To sum up : tlie subject cannot 1 
defined except by reference to the 
predicali-. Whether Uie clumsy defiuit 
which results ia of any use for 
purposes opens up a qutislion too wide : 
discussion in this place. See l>sytSlTie 
Urammariaiis are not agreed aa to i 
best way of using the l^enaa ' subject ' •■ 
'predicate.' The genex^ method is to i 



iiBjniA logical (or/ull) and t/Tammati- 

eal asbject, and U/rfietl (or juU) and 

fii UH t n aiieal predicate, and Ut ubs tlie 

tarns subject nod predicate in parain^ as 

equivalent to grammatJcai su'^jcct and 

gmumatical prodimte. Thua in the son- 

tea«e 'The fnir hrcpvc fnniiml my cheek 

Mftly.' bretie would l>fi tlip (gT-tiniuntical) 

fcjbje^t andjitartnithif (giiinimnticftl) prc- 

di'^tc. This mrthod irnn tlic advAiitngc 

of proviHii ■ convr.ninnt terras for the 

otfdinal utonb of the scntcncn ; the objcc- 

iMo to it is thnt it ncTifices the words 

nhj«ict and pTDdioitti' ax aamm for the two 

farfii into whidi tliir ii-ntcnoc primarily 

fiUlR (cotniKin.-, tuu, whiit is Mid lielnw 

•bout qtinlifj:iR2 partt iif hn wiitence). 

It ■- ipen to thoo* who thirk thnt subji'ct 

anu prcdicute aliiiuld In- ki-])t t'>r this srriKc 

U. difcUajfuisb 4rfy;c UK Ii- 'nubjcct-wonl ' 

and to i-ail/aiirtpJ HiDiply ■ verb ' ; tliougli 

Lc-niild doulitltes Iw deaintbli?, if jiussiblp, 

kfind for tlie verb t i.e t*rni whiL-li was 

Bot » term of pur&in;;. With legard tii 

Ife imper use of certain olhei- hdnns of 

UulyBiB, dir«rgen«i«S of opiniuuexiat. It 

I it one of the ehi«f merits of Mr. Miteon tu 

tie given a de&iite and useful meaning 

I Ute leno ' complement,' which biw been 

rarely uaed in France (eumpl^ment 

' ; rvmpUmenl inittrect) ; thii term 

if now f^uerally understood to denote tlie 

fux of tite seiit«iii.>e which completea the 

waning of a verb of " incomplete predica- 

(Le. a verb which does not make 

phrte seuae by itself). 

As the infinitive (usod after another 

of 'incomplete' verbs) plays a very 

diflerent rdl« in the si'Dt«iicc from the ad- 

Jettives aod nouns, cilW complements, 

■Dfna gratDDiBnaDs have thojght it desir- 

,lU« to mark this use of the iiifiTiitive by 

' name — 'proliitive infinitive '(i e. 

litm which crUndtt the meaning of 

finit* rcrb) is t)i« term employed in 

Public School Latin Primor; when 

) iatrodoood in that book it met with 

tMann of opposition, but is now widely 

The ierm ' supplpmontnry infinitive ' 

•bo boen soggrst^. I)ut whatj?ver 

is employnd Wicre would seora to be 

Wilms adntntagcs in recognising by a 

fu«te term th^ characteristic fmture of 

« Aryan Inngungvs ; in such a sentence 

' II«i aeems to be rich,' the complement 

-iek {ooniiL of the inlinitire to f>t), not 

'- nik. 

Tht tem ' indirect object ' is used very 

varioualy, end Uie question arises whether 

indirect object should be analysed ax 
coming und«r the ' object coluniu ' or the 
'adverbial adjunct column.' The question 
is complicated by the obliteration in mo- 
dern Enj^lish of the disliiictioti between 
dative and accusative. It is undoubtedly 
true that in modem English we ntay say 
not only ' I told him the story,' but< also 
' Ue was told tlio story ' — ^i.c. the indirect 
object may become the subject of a pas- 
sive verb, Jiut in lunguagi'j! which pre- 
serve thn distinctive case inllcctions, this 
is inipossiblc ; and it is urged with force 
that the indircfct object is ns adverbiiil in 
chiinu}ti>r iis any prcjiofiitional phrase (He 
aent it to the post). 

The clossiticution of noun (aubettuiti- 
val) clauses prasetits considerable dilficulty 
in regard to details. But ' he main cUuuies 
gem-rally accepted are; (1, indirect state- 
ments ; ('2) indirect petitions (eomnjauda) ; 
(3) indirect rtKjuesU. There is a diffi- 
culty in regard to such a sentence as ' It 
is strange ?/i«/ jfHc/i ihiitijs uluncldOe'; this 
differs from ' It is stiunge tliiit mich things 
arc,' as containing not a statement of fact, 
but niUier aji e.-cpn-saion of contingency. 
Such a clause is called by Mr. F. Ritchie 
(Enyfish Gritriimar iitui Aitali/n», 1886) 
an ' indirect thought.' 

The qualifying parts of the sentence 
(attributes, adverbial adjuncts) are very 
commonly tieatod as enUirgfiitf.ntii, by 
which the naked sentence is clothed. This 
is open to serious objections, such as those 
urged by Dr. F. Kern {DnUticfie Salt- 
U)tTf; 1883) and by Mr. J. Spcnco (Jour- 
nal (^ EdiKalion, 1884). In such a sen- 
tence as * Birds that are web-footed swim 
in water,' it is certainly misleading to 
speak of the clause tkat ari\ in:b-fuolfd as 
an ' enlargement ' ; the statement is made 
, not about hirdg, but about hird» that are 
imb-foolrd. These objections do not apply 
to the method of breaking up sentences 
into parts, if it be recognised that the 
process is an abfitmct one, and that at 
every stage of analysis we get farther and 
farther away from the actual sentence be- 
fore us ; they apply only to the synthetic 
recoiistmetion of the sentence out of the 
elements which result from the process of 

The most common fiirra in which sen- 
tences are analvsed is a ruled t-ablo con- 
taining headings for subject, predicate, &&. 
Dr. Bain (TetMhing o/ fnglisK, XSKl"^ 



object* Ui the deruigmieiil of the order of 
words in the sentence whUli result*, aiwl 
this ia oertaiuly felt as u difik'utty, especi- 
aJly in uualyaiiig Freni;h sud Gerumn. In 
■oiiii! HchuoU the sentence to tie ann-lysod 
in written out vertically and the descrip- 
ti<m of tlie parts (subject, object, ic) an^ 
writt*H opposite. Tliis is the mrthnd 
adopted by Mr. Kitch {L^vfurfx on 7VmipA- 
inrf. p, 26S). Thcrr nn! two pninM of im- 
portance to he kept in vivw : (1) tho lw«t 
method of indicnting tho rolution of t}i« 
words in riuheronp ; (2) tlie Imst inctliod 
of indicnting tri<> niliitinn uf each group to 
tiie othpr*. For tlm lutlrr purposi! tht 
genurallyniplnyudformof a tr«e is useful. 

Antwer. .sVr (Juestios and Answer. 

Aporti, Ferante, iln?ie!ebrB,ii-d foondcr 
of infatitii' suhoolH in Ilniy, was born iu 
179], in Shu Murtlno, in the proviuee of 
Mantua. Fruni childhood ho was destined 
for tlir) pri««thood. Yet, whilst pursuuig 
t)i(! usual studies eagerly, he never ceased 
to interest himself in the progress of his 
nation, especiitlly in tho Mucation of the 
children, for by thin mcjins only did he 
think it poRsibli" to Rtvn Italy. He wns 
professor of history in ("rcniona, and was 
also appointod inspfttor of schools there. 
He soon discovered that the great defect 
in the national Oflucation was the absence 
of any early culture. Italy jind at tJiat 
tame many little echoola, which were con^ 
duct*d by ignomnt nid women, very much 
like our dames' schools of forty or fifty 
years ago. Ajiorti fc!t that eduention 
should Rommeni.'e from the cradle, and 
deviscid a plan nf education to precede 
that of tho ordinary W'hool. In 1S27 he 
madr? hiti first attempt, andopcnodasmall 
aohool in Cmmoiia for tho children of the 
rich. Hia uitithod has Ih-pii descrilied as 
* dovelopmeiil of iJie body by weans of a 
sound r^iJHf, frequent recreation, short 
hourv of work, and gynmastic eiercise-s 
suitidile U> the age of the children ; for- 
mation of the heart by good examples anil 
wiae precepts ; ciUture of the Hpirit by 
teaching of a kind fitted to tlieir intellec- 
tual cupacities, ao tliAt it resembled play 
rutlirr than a taak.' Brilliant success 
«rowned his effort. On all aides he met 
with praise, and in 1829 the government 
of Milan approved his meUiDd by public 

Numerous other plaMS followed the 
example of Cremona, And in 1^33 Aporti 
publialied a manual to serve as a guide to 


the promoters of these infant* 
Not satialied with this, he spent any t' 
that could be snatched from bis mi 
duties to go and visit these «cIido1k. 
was accused of introducing a .^pirit of 
religion and revolt by his mi^thod, but 
pursued his course without relajcatioD 
thousands of schools hon- witn«is to 
success of the system hn hud initngitrkl 
Dy special invitation lie oi>cned a, sol 
at Turin, in the hoart of the uuivera 
an<l thus eH'ectcd a complnte refonnftt 
in Italian teaching. ]>istinction« W 
ahowerpd upon Iiiin. Thit French Core 
ment bestowed on him the title of ' Kl4 
of the Legion of Honour." Though hel 
to Pictlniont as a refugee, Victor X 
[Uiiiiuel raised him to the rwik of a se 
tor in 11^8. In IS.W he waselected w 
every nuirk of dignity to be Presidfinl 
tlie tJniveiKity of Turin. Thflre he d 
in 185t^, but he still lives in the ment 
and S[)eeeh of his countrymen as ' 
Fatlier of Childhood.' 

Apparatus, — Catalogues contain 
price lists of apparatus, instrumont*, c 
grams, itc, to illustrate tho follow 
sciences, and obt-ainahlo from varii 
manufacturers, have been prcpKn-d, i 
can he hail on application: — 1. Praoti 
(ieouietry. Machine and liuilding O 
struction. Mechanics and St<Am. 'i. I 
perimental Physics. 3. CheintBtry < 
Metallurgy. 4. Geology and Minenlo 
Natural History (Physiologj', Zoolo 
and Botany), Physiography and Affric 
tui'e. A skilful teacher will bo able 
save mudiexpense.nnd to make his subj 
increasingly attractive to his pupils, 
constructing his own ttppamtuswlioref 
sible. The greatest discoverers in sciei 
have worked with rough apparKtusoltli 
own invention and construction. 

Approbation. AVe Praisb 

Archite c tnre of Schools. — Conspicm 
among the questions which tlie uiuvera 
awakened interet;tin education tuMibroai 
up for discussion is that of tlie ardih 
ture and planning of school buildil! 
When the curriculum of secondary ectu 
was confineil to Latin and Or««k grami 
and translation, and of primar}- acbooll 
reailing, writing, and ciphering, the att 
tare of the school in which these « 
]mmtively simple operationa were o 
too mechanically perfonned was only 
mechanically simple. However iiapos 



MOM of tJicw old Si-hools very creditably 
irfle<'t«<d ibo flx^l1'KiaRlical origin of tWir 
fMndAtion — (b<! intirior doold bniisl r>f 
my littii' lU-cnmmndAtion for srlmol piir- 
pOBTS bryond onr iarg<! tclioolrooin. In 
ttis aII the KcboUr* wnrp taiigbt iitl Uic- 
nbjcctdc, th<' niiLsUtrs' ilfAn bring dottoil 
■bntjt tin- flnor, with .1 cliinr tjiiitp rtiotid 
(Mch (, in which llic cinu stocxl for 
'Imwki,' nnd tbi-n wiw r<tl<-gati<d fur ' \ixv- 
pamtion ' or 'writiiix' to []i;i(ka plAuud 
nthcra^iuit tli« wulls, or fnrct tu Skci\ or 
In other wmys deti.'nuined by uu tiij{ber 
oonwdentttua tbati Uiut of convenience or 
eleae packing. But Uie duy of tbea« tliinsa 
1ms foine by ; the extciiaioiis uf the i-uri-i- 
nilau to ioclode subjt<cts recjuirin;; more 
i(«(.-e, Kr«at«r quiet, or special anunge 
MeuUi lor tLeir adequate treiitmeut ; the 
taiprovem«nt8 in uerthods of iustmctioD, 
coupled with ibe introduction of k grv^Uir 
T»riety of methods : and, beyond this, a 
br higher conception of the p^trtn which 
good order, decency, and considerations 
at he*lth shouM piny in the educiition gf 
youth, have completely altcml tlie nspoi-t 
(^ the arcbitcctaiHl ijuestion. f''roiii hiding 

• nry noiple Oiw it hiis now beciiiiie one 
of tli» moet coniplei:. The iwlapt/Ltioii of 
idiool butldiiigs to their diverge purposes 
kamado infinite attention to dctAiU su- 
pcmely important. These details, their 
deci upon the discipline, comfort, nni} 
(Ccieucf of a tchool, it has become part 
tf a school master's professional duty to 
ttmdy and to master. In designing Kchoot 
(wlilings bis services, as tlic only potuibl? 
apart in these matters, um IndisticTiNiibln 
nde by side with thooe of the proii^itsiontil 

A sdiiool, like nvvry building, ouf{ht to 
bre k character of its own, und to bear 
ipOD its extorior the inurkK of IUl- [)ur|>oxe 
(nr which it was orectMl. Beiu^ neither 

* cbnrcb, nor a town-lwll, n(>rapuBt-offioe, 
tnr nn allium, nor a workhouiie, it ^uuld 
not snggcat any of tlieim to the eye. By 
iu ■pprooAo, its tmnfada, its ornament, 
a ihoald r«fl«ct tli« quiet di^uity as well 
u the procticul utility of llie work carried 
io within its wulla. 

The fitf should, wlienever possible, bo 
1 iufc open picofi o! jfiound. not hemmed 
is by boaaa, but free to the four winds 
ad the dirwct action of the sun. Its area, 
adniling playgrounds, should be at least 
in Hjoan jinls per scholar ; or more, if 

Iho whole school has its recreation at t)ii' 
same time. It« boundaries ohould Ih; nn 
higher than is alisoiutcly necessary. In 
ihr. country or quiet suburbs of a town, 
low walls, surmounted by iron palisading 
iiliout six feet high, make the beet boun- 
daries. In tho middle of n town th6 
nr<-i>ssity of avoiding itistriurtions from the 
itfvcts dnnand.i highi^r wbIIs, but th«y 
notid not exci-ed six feet 

77(15 /miUiiu/ji. — Till- wlujlc of the sur- 
face soil should be rcniovrd from the siti- 
to be ocouptud by th« builiUngs, and the 
ground under the floors should bo eovnn^ 
witli » uniform layvr i>! concrwte.. A spooi! 
of at least a foot aliould lie Mt bntwonn 
the top of the concrete and tlie under'Ktdn 
of the floor joists, and tliia spice sliould 
be thoroughly ventilttted. Tlit- ideal school 
contains no staircases, so tliat tlie building 
should consist of only one storey, where tlie 
site is largo enough for the puqH>se; and 
should never, under any circumstances, 
cxcerd two storeys. The main building 
should have at least two entrances from 
tlie public til oroughf ares. It should con- 
sist of an assembly hall, and a number of 
clnss-rooms sullicient to accommodate the 
wiiole school without using the assembly 
hall. This leaves the h^ll free, as it should 
be, for examinations, when the accommo- 
datioTi of the class-ri>oms would obviously 
tie insiifbciimt, for collective lessons, reci- 
tations, singing, ibc. Tlie assembly hall 
should, whenever possible, lie a ' central ' 
hal!— i.o. should have the majority of th« 
class-rooms arranged round it, an<l ooiu- 
inunicating witJi it, cither directly or, 
better stilt, witli an intervening corridor. 
Ill a two-stor»tyed building the hall would 
run up to the height of tlie u|>per storey j 
and a gallery louiid the hull at the level 
of the first floor would iniike communi- 
cation with tliL- tiass-rooms on that floor 

The advaQtag«s of the ' central hall ' 
arrangement are: (1) the whole school 
can meet and disperse to the sevt^ral cluas- 
rooms with the least possible delay or dis- 
turbance ; {2) the head-miLbter and the 
various school officials can visit or take 
round notices witli the least possible waste 
of time and energy ; (3) tlie central liall 
can be made a reservoir of fresh warm air, 
which can supplement the other means of 
ventilating the class-rooms and corridors, 
and, on the other hand, when the he.ll 
itself is full of people, as on ' aywmVi ift.-^ii 





it CAn I* ventilated from them ; (4) eco- 
nomy in the matter of cost is effected, as 
thn main w^s serve a doul.>le purpose. 
Interveuiiis corridors li«ve the gi-eat fwJ- 
vniiUi;^ of enabling examinations and 
other ooUeetive t«iohing to be continued 
witlioul interruption fmni tJic movpineiit 
of the scholars from pln«-tv>tini to cluss- 
room or to the plnygmiind. Thp difficulty 
of adequately lightinff the central liiiU 
may be ovdvotni! Iiy placing clonk -moms, 
masters' ronms, iind othrr rooms not run- 
ning up tji the t!uni« height iisi-'liiss-r()oiiis, 
at each end of th« central hall, tlms [ler- 
ffiitting Urge windows high up ut eadi 
end. Sky-lights or dormer-windows in 
thfl roof would further lontrihute light. 
ThR corridors, if parallel with the ude 
walls, and therefore Ion", would h" lighted 
nt (3U'li <-nd, or, if at right angles l>etweeti 
«vi»ry puir of elass' rooms, and therefore 
short, would he lighted from one end. Sky- 
lights are to Vje avoided, whenever possihlo, 
an a storm of ruin or liail prodnces noise, 
and of snow, darkni^M, 

The CApanity of the fentnil hall should 
be calculated at sin sipinre feet for each 
person to lie seated on puhlio oc-casions. 

C'toM-rvom*. — If the class-rooms are 
lighted on one side, ns would mostly 
be the case, the room should lie nrrnngerl 
80 that no shallow shall be cast by the 
pupil's body on his l>ook or paper, nnrl for 
this purpose the light Khould full on his 
left hand. 1'here is no objection, and in 
foct a distinct advantAge, where ventila- 
ia tjiknn into account, to having win- 
B on two adjiu'ent sidra. No cliiss- 
rooinH should be pliiced on thi" north side 
of tho building unless some of the windows 
can Ife plaeed so a^ to afTord direct sun- 
light. The area of window surface should 
never he less than one-sixth of the area of 
tho floor, and may be one-fifth with ad- 
vantage. The wiiidow-sills should he 
4 ft. 6 in. above the floor. The area of 
tlie floor aliould be calculated, in elemen- 
tAry aehools, at ten square feet to each 
pupil, and should never be less than this ; 
in secondary schools, it may reach fifteen 
or sixteen feet with advantage. The height 
should be, in all schools, at least fourteen 

Tho master's desk nnd dais should be 
in the middle of the long side of the room, 
with the light (necessarily) on his right. 
When at his desk, or at the blackboard 
behind it^ be should hav« the whole olaaa 

well ill view, and therefore be w*fi 
from iJie front row of dosks ; and 
longer the rows, the fiirthtir hack m 
his desk he placed, aiid thevrefom the wii 
must the room lie. (loniWKpnintly an 
rangement which pttrmits of eight ])U|n]: 
each long row (in single or dual desks, 
allowing twenty-four to twenty-sis in' 
'filliow room per pupil) is usually i: 
economical of lloor spnce than one for 
pupils in each row. If tlie dais is sul 
ciently high (eighteen or twenty inc. 
fiteppe<l or sloping floor is quite 
sary ; anil there is an obvious econoni; 
tlio principle of raising the master aJ 
the pupils for pui7>oEes of supervision, 
against the opjiosite one of raising 
pupils in tiers above the master. Ites: 
the noise of the pupils' movements 
the fatigue to the master in moving 
among his class, when on a stepped 
are good |>edagogic reasons for n spai 
use of such an arrangement. The 
appropriate place for a stepped Hoorfw 
it is most required, i.e. in an clcmrn 
school) is one extremity of the oeiit 
hall. The class-room wall.i xhould 
lined inside, to a height of from 2 ft. 6 
to 3 ft. 6 in. (according to the avi 
height of the scholars using tho 
with a dado, which may Ije of wood, 
or painted cement. The height of 
dado should he varied as stated in 
to allow of that most effective pieonij 
school apparatus knouti as the 
tinuous blackboard " being placed roi 
at least thnae of the walls immediai 
above the dado, on which the scholnrs 
work in the presence of the teaclier. 
Corriifom and ntnirenm*. - The 
dors should be at least five fet-t wi 
as to allow two streams of schotam 
moving in opposite diriictions without 
of inconvenience or disturbance. 
flooringmay be of wood-blocks or Bspl 
Staircases in schools are open to 1 
rous objections. They are noisy, thi 
dangerous, they are a fruitful sou. 
breaches of good discipline, and they i 
ously add to tho labour* of super' 
If, as in a two-storeyed building, th' 
neciasary, Uiey should be of the same 
as the corridors, tliey should on no 
be spiral, but should hai* short 
witli wide landings, and the flooring si' 
t>c of wood-blocks. Ciirv' should also 
taken in two-storeyed schools to have 
floors of the clus-rooms on the 

■loiy coiMtrnciiil of tound-prooi mate- 
mli,sacli OS gitikn and briek or concrete 
tfciuii^ whidi Imvc ttiR xlvtLDtago of 
being nou-oofulucting tKtth to «ound ftnil 

SeUitCif-rwHiu. — The [lOMtioti of *ci- 
(Boe in the tmnimiluui of iill Kccondnry 
beitijt noir fully extublixhod, t\ia 
oouftUxicUou of tb(!lectur(!-raoinK, 
.tones, apparatus- rounis rv<jiiin'd for 
leaching ot' cheaiislry, pbyaii-H, and 
ilogy, has become u matti^r of ]>riiaL' 
ipoitancp. The rwcuniueiidalioiis of the 
£4^1 Commission ou Tecbnicul loatrui'- 
tioD arv! forcing the ijucstiun ot el«iut-iitary 
(cimtiJic and technical instruction upou 
dio attentiioii of tlii^ iDaon^iera of elemen- 
laiytchooU ; bat, in tbc case of this latter 
of school*, it will probably bo found 
icnt, c^kticiall}- in largo centres of 
iD, to erect n )i|M^;iii.l scliool-tiuUd- 
to which pupilx would bo dntftol from 
die other schooln : though this time is pra- 
Wblj' not fardiBtaiit whcin a laiiaratory and 
vwkdioti will lie ooiiaidcml necessary ad- 
jUeU of all deunemtiLry ndinoU in artixan 
Mi^boariiiOods. ScioiK^e-rooniK, to whnt- 
tnr kind of xL-huol attached, Kliould be in 
««fant« block, iintr the luuiu building, 
tmi readily acoesible by a ooverod way. 
OllMrviae tht? rtiit of the school will run 
Ak ri^ of beiii^ inodinmoded by fiimeK, 
ud the theiuical and physicnl xtudriitn, of 
king diatui'lwd ill their invi-xtigatioiia by 
Ik vibralioUK acconi|MUiyiiig the movC' 
■ntsaf large iiuiubent. Thi' rooin.t should 
Ml b« lighted ou tlie suutli or west Hi<le, 
hil abould face either north ur Mwt, in 
irder to avoid, a^ mui'li aa [xiKiililc, thi- 
91 <0ects of direct sunli^'bt ii|H)n ebi^miciils 
Md appAratus. Tlie wanning find vi-nti 
Uioa of ifae science- ruuiiia siiould lie un 
ftt aaoe principle as fur t)w main build- 
hg, only the areas of Uie iuleta and uutk-ts 
bf air should be niuth larger. 

C'loak-roontt.^^lie exteut to wliidi 
moMDiodatJon for caps, fj;reat- coats, uiu- 
Wtllaa, icc^ is required varies couaiderably 
«ith the character of the seboul. lu a 
iaard i«g- school , where the boarding-ho uaes 
m ehntered round the school, or in a day 
where the pupils live witluu short 
of the sdiool, liardly any cloak- 
accommodation is reijuirml ; tJie cor- 
nian or covtrred ways nmy be fitted witi 
pap, aiu) little else would be wanted ex- 
J<yt, perhftp*, a dryinii;-room coimectftd 
■Wi tlie hot-water apparatus, to receive 

the great-coats after a licary downpour of 
riiin. But tii a day school of any kind, 
eepecially in towns when; tbo schools are 
large, too great imiiortJtnce cannot possibly 
be attachod to the su pply i>f aulSdciit cloak- 
rooms. On this (tnj(etb<rr with the proper 
arrangement of thn latrines) reals thn vety 
foundation of sdiool momJa. HeaJth, dis- 
cipline, tiditie&s, respi-ct fur pcnonai pro- 
perty are all cncuunigitd at thia point on 
tlie very threshold of trach svbool day — 
by eJI'ective urnui^iueuts, or discouru^ged 
by the reverse. Tliere should be a sepo- 
mte cloakroom for eveiy 150 scholars, 
with, if possible, ingress at one <loor and 
q^n-wi at auothrr. The cloak-rooms should 
not Ix^ altogether at one partof the build- 
ing, but each iJiDuld bo a* near as possible 
to tlie classes to which it is assignetl. In 
this way perfect order can lie iniiintnined 
at assembly and disnii^al, and tlic iiuild- 
iii(;B be cleared of seliolnrs at the end of 
each school sesuon in a few minutes. The 
fittings of the cloak rooms should be de- 
signed in order(l) toisolatceadi schobtr'a 
outdoor clothing, so that the riakti of the 
spread of infection may be Urgt-ly diiuiii- 
ishcd, and that the wet coat of one boy 
naay not sfttunitc the dry coat or atain 
the liglit coat of his neichbour ; (2) to 
provide a system of umbrelb dnuiiage, by 
which the fetid and discoloured drippings 
of many (cheap) umbrellas may be at oDc6 
csLrried outside the building ; (3) to sub- 
ject each separate coat and umbrella to a 
current of hot air, and, at tJie same time, 
to obtnin such a length of hot-water pipes 
a« will raise the temperature of the room 
RUlbciently to dry wet clothes in the inter- 
val bi-tween asst'inbly ami dismissal ; (4) 
to n-duce to a minimum the teiuptation to 
pilfer ; (."i) and, by giving each boy's um- 
brella a place for deposit iii his own eoni- 
partineiit, to prevent delays and confusion 
at dismissal, and to check changes of 
ownership, accidoiital or otiicrwise. All 
these objeuta can be accomplished by fit- 
ting the cloak-rooms with wooden parti- 
tions round the walls, ivrnl additional back- 
to-baek partitions projecting into the room 
at etiual distances at right angles to one 
of tlie walls. Uot-water pipes should be 
curried round and under all the partitions, 
KO as to create a current of air direct unto 
and tlirougb each coat as it hiuige. Th6 
following detailed dlmeusions are given: , 
Height of partition, 5 ft. 4 in. ", iciAtii, 
1 ft 2 in. ; depth, 8 m. ■, \«a%\iv ol V*iv,« 


for giiiteni^ I ft.; lingfit. oFliook for urn- 
brfllii, 2 ft. C in. ; witlth of rfrtinngC' 
trough, S in. : Inngth i>f hrtt-wnt^rr pipCK 
for ITiO [wrlitidiis, ubmit l.'iO ft 

Drainnge-troiiijhs. — On an iis]ihn.!tj!'l ' 
Hour tlifisi! should Ik- fomifid by sinking ' 
ruiini"!» iti tbf usphalti-. On a. -mmAau 
floor lh« side trmigh.s ahnuUl ho taruie. by 
twii beads ca^eil witli riiio, and the in«in 
Irougli should b* sunk in the boarding of 
the floor, and also L-aa»i with »iio. Tlie 
main cUannel ahould L-iMuiuunicalP with 
the outside drainage. The lower panels 
of the door of the cloak-room should be 
flttod in with perforated ziiio, in order 
that ft currant of colder and dner air from 
th« corridors may bo kept up through the 
room to rnrry off' the vapour arising from 
the Wdt rlothos when healed by the hot- 
Vp-ater pipra. 'I'hn oost of the above (ex- 
clunivi^ of li'it- water piping) need not ex- 
cend til". pcT scholar. 

Aristotle <>r Aristd teles, the fnmoua 
Gret'k pbil()«ri])lu>r ami tnadicr, was 6. .184 
B.C. ill the ciilonial town of Stjigeira, mid 
heiiee is freijuentty spoken of as the ■ Sta- 
girite.' His father, Nikomuclms, wns a 
physician, au<i a friend o! Aioynlas I Land 
Philip, King of Macedun, ihfi grandfather 
andfatherof Alexander theGrpjit. Having 
lost Ilia parents very early Ariiitotle whs 
brought up by Proxenus of Atameus, in 
Asia. Minor, to pursue ineilicinn and sur- 
gery 08 a profeKai<in ; but in his eighteenth 
year he vfeiit to AtliRiis, and somewhat 
later becairie a pupil of Plato, who was so 
impressed with Aristotle'n im-ntal ]iowers 
that he called him ■ the intellect of the 
school.' Aristotle remained twenty yi^irs 
in Athcnst, whore he established a si'hool 
of rlitftoric, or oratory, a kind of e<lu- 
cntionnl institute in whifli the youth of 
Atlienn obtained the mental training fitting 
thc-m for tlie public life of their day. On 
thp drjitti of Pinto (.117 B.C.) Aristi)tle ro- 
tnovnl aLiniii toAtameus,aiidtiubae(^ueiitly 
to Mitylrnc, and it was about tliii time 
he wiw invited by King Piiilip to edu- 
cate bin son. In the period 343 to 340 
R.p. Arixtoth- act«il oh tutor to Prince 
Alrixandn* from the thirteenth to six- 
ti^nth year of thn age of the latter. The 
young jirince butTftini- grcjitly attached to 
htM t«lor, but they subseiquently became 
««tr«ngMl, nwtnff U* Alexander's ambition ; 
and, on AWander cntMing upon his great 
cumpaugn in .'\»i» {.'134 ir.o.l, Aristotle re- 
inm'O'l again tn Athens. Here, at the age 

of fifty, he opfTJ(*d~the ' Lyeenm ' (y.if.^' 
so called from its lieing near the teuifJe 
of the Lyepiaii AjmiUo (AjmjIIo Lycetus). 
It wns while at this school tJiat Aristotle 
niaturpd his philosophy and attained his 
un.'iurpassi'd ri'putalion as a philosophic*] 
writer and t<>a«her. From his habit of 
walliing about the garden of the Lyceum 
with his pupils when toaehing, hi* wu 
called th(' perij^atetic pbiiosopby (Grrek, 
TUfimoTfiv, to walk about). In this con- 
genial ofcu]iatioti be passed twHve yeon; 
but in 322 B.C., after Akiander's deatli, 
Aristotle had to fly from Athe:is, his 
enemies having brought against liim an 
absurd charge of godlcssnc«s or atheism. 
I{e died the same year nt Clialcis in 
Eubwa, at the age of sixty-two. One o( 
the greatest acbievements of Ari^itotle wac 
the creation of the seiptice of deductive 
logic, which has undergone no umteria] 
morliticaAion since it left his Iiands. His 
other writings embrace all brandies of 
Bpeculatire philosophv— i.e. uiet.-ipbysic8, 
or the science of real lieing ; ethics, or the 
science of morality; and politics, or the 
science of go»-emnjent, and social science ; 
these, and his trentises on rhetoric ana 
poultry, on nniinals, and various other 
suhjecta, are aiiiongst the greatest monu- 
niRiits of the human intellect. Aristotle, 
' being himself u teacher by profession, also 
1 wrote upon education, considered from the 
j point of view of general ethics, aa well as 
I in its social and political relations. If 
man is to attjiin the greatest homan good, 
I happiness, he imist, according to Aristotle^ 
' be trained to the knowledge and pnictioe 
' of virtiif — in the first place to th(v>reti<*l 
or diagnostic, and in the second place to 
' practical or ethical virtue. Having bo 
j live ill a material world, however, man 
must not l)e allowed in his education to 
neglect the useful, but he must paynttm*- 
j tion to this only within due limits, *r, that 
he d(M« not become absorbed in tbi' pur- 
j suit. As virtue is a regular habit or 
attitude of the soul, and not nmply a 
' ca|]acily, human beings can oiily ac<)uini 
it by proper teaching, training, and habi- 
tuating in ita ideas and practice. Accord- 
ing to Aristotle, the guidance of the btisi- 
neas of education is the duty of th« Htate. 
The first thing necessaiy is to take care 
tliat infants shall be properly fnd, ami 
tliat they shall be brought up with hrAlthy 
bodies. Up to ^cir fifth year childrm 
sliould be provided with amusement, and 



thnrjjay ahoaWTw^'Ruiiled iw to d<f- 
niop morp particulitrly tJn-ir muiieuliir 
Ijmeia. From tJi« tiftli to tin? sevt-tith v«ir 
Ike diild ahoald receive oral inalructioti, 
bwniiig to iho words of bis t4>a<.-her, 
ud (ooldng At o)>jecM or utlier iiii)(Im< of 
illoMnting the oral l<^&wiis. From the 
itntOh to the t'ourteeatii year the l>oy 
focs through tlM elemeDtary course of 
dacntion »t, school, and from tJie four- 
Wmh to the twenty-first year tlie ad- 
Tuoed eoanvi at the highor school nud 
lademjr, coming nut at the end a man 
hlly dcveloppd mentatly, morally, and 
fJkynoOly. Thi> li'niiing departments in 
Ao adaption of the luicinnt tirecks were 
«Jl*d (I) ipuniiiMr, (:;) music, and {'.i) gym- 
BtKtiea, answering nwpwtivrly to (I ) lito- 
Itry, (!^) Rttthetk, and (.1) phyKicAl culture. 
On all tbp«p pointd thiin^ an- many vahi- 
ible ubaervutiona Ui be fciuiid in Aristotic'a 
Tuious treatiaea. It wiut charactoristic 
•f Oteek civilintiuii that AriatotIn shoiiH 
t<ach tliat defoniK-d and hoiH-lwuily woiik 
infuila aliould not bv |M->rmitti-d to live. 
Xnr did Aristotle allow timt .slaves, or ' 
npn women, had tlie L-a)ta(.'ily uf heiiig 
tally mined to virtue. Wiiuloni is the 
Ugbeet object of tlie higheat i-ihiuatioTi, 
Wt this, according to Aristntlf, was uii- 
uuiaable until man Imd n^adiod the 
|«uk of culture eutittiii;{ him to bo uallwl a 
^ilMopber. (AW ATHENl-i.t Eddcatioh.) 
Arithmetic (Or. lifii^^ifrtKi;, frotn ipi6* 
fBi, number) is tita science of the expres- 
■ioa nf number by 8ymbola,aiid the uppli- 
ealion of rules relating to them. Tliest- 
nmhols are called numerals. The earliest. 
sytMut of numerals was that of the 

.TM. In their liicvoglyphsthediKils 

*)> to nine are simply strolies (lll=thi-ee, 
ud to on), ten is fl op to a hundred, thus 
ttirtT-oni' is written nOfll ; the nin^is 
fcr hundml and for thousand are also ilia- 
tiuct. .Vow Itcre tliere is not the ramo- 
tat attfttnpt to assign value to poMtion. 
fcUnwing this earliest form we find the 
Loatioi, and the enchorials or demo- 
tifl» Thii^fO have been traced out with 
■anellouK skill by Champollion the 
yaiugM. If wc look at tfie Roman n>ethod 
ofnaUtton, it scrms difficult to say that 
I, II. Ac, did not arise in this simple 
•*T rrf rvprtition. Thn Hebrew, tSreek, 
•ad Latin nyst^-mK each employed letters. 
'^' - ' '.itiip numrmis, which hare hod so 
dowitJi the progress of arithmetic 
■-. 10- Wratrm world, ajipear to have been 

known to thn Hincloos as early as the fiftJi 
L'cntury. Thoy wi-m ci-rtainly introduced 
by thii .\riibians into i^jiain, tboiigh tlie 
pri-cifli» dtitu is not kniiwii. ticrbort, after- 
wards PopeSylvflstor II., whodicd 1003, is 
aiiid to havfl carried thirst- imuKTrals from 
the Moors of Sjiaiii into France, 060 ; and 
they weri^ known in Hugbuid early in tho 
I eleventh oentury. 

It is auppo!(«d tJrnt the Gi-eeka and 
Romans at tinit used pebbles as counterv, 
and the very word ' calculation ' points to 
the calculus or smalt stone as employed for 
counters. In continuation of this are the 
facts that the Indians aro very expert in 
reckoning by means of their tingers, with- 
out pen an<l ink ; the natives of Peru will, 
in making calculations by an arrnngemont 
of niaiijo grains, surpass in speed Europeans 
tvided by many ruiia. The Chinese, too, 
calculate by means of bulls on ro(b, which 
they manipulate with sudh auaxing dex- 
terity that the moat intricate exchanges are 
calnilated in their banking-houses in the 
Mhortest possible time. In our own coun- 
try also Xajiior's rcids and Babbage'a ml- 
cuUtingmachinewerconce familiar. Ev«n 
ill the roign of Charlns II. Sir Samuel 
Morland invented two machineH which 
he called ' aritlimet ic instrumenta,' and 
from his book it would seem that the fun- 
ilamental rules can be easily worked, iw 
he says, ' without charging the memory, 
disturbing the mind, or exposing the opa- 
rations to uncertainty.' About 17S0 I^ri 
Stanhopi* invented two machines which 
perform the operations of multiplication 
and division with remarkable accurai^y. 
It is probably owing to the mechanical 
habit of our primitive ancestors of count- 
ing ou the live fingers of each hand that 
we owe the discovery of the decimal sys- 
tem of notation, because, as Mr. Peacock 
observes, ' Natural scales of nuniembion 
alone have ever met with adoption,' mean- 
ing by natural scales those adopted from the 
baiida or from the hands and feet. These 
methods we call quinary (by lives) or vi- 
ceuary (by twenties). This is further seen 
by their name, the simple symbols of num- 
bers tfoing in Latin called digits, or fingp.r*. 
The t'aribbees call the numlmr ' ten ' by a 
phrase which means ' all the children of 
the hand ' (Peacock, p. .■(30). So that wo 
can well understand Mr. Peai^ock's xtativ 
nient that ' amongst all nations practii-al 
methods of numeration have preceded l]i« 
formation of numerica;! l&ngungo.' 



But no mediftnienl device lian bfpn at 
once so Bimpio nml no ctH-clivt' as the in 
vention of a local value for figure*, i.e. tlie 
fixing tbr first Itne for unites, thi? wcotid 
for tiPns, the (hini for liundn'tls, ii?., so 
thnt -144 Hops iiof. stiind for tlirii- fours 
simply, but (or four units;, fot:r U-ns, and 
four hunilrT'cls. This now itppeurs bo sim- 
ple to us from long priiftict- tlint it fi<?pma 
BCjirccly [MJisiblt- for it ever to lliive lnM*n 
otherwise. But if we reini-mlier tliut tlie 
Grwks used letttM-s for tlieirarithnioticand 
yet had fruction sums, we see how vary 
cunibiTsouii! «u<:li n syst«m must have been. 
Apparently this invention of local value 
I quite recent. Tlie Egyptians sometimes 
iDged their 'straight strokes' in two 
' eolumua to save space, but, ss we Iiavo 
said, they had no idea of local Vftlue, 
neither had any other nation of nntiijuity. 
Pythagoras, who lived from r>70 to 504 b,c, 

is reported to have inventerl the niilltipll- 
cntion table— the Aliacus Pyth/igoricus — 
Lbut there Rpems no trace of the Greeks 
Pkftving ttdvaniN-H in imy rt-at scienw of 
ftritlunHjc beyond thn Egj'ptiiins from 
whom Uiey n-<r('ivpd it, Diophiintns, an 
} Alexandrian, who flourialied al)nut the 
i^^iniing of thi- Christiiin i-ra, nutde u 
rcinurkable advance in Jirithmetic liy the 
diKC»)very of the indeteruiinatp unalyeis, n 
■pccicH of algKbni, on account of whi<*li he 
b cnlli-d th(! inventor of ulgelira. Six 
books of hilt, in Cn^t'k, wi-re published on 
' aritlimelic. Bt-yond this step there is 
[littic to rfcord for tliif first six centuries 
' in UiB Chrintian i-rii, and in the middle of 
llie seventh tlieMuliamuiediinspntcliciilly 
.swept UYfuy pliiloBopliers witli their books 
ad their inventions. It is, therpforc, 
liltriking to find the means of mathemiitical 
rpmgrCBe coming from th«8e same Arabs, 
I OS we have seen above, by furnishing the 
' Western world with a system of numerals 
which oSer«d every facility forrtiady com- 
bicatiOD. But even this system must have 
I remained practically inoperative, but for 
the invention of local value. And here it 
is interesting t« note that towards the dis- 
covery of local value the most importuut 
step was the invention of the cipher. ' Ci- 
pher' a from an Arabic word meaning 
vacant, and in the old systems they had 
not a symbol for vacuity. The absence of 
this symbol probably prevents them from 
arriving at the notion of local value, for 
withoatitiuiy numbers written in columns 
, would constantly be deranged. And of, in th« wise 
value of ejich whs absoluttr, 
nothing to suggest su<;h a drntriviuic 
local valui'. Aftpr its discovery tJirrc » 
several courses open, and we might | 
had a binary, ipiinary, or duudfiuuy i 
insttvul of our decimal natation. Wei 
ain-iidy referred to the probable cttiMM 
system of tf itB being adopted, viz. Uim 
lingers on both hands form such a ti 
reference and easy explanation in a 
of early counting. Tliis will not ap 
strange if we bear in mind tliat Uiere 
tribes who have never risen to a qtat 
scale because they have never wai 
numbers as high as five. Aristotle n 
tions A tribe of Thracians who ni 
counted higher than four. l>arwin4)D 
Sir John Lubbock (Dfur^^it of J/a» 
ISO), and i-emnrlts how improbable i 
that our earliest an<'eElj^rs could 1 
' counted as high as ten,' coniudenng t 
SO many nations ' now in existctific CM 
get beyond four.' If we add to these f 
the part the fingers played in the mr 
mat hematic a! investigations of nioit o1 
wo shall lie prepared to admit tli«t 
deeiiiiiil system may have biien iragga 
by a naturu! nrrangetiient. | 

The essence of our present 'd«d 
notation ' is that, in a row of fignrta' 
eeeding to the left, each column inert 
the value of the figures tenfold. We t 
the origin of this system lo the Ilin< 
anil they ascribe to it ii divine soi 
The date of its introduction intv En 
is not clear. We have already refii 
to tlie statement respecting Po[i« SyJ 
ter n., which is doubted by nikny. I 
more |irobabk' account is that fjOO) 
of Pisa introduced it in 1203 in « i 
entitleil Lilirr Ahhaei. ,tc. Otliem ] 
supposed that thi- Alonsine tablet 
Alplionsine tables, conatruct«^d bjr 
Moors at tlie court of Aloiteo) (intt 
taiued tliis system. Certain it ia thai 
systeui was in the hands of tbn P(t(f 
and Arabs before the twelfth centum 
that they a^ribe it to the Hindoos. T 
seems to have been no general as 
Arabic numerals in Europe before tin 
vention of printing, and tl»e works of < 
ton do not contain them except iu w 
cuts, Merchants continued to keen I 
accounts in Roman numeraJs till the 
teenth century. 

The next great step in uithmetid 
the discovery of compound proporti< 



fmctions in the sixteeiilli ceu' 
be Hiiidixo; me fractious uud 
taa<:h AS wd do, but without 
4tj- of notation. Tlie firat 
mJ iKitAtion found amongst tlie 
iWrotv tl»! dftiominfttor above And 
iglit of tlm iinniiTAtor, ks 20^, 
shuwx tlio [MXQtion of thp de- 
Pluleiur wiu tli(! tirst to aakv 
ace oil ttiiK. Hr npplicd the 
diridiDg (hi?' to all units, 
I is known as the? irxi^crKimnl no- 
be de^r** of tlic circli- ii; divided 
rty minut«8, tli^ luinutr intn siaty 
, and so on. Wu Imvc still re- 
in our diviaiou of Iho tnmU- the 
i; seconds. Sic. iumI lij- hiiD, »nd uii- 
ipread of Arabic nuiucruls h:xK(~x&- 
I metJiod did much aerviL'i?. l-!ti?viiius 
« bavc been tlie first wlio iidvuiuitcd 
(Wwl the uw of deciuKij fr^L'tidiia in 

IirrittT'ii (tbout 1585. But he and 
I n»nl tho sexftg««iuiaJ Hystcnj, lit 
ir Bom* tirap, witli circuiuUi-xeii 
Alln-rt Girard. alwut 1590, Urst 
thta niL'tiio)! to the decimal s_vst«in, 
*D wnAc bj- placing the number in 
s ovi-r tlu' digit*, tho exponeuta 
lowrr of t^n, used as dPnomimiirir. 
in? Iwnrlit of local value rwilly 
I jtaclf. ft oidy remauied to rti- 
nminfarous method of cii-cuiiiflexed 
or IJm? simpliT form of our present 
Qfttor and drcimal fractions. This 
a wm» partly made by Wright in 
nd thi? system was fonuftlly Intro- 
y S»pipr in 1617. Oughtred ex- 
tbc UB? of it in 15^1, and fiy>m 
ietl»enio<[crn form of Indian arith- 
ss been mtAtilixhrd. 
jtfercr ift cnpnbli! of iiiomasi? or 
Idd in callcsl K mRgnitiid<;. A 
ute. tatty hp cnntinuoUR, i,c. whole 
ivid«d, lik<? wiit^tr in a tiottli:, or 
at ■eparMti- and dixtinct indi- 
' parts, lilcp a Snak at hinln, A 
■ u ckiirly dcliricil ningnitnd^^, 
tlwt urt! continuous, or it is 
, of tin? kindK that iir<! Hrparato. 
torfivt! hundn?d hints nr<'(]Un.n- 
> and five hiitidrnd art? nuralicrn. 
: are c*iiicn;tc or iihstract ; tliua, 
DD>, fifty bird.i, Ac, n.n' caWrfi con- 
ItlwrK, but U^ and fifty iirc ah- 
Sy mcanH of the ninr si)(niticiiiit 
cr witli tli(? «ymhnl 0, [:idli.'il 
ipbt?r, we oin rRprcwrnt nuralici-s 
Itudct Bach of thc«n signifionnt | 

digits biken in the order 1 to 9 repn-wnts 
a number ureater by one than the number 
represented by the di;;it that precedeti it. 
Other arithIn(^tical sym)>olg mm + 
(plus), = (equal to). — (minus), x (multi- 
ply by), -~ (division by). K«ch figure hiix 
two values : one from it-s fonn, which may 
br onllcd it« intrinsic vuluc, another from 
its position — thus, 2 I'cprcsrnts two units, 
but if written 2000 it reprrscnts two thou- 
winds, bdcausr the fourth column contwins 
■inly Ihotunnds, ns thi^ lirst contiiins only 
unitn. To writ« in words tin- mwvning of 
a nuniliiT t-STpn'Sscd in ligun-s is cnllfd 
numeral ion. To rtpr(>SPnt by ligurefi a 
numlH?r ocprcssiKl in words is ciilli-d nntrt- 
tion. Tilt! nuinbi?r of units of a given 
I onlei- Uikeu to form a unit of the rioit 
highei' order is called tlie twiae of t!i<! 
system. In our Kyst^'Ui the biise is ten, 
and it is hence culled the decimal systt-ni 
{dfcuni ^ ten). 

The four fundamental operations are 
^ addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 
I division. Or the same statement' may be 
made another way, by Mying the funda- 
mental operations are addition and its 
opposite, and multiplication and its op- 
posite. When any given numbers are 
added togethei- the result is called their 
sum. This apparently simplest operation 
has but one difficulty, which is cnlled 
' cariying' — i.e. if the sum of thi? units in 
any line exceeds nine, the tens arc cvirricd 
ns unitn to the next highest line or order. 
When n smaller number is tnken from a 
gi-eater the greater is callofi the minuend, 
the smaller the sulitrahenit, and the uum- 
ln'r left the remainder, the whole opt-ra- 
tion being called subtraction. Subtrac- 
tion ia performed in two ways -either by 
the English methorl, in which when we 
lake a. greater from a less we borrow one 
fi-(jni the nest order and tlieii pay it buck 
hy adding one to the siilitiii.lieu() ; or tlie 
French method, in which it la uaual to 
boiTOW ii/molutrly from the next order in 
thi? minuend, so that no paying back is 

Multiplication is the operation by 
which we tind tho sum of a [;iven numl>er 
n-|H'itt('d aa many times as there are o»m* 
in another given number. The number 
to be nrpeiited is culled the multiplicand, 
the other the multiplier, and the sum 
found the product. The discovery of mul- 
tiplication was one of the great st^ps of 
progress in arithmetic. At i»TOa\«i«alXWA. 

■II operation which found at once tlio |>ro- 
iluctofT X 10 was a great economy com- 
pared with thr- laboui' of writing down 7 
teu tiDii?s iind tJicn ftddiDg theui up. Nor 
was it n mnttcr of economy merely, for 
many npcra-tions in advanced arithmetic 
could nnvfir huvc lieen discovered so long 
as the cumherKonip pUin of ndding iv- 
miinMl. Oiiir o£ the t<!sts of n good arith- 
metic IN whiither it teaches how to coKt 
tJi<! niiii!* out of multtpHcanil, multiplier, 
and proiluot so as to tc-st the nccurncy of 
tln! ofierutiuit in oaw-s where thn multiplitr 
GonsislH of aevtiml figun-s, TJiis test ia 
of the highest servici- in «xaniination work, 
and, though very old, is often omittMl in 

Division is the opemtion by which w^e 
find how many times one given uuiiiber is 
contained in another given iiumher. Tlie 
first of these numbers is called the divi- 
dend, the second the divisor, and the re- 
sult or answer the <|uotieDt. If any two 
of thcsi' three trcrnis Iw given we can find 
the third, tliijs : Dividend -r- divisor = 

3uoticnt ; dividi?nd-i-(]Uotient ^divisor ; 
ivisor X quotient = dividend. When the 
sludBut ha.s inasten^d thoroughly these fnur 
rules, which furnish th<; nieiinsof all nrith- 
luetioul oaJculutionK, it is of the highest 
importanoe to bcpome very familiar with 
the procL>wcnl](Hl 'resolution into factors' ; 
tlius, the fa<;tors of IL' are 4 and ^, or 6 
and 2. This method often enables us tn 
Uil at sight whether two or morenumbpfs 
are divisible by one common number, and 
is fre(|Uetitly of grrut aid in simplifying 
Actions. Having procw-detl thus far, 
modem teachers of nrithmntic at once 
introduce the pupil to fractionii. The old 
method of deferring frin-ti<ins to a httf 
period in the Hystwn resulted in stmU-nla 
seldom being £uailiar with tliem. 

When the student lias maal^red the 
principles of pure arithmetic he couies 
rtuidy-nrmcd to the moi'e prucliuul branch 
of eommcrcial arithmetic. The llrBl real 
st*p in this branch is ' rule of three,' or, 
u it is now generally taught, ' the unity 
method,' which rests on a simple, intelli- 
gent basis, from which it taken ita name, 
thus — lot the question bo, ' If '20 1iora«s 
draw 'iH tons, how many tons will 50 
horMK draw T ' Statement is, If 30 horses 
dmw 'l^t tons, it is clear that one horse 
dmwH tho twentioth part of 2-'i tans, and 
SO honra ."iO times this amount, udiich may 
be xtAtcd thus : 

30 horses < 


.•. 1 horse draws t- tons. 

45 V 50 
.■. 50 hones draw "^—^^ — tons. 

Sums comprising .'i, 7, or 9 quantities 1 
lie worked out by tJiis method. liy on 1 
plication citlier of ordinary rule of three^ 
the unity method, interest, discount, pn 
sent worth, percentages, profit ttnd 
may uU be worked. The same is tru*^ 
stocks, but the young mind starts in 1 
from dealing with these largo imagjn 
sums of money. In many cases it is fbo 
simpler to teach stocks by formula- ; b«t| 
these formula! are nothing mor«' thaa^ 
rule of tliree stiit«mcnt written froctic 
wise, we noed not insert them. 

H'ogurr if nrm and stilidily.' 
find the ai]uare surface of any area 
multiply length by breadth. If this stiu|l 
point is grasped it will gn^atly aid in cli 
ing up the mysterious difference betwe 
75 yards mjunre iind T-t square ya 
The fonner is a square whose side ill 
yards and whose art-a is 3.G2fl aqs 
yards ; the latter b a surface whose 
is T-*) square ynrds. To liiid the uv 
contents of a blnck, or room, wo 
multiply the tliree dimensions of I«b 
breadth, and depth togctlier. 

Tlie most common aiitl the inoxt A\t 
operation is to find thi? square area of I 
fourwallsof a room. As tJic two side 1 
and tlie two end walls must correspond 
is simpler to double these, thus — "J ^leu 
+ breiidth) X height = square area 1 
walls. This square areii divided by wiJ 
of paper will always give length of 
reijuired. Tlie simplest way of work 
these sums is to reiluce the inches to : 
tions of a foot, and then as fui' as 
ble work them ali fmclioniilly. Ther 
another method of doing aJl these su 
which is intei-eatiug from some of the 1 
vivals of luitiquity which remain in it, 1 
is called from its method 'duodecii: 
But it is now rarely used. 

lialio and /Tc/iortwn*. — The rati 
3/. to 51. expresses the relative greatnen 
of 31. with reganl to 5^,, and this raito if 
represented by writing the finction }, and 
therefore ratios cjui be compered by con* 
paring the fractions which represent then, 
PropOTtion consists in the e<|Uality of twq 
ratios. We can state it tJiUS— -3 : 9 :T 
& : 1&. The tnith of this can always 1)4 



multiplying the two t^xtreinea 
wo tneaiis, vliicli must be equal, 
15 = 9 X S. (AV Kaestiier, Ge- 
tr3tatht»\atik ; Peacock's ' History 
untie' ID the StKyclopetdia Mt- 
M ; and n ptiprr on ' Approximate 
ac'riauihy Mr,(). lleppel, M.A., 
|]c^<^ of Prrcnptors, and printed in 
atumal Timaa for Octolwr 1.SR7.) 
l/ oritAmttie. — Although, upart 
employment of anthmrticnl mn' 
tay problRni in arit.hnn'tie must 
ylie performed hythdtnlnd, it is 
lu on-lain liniilx that the opcrsi- 
clusivtly uientiil. In moxt cftMM 
BTj is iiol powerful irnou^ to 
irith Hie aid of writinji. Thcrf 
er, a lar;^' cla^ of arithnirticiil 
I and those not of Uie siinplfst 
oonneeti^d espt'cially willi llir 
.rtnients of inidu and oom- 
id) may with proper training and 
ioe be solved by tlie mind 
lOdt the aasistancp of pt^ii ilikI 
and pencil. This soi^lled 
ilhmrtio is an art of siiL'h wide 
■t it has long formed an iuipor- 
ich of ■rithmotical teach in;; in 
J and secondary schools. Kvitn 
nJs of ordinary ability are, when 
inght, copahlc of attaiiiiog a re- 
It^mc of prodciency in this prao- 
ch of arit.htiH'tic, and a boy thus 
II, on leaving school, commence 
,i(h'rnh!n Advantage over youths 
b train ing. 

id progn'SR in mental nrithmotic 

grounding in the first and 

Rwntx of the Bcicncp is indis' 

TTu- tf-twhiT, for instance, who 

oountn rKoommrndfid by Pro- 

Hor^ti in training scholars 

^ count baclcwnrdg and forwards, 

tiia pupils forwnrd with far 

llian oni' who fnilN to pursue 

De Morgan, in tact, strongly 

studont of arithmetic to 

prnctice of ooanting nnthmc- 

Iik« the following until they 

'e«tly familiar ana (un Ih; run 

lechiiDicully witii the gmit.<^ 

In the Appi-udix to his Ariih- 

11 (Tiilcrii fully intn this siib- 

ra who havriirviTat,t''nipt(^d 

are n«.'ommrndrd to Iw-gin i\w 

Id tJic form of !tirau!tiLn<H>us 

witli young pupils in classes. 

.p of aerie* m as follows : 


2, 4,6,8,10, [2, 11,*^. . 
3,6,9,12, IMS, 21, Ac. 
4,8,12, 16, 20, 21, 28, Ac. 

B, 10, 1.^, 20, 2.'!., 30, A5, Ac. 

C, 12, rs, 2^, 30. »6, -(2,Acf 

7, U, 21, 28, as. 42, 19, *c. 

8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 66, Ac. 

9, 18, 27, 36, 45, fi4, 63, Ac/ 

The !ll^ri(« nhove giv<m nil begin at xero, 
but tbd initial numlxr should ho varied, 
and othur equally useful serits will result. 
, ThuH, with lh(! common diHi-rencr 2, we 
1 have tliti uilditiotiul Hcrimt : 
I 1. »,6, 7. 9, 11, 13, Ac 

With tlio common difference 3, fn get 
two additional series : 

1,4,7, 10, 13, IG, 19, Ac. 

I With the couunoa dilTeretice 4, we bavo 
three additionul series : 

1, a, 9, I.J, 17, 21,25, Ac. 

2.6. 10. 14, 18, 22, 26, Ac 

3.7. 11,15, 19,23, 27, Ac. 

' With tlie common difference 5 wre havo 
four additional series ; with commou dif- 
ference we Imve five more series, and so 
fortli. Tlipse tHirieH sliould b(? oountiKi 
both forward and backwurd. ChildiTn 
thus trained in counting ntpidly ubUiin 
complete mu^lei-y over the more couipli- 
cated operations of arillimetic. For the 
series tliey thus learn to count really cou- 
tniiUB or involves all the four siniple I'uJea 
of arithmetic. Counting forwnrfls is simple 
arldition, and counting backwards suit- 
traction, while the progress by common 
diffcrpneos makes tho soncs only .i multi- 
plication table writt"*!! out in full, and will 
obviously facilitate tlin lenniing of that 
trtble and of the reverse process of division. 
McntJil arithmetic, in the narrower 
iiirnsti of tho term, is a pmctical art. It 
consists of a body of ■mtr.' for tho rapid 
working (without tlie aid of writing) of 
problems involving chiRlly tJie ordinary 
weights and Rieasurea and divisions of 
money. As thi-sp ai-p idl purely conven- 
tionnl, theit! is no problem involving tliem 
that null lie worked mentjdly, exci-pt by 
pupils who have thomnghly cnmniitti-d th« 
tibles to mi-mory. Whpre, aa in Prance, 
smrli tiibles nni tlirougliinit on the d'-<Amal 
ryuUni, the Ktrures givi- tlic pupil no ti-ouble 
to li-arn. He knows theiu an soon as ha 
has li-urnt the common multiplication ta,ble 
up to 10 tinM>s 10, and tlwtre in wjUvin^ 


furtLerwli stiver of a norocrical nnlilif to 
team in (Ifcimrtl weights und fnciisiin-K 
Pxccpt. mcrn iiHnii^, Among tlif^ Onnt.i- 
IWintnl iiHtioiis, tlicmforp, mental iiritli- 
Ririir i> iiicMim|uirul)ly nuinr tliitn with 
Giiglislitui'ii. Our talitc'S irf wi-iglits ami 
in«uiurc'.i iin- nii iiii,icliri>niMn. t.V)ni]>nrfd 

witli the dirfiiiiaj Uil>l(^i, llic Rnj,'liBji weiglitB 
Olid irn-iiaures Jire as cluiimy, uri]>liilwii>- 
phicul, niiU uii^cieiitilk as b tbe Itonmii 
KvaU'iu of notitiou cbmpiired witli llie 
Arabic. Tliey ii^coBsitiite an i^iiuriuoua 
ainouiitofoUierwise absolutely uiiu^ceasary 
Ubour, aod multiply tiie ditRculties of 
mental and or<linnry»ritlm)etic a liuiiiired- 
foid. Under the decimal syst*m there are 
no conipoiind rules of nrithmetic, whether 
perfomnKinii'titrtliyoriii writing. Thcruks 
of inontiil rtrithnii^tio in Rnglish schools nrp 
coll seqti'-ntlyriiorniou sly mori? roinpIicnt<'d 
thnri III mciMt ('ontinrMitnl schnxls. litit 
the siinplr? fiict thnt our weigh tJi niid 
mc-nsun-K arc »ci mniplex renders the iirt 
of mttiital arithmetii- aa nmcli niorr- iinjHir 
tiiitt and useful wilJi us with r>ur 
iiei;-hbuui'B. The mon; unpractitvil our 
divisions of money, time, spiiee. weiglit, or 
of solid or liquid eapaeity, the more urgi^it 
the necef*ity of teaching mental arith- 
metic, and tlie jfreater the pradicul utility 
of the art, 

Anny SohoolB. Sw Edtication ( Abmv). 

Arodt. E. M. {b. at SehoritK, Tsle of 
Riigen, 17C9, rf. 1800).— In ITS" he went 
to the gymna«uni at Straslund. Here he 
studied two years, Aud then proceeded to 
the UDiverslty of Greifswald, and after- 
wnrdK to J«nR, where he was a pupil of 
Ficht<'. Aft/T tnivelliiig fora coDsidemble 
perioiJ, he iirtlled fit Dreifswald U erioctf- 
doamt in IsOO. There bo was made pro- 
fessor extrnordinnry in 1803. Ity his 
wrilinpl hi! prohalily ahnlinhcrl serfdom, 
&lul ruuseil hii <Tnuntry tin shnke off the 
yoke of JiajMihrnn hy his patriotic paniph' 
leta and songs. Aft<T tlprmnny was free, 
he was made prnfrKSor at llonn, but ho 
d^maiided Mirh Imld rr'f'>rms of the consti- 
tuUoD tlial he otli'nded the iJict, ftnd was 
deprived of his fhiiir, though he retniiird 
hi> salary. Ilf puKEed twenty years in 
retirement, and itevot^Ml himself to litera- 
ture. In 1840 Ii(! was reinittated ns pro- 
fMsor at Bonn, and in 1641 was mode 
rector of the univrrsity. 

Arnold, Thom&l, DD , mnde n great 
reputation ik u tnieher by the Kuccess 
with which for ti»: Li»t fourtivn ynuv of 

his life he discliiirgi'd the duties of h« 
niiisliTof ihe great public school o( Rugl] 
Arnohl wns the itoii of a oillector of i 
toms at Wi'st Cowe«, Isle of Wight, wIm 
he wna bom on June 13, liSS. 
his fiithiT while still a child, he rcorh 
a careful preparatory educJition from 
moUier and aunt, and aft*r spending fa 
Wiltshire, entered thepuhlicsthooJ of Wa 
Chester, where he r^'mained from 1S07 
1 8 1 1 , under the aucccHsi ve bpad-mi».st«r« r 
Goddaitl and Dr. Gabell, nf wlioni be»p 
with gratitude ns excellent teuehi'm. 
ISll heliPcameftBtudent inOorpusCIir 
College, Oxford, lie wiis eleut*-d Fe 
of Oriel in ISlTi.andwon the CltaDiM^U 
prise for a Iwitin .tnd an English euuiyj 
1815 and 1H17. At this period Tbl 
dides— whose hi-storj' of UiePelopoane 
War he at u later period edited with valu- ' 
able notes and commentary — Ariatotl^ , 
and Heiiidolus were hia favourite authorB;i 
but his studies embracetl not oijy cbissic* 
and history, but uii eai-nest investig:itioD 
of the Christian Scriptuies, and the gre»t 
priiiciplcrs of reli;;iuii and philosophy M 
their application to daily life, l^ntorii^, 
on tliese probleiuH, somewhnt unsettled iS' 
his opinions, Arnold, who was constant|j 
discussing them with his contemporaries 
at college, including men like Kehk-, 
Whiitely, Cojilestoii, DaWson, and Hamp- 
den, endtid by becoming thoroughly ira- ■ 
liued with the Cliristiau spirit, convinced 
that the noblest life was to be found in 
tlie Cliristiau ideal--in the endeavour to 
live in the spirit of Christ Itwiu to tka 
fact that he was himself profoundly iH-ne- . 
trate<l with the religious Hpint that liiii 
success as a teacher wns due. Havitic. 
taken deacon's orders in 1HI8, ho srttlea 
in 1S19 at Lalehani, nejir Stjiinrs, what 
he was for some time cliiefiy rngaged in] 
preparing young men for the univiTsity. 
After ten years spent in t«achiiig, ocia- 
' sional preaching, persevi-ring studv, and 
! the maturing of liis own cliarttcter, h« waa. 
at length elected t/> the hiiul-niasteiJily| 
of Kughy School, and entered upon tBfe 
duties of his post in August li^!28. In 
one of the te-stimoiiiula gireli to AmoM 
on becoming n ciindidatf for this poMitniv 
the writer used the prophetic words ; ' \t 
Iklr. Arnold is (^lecte<l he will cluing« thd 
, face of rducAtion through lUl the puUla 
I schools of England ' — -a. prediction qulU 
IjuKtifird by the issue. Arnold's distino- 



klbr I 


ft* It teadi«r wm uol that he iiiveutMl : 
n«w form of iliscipline. HU KUcci-xs 
vholly due to hia onii <.-iiri)i?nt ciidt'a- | 
' toHpplj' Itie prinriplea of Climliiiuity 
In lif(< in the school itB well na out til it. 
mere f»ct of hisowngenuiiiedevotioii 
iristinn principle hii.d nil irresistiljle 
■nee witti the lioys under hie care ; 
jmidliilitj- of his heArt, the justiee of 
!ii); dejilingE with t.lieiu. t)ie transpfti-ent 
l>3oiitt5 of his ovfn churacter, made liiin nt 
(Cif lovi^ nnd fejirre!. His method luny 
t» illii*trut«(l hy tile wny in wllich he 
tnintil boys to truthfiilnesK. In the 
itsW form* uf tin- stchotil, if n hoy, in 
njjyina to a qucMion on «onic point of 
niiirlai-i, una ii'>l iiiti.itic-il winply tci givi^ 
I r*ply, bul attirniptul to supjiort it by 
•tat«inents, Aninld «t onoe slopp-d 
«illi the a-oi-dii, ' If you mty so, thiit in 
qnt« euoQ-jlL Of uoursi" I bclicvt.- yciur 
■ord.' The feeling jit once givw up in 
tlw school that it was diagi'oi'eful to tell 
the hmd-m&ster a lie. and thus irutbful- 
ttm becatiHi hnbitual. In tliiH and oUier 
myt Arnold gained a eiwnplet*' iiiasteiy 
ta dirpctine the public opinion of the 
■ImoI— «IM tlivrc is no more powerful aid 
l»diacip)in«, no more edective instruuient 
for controlling a company of buys -.m well 
■ tbr society of men at larj^e. thuii publii; 
apDMO, or the general standard of monil 
(WDct. Arnold could act with aovei-ity 
•hrre h<- found it necessary. Once he 
Bade ui nntmpic of several boys hy wt- 
■cBing them from the school for gross 
■ncfan of truthfulness a.nd order, and, 
in doing no, Ii« said, ' It is twt necessary 
ilttt thin Khould he a school of three hun- 
inA,oS onnhundmd, or ©renof fifty lioys. 
It u DKTsian- that it stionld 1h> a nehool 
rf dmtian gi-ntlemcn.' In June IH42 
Arnold w«s luddrnly riit short hy an 
Itftek of aagina pr.<'t<trit nt thf early age 
i(4T. B»«ide» his lalioiir* in th^ scliool 
Anokl waa a pmlifio writt^r. In nddition 
m cditioa of Thucydidnt, he wrote a 
of Romn,' in thrw volumes, a 
Insed on (ht- thi'ii popular scppticyil 
of Ntt-buhr. Re ako pulilishwl 
Btq roluinn of avnnonti, and contrihiit^^ 
nomerottt articled to the i'iipyi;!cipirdiii», 
TOrinr*, and periodical.-! of thti day. In 
IMJ he was mppoinlwl by Ix>rd MpI- 
hosme to ibt? ProfMSorahtp of Mo<)i'ni 
Bistoify in tlie tlniwrMty of Oxford. He 
ofcly lived to deliver one ahort course of 
iKtiires, wliioh were Bttended by numer- 

ous audinnca, and went ]>ubliKlie«l after 
Arnold's dttitli. 

Art Ednoation. .S'cc Mbxurtic Cul- 


Art (Schools of). Ste Scibxoe ksa 
Art Dkpartmest. 

Arts (Liberal). —Art is derived from 
the same riwt as nrn, to plough, because 
ploughing was the first art (Max Muller); 
or more comuioidy finm a root nr, meaa- 
icg to fit things together, in itself it is 
9, wide term often usod to denote every- 
thing not a direct product of nature, and 
in tbi« sense we speak of natural and art. 
In n \anTv restrlctrid sanse it is opposed to 
Kcience on the one hand, and to manufftc- 
turn; on the otlier. Its inenniiig is made 
fairly clear in the old definition thivt 
'Scienccis tokiiow tJiat I muy know ; Art 
i.-t to know thiit I may teai^h.' There is a 
more limited sense still, iiifludlng a group 
of ai-ts, whuseend is not use but pleasure. 
Thesp are tailed the line, the liljeral, or 
the polite arts — 'libei-al ' here meaning 
only Buch as the leisured classes (freenien 
ax opposed to slaves) could follow. These 
are sometimes spoken of as art, ils if they 
only wete the arts. By common consent 
the five principal fine flrts are— architeo- 
ture, sculpture, palnliiig, mosic, poetry. 


Aschaitl, Roger, h. ISlfi.— One of the 

euriiest of English educational reformers, 
whose claim to that distinction is estab- 
lished hy th<i new method ()f teaching he 
unfolded in bis cplebrat^'d ,Sc!ii>le7iuuit«f 
published in 1570, two years after his 
death. Tliis work, in the opinion of Dr. 
J ohnson, ' contains pdrhaps the best advice 
tJiat was ever given for the study of lan- 
guages.' Ascham (idvoc;u.t<-s the adoption 
of thii natui-ul in preference t*i aU artificial 
methods, and maintains that the dead 
Inngnages must, like mother tongue, 'lie 
gotten, and gotten only by imitation. For 
as ye used to hear, so ye used to siMiak.' 
lie expresses his willingness to venture a 
good wagi-r that an a|>t schotur who will 
translate some Utile liook in Tully on the 
frequent repetition method, will in a very 
short time tcarn more latin ' than the most 
part do that sjiend from five U> nix years 
in tossing uU the rules of grammar in 
common schools.' Like Locke, Aschani 
Etpoke from successful experience as a pri- 
vatr tutor, and he tells us that his illus- 
trious pupil Queen ElntHbeth. ' who never 
took yet Gre<ek nor Latin graiTam&T tnWc 






band nflor thr In-il ilccliiiing of ii noun 
:iTid a vrli, liut Dniy hy thiii doulilc tranii- 
tatingnf l)ftii>Htl]init%i&n(l IsutirattM diuly, 
without missing, fvi-ry foreiioim, anil like- 
wiiM^ wiint-' [iiirt «( Tullj- nvcry afliTinHni. 
for the .i[Hici- of iiyi-'ar or two, hiitli alliijiied 
to sucti u pLTfcL't uridt^rstaDdiuK lu Uoth 
tlin twnjruE*,' as lo be a more remarkable 
n\inii|)lt of tlif iioijui^itioii of great learning 
iitid uttt-raiit-'ea tliuii even Dion PrU3s»us, 
wlioin Aiiuliaiu iii«t.tuoe8 na having accom- 
pliahed tliis feat with ihoagsistAuccof only 
two books, the i'/i«do of Plato and tlio 
(ie Falm Legation' of DoiiKwthcnr«. Kogor 
Axcham was a natiro ptxxJuct of tliP now 
learning of the si\tn«inth century which 
mai'ked the decline of monkiKh Ijitin and 
the rise of a more li>>eral KcholurKliiji with 
the introduction of <Ji-«'k into thenahool 
curricultiiii. AKclinm jmlilii^ly ri-ud fJreek 
at Cn,mhi-i(!j(e in ITiSfi, pulilishi^ To3Xi- 
philtif., the. Hfholfi of S/tooiiiiyf, 1545, and 
was Latin aeeretiiry t" Edward V I., Mary, 
and EliatU-tli. Fur U'n years prerious to 
the accession of Eliiiabetll he wan her 

Assimilation. S«e Disciiimisatiow. 

Association of Idou.— This expression 
refers to the weil'kriown laws which govern 
tlip suoceHsidn of our thoughts. Whenever 
one tiling reiuiuds as of Htiulher. this pro- 
cfSK of suggestion is due to a law of aeso- 
ciution. Tlio iirHt and principal one, ksowu 
iiB Contiguity, tells us that ideas recur to 
tlir mind in tlie order in wliich the original 
obi(M!l« and impressions pi'esont«d them- 
•wives. Ill this way we associate events 
that occur together or in immediate suc- 
cession, as the movement and sound of n 
l>el], objects and events with places, one 
place with another, and iii> forth. All ac- 
quisition of knowlivlge, whether liy direct 
obMrvatii>ii or through the uiedium of 
inatruction, invnlvts the building up of a 
group of such nssoeiations. Tlius, a child's 
Knowledge of a particular animal includes 
anociatioiiK between tin* several charac- 
teristic feiiture-s, l>etwci-n the animal as a 
whole, and its proper suiTOundings, its 
hftbitc of life, >te. In studring geography 
and history, vomplex naxuciatiotia of plu«o 
And tjmo have to be built uji. Since, more- 
over, all verbal ncquisitioii iin[i!ies the 
working of thitt law, bulh in the couplitig 
of nami* witli tilings and in the connec- 
tion of wordii in a given order, it is evident 
that the whole pruuesii of learning is oon- 
verned to n large UKteiit witli the fixing of 

uMOL-ijitions in tlie roiud. In additioa U| 
the law of Contiguity, it ts oustomary h| 
s|n*ify two other principles governing iht 
succi-tsion of our ideas, viz. Similarity aij 
CoutriLSl. It Is a matter of com! 
observation thai natural objects, per 
words, ttc, often recall similar ones to i 
mind. Ueie, however, it is evident 
the connection ia not duf to the fact ihatl 
the things were originally presented in thai 
order, but rather to the action of the mir ' 
in bringing together what is similar, 
law has an important bearing on tho | 
cess of acquisition iq.v.). By dix 
points of resemblance betwi^ai new 
and facts already known, we are 
greatly to ehoi'ten the task of Icnrn 
as is seen in the rapidity with whicb 
accomplished linguist masters a new 
guuge.. All assimilation of new knowie 
evidently involves the working of 
principle, since il proceeds by joiniii_ 
tlie new aci^uisitioti to old ones whiokl 
seen to have sunn? analogy or sSiuil: 
the firet. The law of ContrMt, whidtl 
that one idi-a tends to call up itsopp 
as good, bad, Beeins to be by no _ 
univei-sal in its action, and is not a prii 
ciple co-ordinate in independenoe and dig- 
nity with the other two. So Ear as it i> 
valid, it represents a tendenoy ot tliouglA 
which springs out of the essential oondh 
tions of our knowledge ot tliiuga. W4 
begin to know common objects by distin^ 
guistiing one thing from another, and tb< 
broader differences or contrasts alD{M| 
things are among the first to impreas tht 
cliildish mind. In this way a child learnl 
to think of opposltes together, as sweal 
sour, good naughty. The well-known fl' 
feet of contnist on the feelings renders il 
a valuable instrument for giving gtwUt 
vividnesB to unpreadcna, and so stamping 
iliem more deepl; on tbe mind. The cdh 
ti'nsts of climate, scenery, social condition) 
and so forth, ai'e a great aid in the loora 
descriptive and pictorial trontmMit of geo- 
graphy and history. (For a foUer expo- 
sition of the laws of association tr-t ItaiBi 
Jf'tifal. and Moral Sciciu-.e, bk. ii. chap. 
L-iiL ; Sully, TctKlutr* Handbook, chap, 
ix. ; and Spencer's i'rineipif* of /'vyeAfi- 
toffy, i. 228. 

Association for £xt«niion of Featab 
Teaching, A'ee Koucatios of Girls. 

Astroaomy {ntrrpov, u star, and iihio^ 
a law) is the science of the hisivculy loaiM. 
It does not form an ndeijuate part of tlie 




o€ gcuenl instruction io lliia oouii- 
J, (JM>uf;)> soiae at tlie eletuentury [isii-ts 
ini-Iuded in the bifjiior 8Mii<lfird6 of 
\te EduL'iitioui*] Code. Yel it is » aubjeicl 
vKU be m&d« highly intt-rcsting to 
IdUrea, and r^juiivs litllo esppnditun?' 
the vay of Apparatus. Eveiy child can 
bfougbt to ob»cn-o lliat the hcifivsoly 
od>M appenr to dkitp fmrti out to wrst 
mund thp enrtU, nnd caii thoncci lie Ir-d 
ooocludc- thnt thr r»rtli robttcx fmm 
to rast. I'hrn thi-y cnn bn iMUiily 
BlfTOrt ed in ttnticing tlirtt rnndt of th« 
ily hndiuK kntp tli<:ir rclAtivi- )M»i- 
tirms witti r<-9ip<«t to ^Ukch othi'-r, hut tlint 
do not, viz. till- sun, tinKtn, »iid 
Huw ]il«aJtL>d are <<hilitn.-» wbeii 
b^ out poant out uuy of tlie uuiutteJlii- 
tiooB, lut Orioo or tlie Graut Beur, or luiy 
nuHu-luiUe >tur, us lli« Pule Stur. By 
rinvinff tlieir «tl«iitjuu to Venus — now 
minx before (he sun us the moniin^ star, 
now settinj! iift«r it as the eveuiii^ st^r, 
i;ndually uio^do^' until a short distance 
(nut it, th«n EAsndin^ still, then <ir»wing 
mttumr — thpy can be shown thnt Venus 
Bwl iiMKt probnbly bo moving around tli*^ 
ton at a l^ss distance from it thiTi wo tire. 
Again, from (ho apparent motion of iho 
uaoogsl tJie stars the real motion of 
fte earth around the sun can be made 
knovtu Tliis will lead to a genaral d«- 
(rription of the solar sTst«ra. Then tlio 
oirtii can be more particwjarly dpnit with 

K lobular shape deiuonstrnted, its tne- 
I and other lines explftuiMl, Uie ine- 
of denoting the positions of placi^s 
In latitude and longitudo mndi; known — 
ts «bU ns the way to <l(^t<^riiiin<! ita di- 
MnaoM by mtwsuring a small piirt of u. 
tttntiiM). AftcTwnrds iJic plionomi--iiu of 
4lf and night and of the soaxonH am i-itaily 
\r riplaifuid with tlio help of ii smnll glohi-. 
Unrt int«(««ting is the <>xp1aniit!c>n of tlie 
|h«H of thi- m<K>ii. F.i^lj|uii-K of th<^ nun 
•■d IIMXm should not lie idlowcd to puns 
ntfcovt tli(! attention of thi< ohililri'ti lM.'iiig 
dnwn to thcni nnd their iviuinut being 
Aoim. Tin-lift phi-iioirn-iiji, mny also be 
■sdr of UM- 1<> snow thnt. nil tin- lii-avL-uly 
bodim art! not at thi.- siiihl' ilixtjincv fraui 
n^ and also that the earth uiul iii»u!i aru 
tpfaannl. An fi»r as this only ttiR nukttd 
tj*, pn>t«!tMl at tiinrs by a yuva of co- 
looml f^nai, is n^i^uin-d lor i)bso!rviitiun ; 
i>«t if a tideacoiK! wirre uniotig the aoUool 
tppsratus whulfurther subjects for Oiuught 
vinld be OfWnL-d out to the pupils ! — 

Jupit^i-'s moons, Sattini's ringK, lli« xur- 
fat-e of the moon, the spotaon the sun, the 
ditfe««ut cluBt«i-a of stai-s. All this can 
be made to di-aw out a child's powera of 
observation and to lead him to rlj^lit «0«- 

Natnlical A»tri>nomy is tAuglit to nier- 
chant-Bcamen at sohools and training' alii ps 
at most of the principal ports, and to the 
Itoynl Nftvy at tbr Orcrnwieh .School, on 
bonrd tho ' Britaiiniii,' nn<l ;it the Boyal 
Niivnl (Jollegr. It also forms one of the 
Kuliji-cl.i of cKuintniitidiT hy the Sdenco 
and Art Eteparlim-nt, The pupils aro 
taught to nieusuitr with tlic snxtAnt the 
altiiudes of tht^ hcavi'tily l)0(li<», noting 
tlte tiuius by the uliroHomc-ti-r, nnd from 
the data tlius obtained to wi>rk out thr 
liiLitude aud longitude of llie pliwc of oli- 
HiTv'atiou. Ill Kiighiiid lectunrH on ifa- 
t/ieniatii}til Avln/nomi/ are delivi-red at 
the universities, and there are observat4>- 
ries wjiere the students may learn to use 
thp difl'crcnt instruments; but the num- 
bers making use of these opportunities ai* 
very few. (n the universities. coUeigw, 
and high schools of the United States, 
hown-er, this advanced study is very 

Athemeom. — The name given to « 
temple lit Athens deflicat«d to Atbeiui. 
In it poets and scholars were accustomed 
to nipet and read their productions, l^sed 
in the present day to designate a scientific 
jissodtttion, or Iht? building where such 
an association oicpt-s. A school nf higher 
grade ill Holland and Belgium is called 
an Atlienteum. 

Athenian Edocation.— From times bo- 
yoiid the records oE history, the first im- 
pressions of Atlieuiiiu uhildn-n must hav^ 
Ijeen derived from tlie t«les ami savings of 
their uiothers, nurses, and other attend- 
jintB. ' Know you iiol,'sH,y8 Socrates in thm 
Septtblie at Plato, 'that lirst of all wo 
teach cliildreu fables I ' In particular, tlm 
bu^s of their moral and religious feelings 
must have been strongly laid by the narra- 
tion of legends regarding the marvellous 
actiotiB of gods and demigods ; and these 
were handed on from generation to gene- 
mtion, not least efieetively in the shupe of 
balhids. Plato, in the orguuiaatiuu of liis 
model Republic, was much cunccrned thai 
there should be a safe selection of such 
educational instruments in tlic plastic days 
of early youth. ' First of all then, as it 
etiems, we must exercise cont.rQ\ o\ei; XJaft 




{»1)Ie-ninV<T)i ; nnd whiitcvcr Itratitiful fa- 
ble they nisy invent wt- slmuM solficit, mid 
wHat is not HI) w(' .ihtiiilJ ri'j.Tot ; iind w« 
aro to prfviiil iin imni's nnd tiiotlinrsi to 
npeat to the uliildren Kudi fitblcn fui nro 
eelectecl, and Eiuhiun tli(>tr inind.i hy th« 
fn!.lf-i mucli inon' thuii thfir boditw Ly 
tlirir liimdn. Bui llie ftreutpr iiuniber o£ 
tlic fatiloji t)ii!y now tell th<Ma uiuat be nint 
nxitii'.' Homer luid Hesi<*d. und tlie other 
poi.-t«, would tlierefore reijuire to lie jie- 
VMwIy i>x])ui'Kit«d. Plutivrch, also, was in 
Cftvuur uf restrainmg nu.n;i>s from teliinj;' 
diildtvn tallies indiscriininat^ly, on ac' 
ouuiit of the ruinoiiR moral <>tlbctM. AHs- 
toUe would pUce then matters under the 
supervidion of the Pjrdononii, or magjin- 
trates who exercised «. certain siiporini*!n' 
deuce over the odiicntion of youth. Thp 
fftUea of JV^np ivppfjir to have stood 
higjmt in popiilnr c'stcftn. jEsop wns a 
contemporiiry of Solon, and Hvod nlmut 
570 II.C, Ity tint iHienin;; of the fourth 
century lii't'orc the UliriHtijui era — a date 
rendered eviT inemorable by the death of 
8oer.»tes — there HeeiHB to huve been widely 
dilfuscil over the Grecian world a t-ertjiin 
nniuuiit of eleinentiiry education, At what 
nge children commenced going to school 
Vif: nrn not detlnit«ly informed ; Fliito 
nnd Aristotle a|;ree that there was [lO good 
in ntt*'mpting formal mental instruction 
before the iige of five. At the end of the 
si«th ywir, hoys and giils were separated. 
Tho children were conducted to school, to 
thi- gyinniLsiuni,and indeed every where out 
of doors, hy a priviite tutor, or pedugo^e 
(jraiSaviuTdi, child-lewder) — a slave usually, 
wliu did not uocessarily possess much 
koowledge or polish, and who generally 
carried the boys' hooks, niiiRir-ii! instru- 
iiients, and other school nt'ccssarics, and 
([ovarned their conduct by the conven- 
tional rules of propriety. At the gym- 
naaiiim. the petiagogiie utti-ndml his pupil 
all the time he remained thi-re ; but it is 
hardly probable that he stayed in like man- 
ner at school during school hours. In- 
deed, alH>ut tlic middle of the fourth cr-n- 
taiy B.C. there w«s a law forbidding persona 
over school age (exce]>t the son, or daugh- 
ter, or son-in-law of the snhonl master) 
to enter the school during schotd hours, 
on pain of death ; but thi» law appears 
to have been alirogntnl soon nft«rwardE, 
When ft youth ente-n>d on his wventeenth 
year, tlie occupation of htn pedagogue was 
gone. The literary i^ucation of youth 

wits in no way controlled 1>y tlitt 81 
but dejiriidivl on the i^pinion and dii 
miiiiition of the parents * Did n<>t 
Uw* t>nact«d oil thin point,' askn 
crates in the Critti, 'enjoin rightly, inl 
(|uiring your father to iiutruot yoo 
music atid gymnastic sxerobeal' ~ 
these laws seem to bare been prwit 
in .-iheyance. Public iustitutioiia, 
tallied at the expense of the Stat<^ do I 
apjiear to have been founded till a Utei 
riod ; and although Plato talks of app 
ing teachers, to be paid at the public i 
this was only his own speculation, to wk 
there was no corresponding actuality 
long afterwards. Still, the idea of 
cation stronglv commended itself to 
public mind. 1'he total neglect of the • 
cation of one's children was exceptic 
and disapproved ; Plutarch relates 
the people of Tra-ien not only enp[i 
Athenian fugitives, women and child 
at the time of tlie Persian invasion, I 
also paid teachers for tlie children ; 
.i^liati tells us that the Mityleii: 
thought they inlltcled the severmt 
Htble penalty on tlieir revolted allies i 
they prohibited the education of 
children. But there was no real St 
intervention to secure a goml quality i 
education. Tlie ttwchers followed the [ 
fession, not because thoy were specially ' 
([uatiiied, but because it offered a fairly 
ready means of liveliliood : and the Pmio- 
nomi limited their superintendence to tts i 
administration of certain laws respecttnfl 
morality, Tlie profession of elemcntaijT 
schoolmaster, indeed, was not in high it- 
pute. 8chool opened early in the morning 
Solon enaeted that the schools diould not 
open before sunrise, and should close' befon 
sunset. Tliere was certainly an aftemaOB 
meeting. The gnuit branches of instme- 
tion were^yromm<i(M (ypa/ijuam), mod' 
wAr (/loutriK^), giimnagtikf (yi'/tpnirrixf) ; 
Aristotle gives a fourth, ijraphike [ypa^ue^ 
drawing or painting), rpaji/iora may 1m 
taken as including reading, writing, and 
arithmetic. In reading, the pupils were 
lirst exercised on syllables, tlien on tlw 
component parts of the sentence, alter 
which they commenced re.ading, properly 
so called. In writing, copies were aet by 
the teachers. In arithmetic, the fingm 
were freely employed, or apples or coun- 
ters were used for concrete pTMentatran. 
When the pupils were able to mul witk 
facility and intelligftnoe, they vere intro- 



need to tbe works of Ui« poets, utd 
musitted to uMuiury sck^cted pftsngea 
od even vhole immiu. Hw putfins of 
lomer, in punicuLr, were read iiwl irea- 
ond in toomxy, u ooDUiniii^ worthj 
antioKDts and gnac examples, sud m 
M]eitl»t«d t« rouse th« energies of youth 
ad d«t«nnio<i them to noble purposes. 
Usstadf of Homer w«s long coDttnued 
later titiM-Jii. — Mosic waa coaunenced 
-, about tbo tiiirt4<enth year. It was 
a ootnpulwrjr portion of IJki instruction 
rfyotitli (thcfttwaa nosuch thing as com- 
«uory instruotion of any sort), nor vtm 
I even rv^rded aa cwntial, but it was 
EOttsdered to bu a iioblo and libera] occu- 
Mlioci for leisure inomenta. 8a says Ari- 
Otle. Orot«, in (le9cribin« tlie training of 
i^indnopdas {ifuL ^Gtveee, ch. Ixvii.), 
jfB : 'He also learned muaiu, vooid and 
HtnmMnlal, aud <lauviuj{ ; by whioli in 
bow days was uteaut, tiot simply the 
ower of striking the lyre or blawiug llie 
iate, but all that belonged to the grace- 
il, exprcssire, and emphatic uauagement 
ittwr of Che voice or of tlie body ; rhyth- 
nesJ prononcialion exercised by repeti- 
ioa of tho poets — and disciplined more- 
Kfits, for taking part in a clioric festival 
rith becoming consonance amidst a crowd 
(citiaefi performers. Of such gymnastic 
dd manol training; the combination of 
>Udt ooiutituted an accomplished Grecian 
itiMn, the former predominated at Tliebes, 
he Utter at Athens. Moreover, at Thebes, 
hs mnsica] tiaining was based mora upon 
be flute ; at Athirns, more upon the 
yn, which admitted of vocal accompani- 
best by the player.' The lyreand citham. 
-therv can have been but little diSerence 
Mween thnni — vrtrro indeed the only in- 
■trunentjt thought proper for a frvs citizen 
of Athena Tin; tlute. although at one time 
t gnat farouritj;, wus at length given up 
l^ Alhma, partly becaum; it di.^to^tod the 
iMnnai, partly bocauati it prccludtKl the 
hyo'a own vocal aocompanimRnL — The 
■noaesof the Gt/mjianum, (ij.v.) for the 
Isnlopiueotand streD;;thciitnj|:ot' the body 

wan to prepare thetr pn[Hls for raeeeai ia 
public alTuir*, partictuarly by exercisea oo 
the more una] oommonpUoes of practical 
life, aod by sharpeniug tJie oratorical .itid 
diftlectio skill of the yevag men ; socue of 
tliem also taught tuathematics jumI astro- 
nomy, as well as philosophy aod 
There liM been hot controversy over 
character and conduct of the Sophists. 
Oro4«'a view may be accepted as moM to 
accordance with tJw «videoc«. IlMOdioiM 
pari of the oonuotatioQ of the term 'S» 
phist ' was stamped upon it by Plato, who, 
like Socrates, had a vehement repugnance , 
against receiving pay for teaching. There j 
is really no proof that any of the n^putable 
Sopliists wore 'peculiarly ji^rcedy, exorbi- 
tant, and truckling,' or lliat, a« Plato has 
been iQixinterpretnl to couv(>y, tlii^y ' poi- 
soned and deiuonilised, by corrupt twich- 
iug, tlie AUiPuian moral charaeler.' Tlio 
iliffereitoe of attitude of Plato and the 
Sophists must be carefully observed : 
Plato was a great and systematic lAeo- 
ritt ; the Sophiste were man of wide 
knowledge, great intellectual force, and 
impoaing personality, who directed thetr 
professional energies to the practical enli 
of qualifying young men ' to think, speak, 
and act,' with effect. —There were no ^irl^ 
tehooU at Athens. The eilu cation and 
culture of the female sex was not provided 
for by law ; it was left to custom and to 
the personal notions of the lioustibold and 
tho family. Uirls picked up whatever in- 
struction they received from their mothcn 
and from tlie womi^n -servants. The sub- 
jects were, for the most part, of purely 
feminine concern — spinning, weaving, sew- 
ing, and the like ; in the better households 
also reading and writi:ig. The duties of 
religion, with the popular beliefs respect- 
ing tliegods, and the general rules of proper 
and becoming behaviour would be incul- 
cated as opportunity offiTed. About fifteen 
the Athenian girl usually got married, and 
might obtain furttier instruction, in an 
incidental wuv. fruui her husband, ir she 
might not. He would take her to see 

•we I^tulsrly entered upon at the ago of I trageily at tlie theatre ; he would, ahuost 

■xlKU3,aiul eontinuedtill tuj;hteen. Ad- 
duced iuslnicliun, beginning at eighti^en 
W twenty, was given by tJio Rhetors and 
S(fbista._/0r />ay, iu<wtly to the sons of the 
•odthier citiatos : Socratei alone taught 
tlwstibetsand the laarket- place with all 
4actKdtodi»cuHs witli hiui, andicif/iout 
"■Wi/. Kie special object of the 8o]>liistii 

c<?rtaiuty, not permit her to see a comedy 

Athletics, — According to Herodotus 
the Lydiaus believed tliut their ancestors 
invented games and pastimes during a 
tttiuiue to divert their minds from tlie 
iiangs of hunger they suffered in their 
bodies. This ingenious t.boQt^,\iQ'«ev««,^ 


will hftrdly hr'TifmTntM'si: dnys with 
iiion:- cnylfiic th/in tlip a^crtion Uiiit 
Ca'Sdr'fl siiMicrs taiijjlil the nncii-iit Brilons 
foollwill wlipn thc-y gri-w tired of sJim^lit«r. 
Wliatevci' mivy liavi- hi^-n thpir origin, it 
is an ninlniilit<'(i fiit-t thut gjuiies of skii) 
and cndiinnK!*! huve exercimd a. healthy 
nnd hrRirficl»l influ^nue upuii the human 
mrs-. It in a. much dehnted qii««tioD 
wlicrtlifir too much att«iitiou ia not paid 
to athletic ill our puMic schools in thp 
prpwiit day. Pessimists hold that youth 
i» rohhed of many valudhle hours by 
* play ' which might be with IwttOT 4idviiii- 
tttj-e ilevoi#d to study. Th* trite adnge 
about the ' dull hoy ' is quotiyl as nn nn- 
swer to this arglimrnt hy those who take 
the opposite view and hold with the 
maxim Jferif mnn hi enrpnrn iiiino. The 
best argunient in favour of sports and 
pastiioes as auxiliariea to odui-ution is 
found in the fart that they i-ngeiider in 
the young a spirit of piuulation whicii 
once implanted in the uiind extonds to 
every action of life. The boy whose am- 
bition it is to lie able to ruji a mile in 
less time timn his fellows, to leap a greater 
height or throw a cricket-lmll further 
tliaii any other lad, would also have a 
desire to )>e at the top of his class and to 
show better results at his periodical ex- 
aminations. It will be found, at any rate, 
that tliis is generally the case. Many in- 
stances might be quoted of men who have 
disting^iislied themselves in law, litera- 
ture, science, or art. who in youth were 
known as the foremost in the cricket-field, 
or apt with the ojir. The record of the 
Oxford And Cambridge boat-race bristks 
with such itistjinceii. Apnrt from the 
desirnble spirit of rivnlry fostered, boys 
gain a store of hisiilth which grunts them 
n Inut- of life seldom given to tlic liook- 
worni. Ojien-air sjiort also endows the 
rising generation with inunly indepen- 
di-ncp. tills their minds with a love for 
fair pby. extenninat** petty meunnesaes, 
am) tits llieni to lake their part fearlessly 
in the great. Blru;,'glH of life !at*r on. 
There b no doubt that the element of 
<linger entering into many of our outdoor 
pastimes as played at scliool fosters a 
Kpirit of daring and enterprise in youtli 
which in after years ^ves men the phy- 
tiijve and oourage which have gained for 
ICiiglishmen the proud title of pioneers of 
civilisation. The love of adventure and 
the dogiged determination displayed by 

those who were the first to pusl 
into the trackluss deserts nnd jungloaol 
Africa, or to plumb the fenrfo) secrotA ol 
the North Pole, wi^rc but tite outconx! of 
m/uiy It hard-fought game at acliooL It 
is of course possible lo err on the wrontf 
side even in tjie matter of athletics, ana j 
to push training and exertion too Est ' 
until they become mentally and physicallf | 
harmful. Tliere is often a tendency to ia 
this where tlie master himself has been s 
distinguished athlete. Greater publicitj, , 
too, is now given in the dfiily and weekl* ! 
press to reports of matche-s played at dil- ' 
ferent schools. The anxiety of both prjn- 1 
cipal and boys to figure well in ' print' i 
sometimes leads to n desire to strrtch % ' 
point and to trespass over that faint lis* 
which divides judirioits rvlaxkUon laA 
neglect of study. Wliat may Vm otlM 
tlie regime of sport varies greatly in dif- 
ferent Bcliools. In many cricket and foot- 
ball only ■■xre encouraged sa being Uw 
standard English ganies. wliereaa in otheil 
pedestrianism and athletics pure and sim- 
ple are given premier honours. Since llw 
institution of tlie volunteer movement, 
too, cjidet corps have been established at 
many public schools, audi as Eton, Hsr 
row, Dulwich, Cheltenham, Whitgift, 
Glenalmond, and others, and the formid-. 
able annual parade of juvenile corps an 
Wimbledon Common during the meeting! 
of the National Rifle Association is vrt" 
dence of tlie popularity of this moTeDMOb 
Amateur soldiering has an enormous ttr. 
traction for the boys, and the skilful w»J 
in which they shoot shows that the prac- 
tice of musketry has occupied no inooo- 
siderable portion of their leisure timn 
Volunteering is one of the 1)C« forms ol 
play schoolboys can have, provided c»r< 
be taken to prevent its fostering the mili- 
tary spirit in its objectionable manifest^' 
tions. The drill seta boys up wonderfully 
teaches them how to walk briskly and lip' 
rightly, and gives them notions ii metlMpJ 
and precision which are never forj|;ottaiA 
Furt.her, it furnishes a nurserj' for cituoC 
soldiers who might be calkil upon in tinrt 
of urgent national need, nnd luuinoDeoll 
the objectionable features of the compol' 
Eory systems of Germany. Cricket i» 
cords show a steady increase of skill {I 
tliat noble gnme on tlie part cf school' 
boys. It is the most innocent and bcnflr 
Gcial form of recrrution, and mnnot bl 
too warmly encouraged. Where the fundil 



i, a pmfeaMoml player should b« ' 
ted to teadi the schoolboys. Such ' 
1 o&n b« wgoged at a very iaodemt« ' 
' per w«ek, and a vory good return ' 
l« outlay would he gnined. as the ' 
oroald not only t«ach how to bowl 
mt, bat would kmp the ground in j 
Mid look aftiM" thi> imploments of , 
ftiiu-. SchooU wlicm n professional 
jagMl sliow th(! liiwt results so far iu> ' 
ig in concimiHl, uiid turn out the 
:rioketen. F<M>t(HiH ciumot l>y nny ' 
t be cIosiiMl OH ail innocent gtime. 
ne contrary, it ut full of jiitfalb mid 
tn, especmJly wli(*n {ilayod utider 
rf rolea. KLiny u uuiu liiu hnnu in- 
lor life through foiithuil. It is iiBver- 
tt {^rowing ill pojiulurity, tlip element 
aget teeuuag bo ronunend it in the 
of tbe vigorous youtJi of this ulnud. 
I]!anadian game of lacrosse, which is 
10 well knovD in Great Britain as it 
d be, is OD« of the best and most at- 
ive of outdoor games. It has all the 
mt» of exdtement to bo found in 
■I) inUiont the kicking, while mar- 
is skill and dnxtcrity an? n^]iiircd 
e ptayent. In thfl metropolis und thi: 
h of England Lacrogsi> teams havi? 
formed, and there is little doubt that 
nno of time the game will take a 
root in this country. Tbe TioJont 
sudden exertion re(|iiirorl in foot- 
£ sqMcially for short distnticcs, dors 
ysmit modicnl mt^n to recommend 
putirae, and thi) samn remark will 
r to rowing, which is said to be a 

feK>arco of hnnrt' dispose in nft^r- 
»w scbools, howevt-r, iire favour- 
ttatrvl in tho matter of rivers nr 
, f» that rowing is possible only in 
ostancnL Hwimming (wv, 
ponst (ixercixp of health,' cannot lio 
natly encouragiid. Every tM>y should 
n^t t« swim as Iw' Is taught to write, 
dicre no river pxtsts public biittis eiin 
Sised at a trilling; cost, which iiidudeK 
wrt-ioes of a oaupet«iit teacher. In 
Ion Bowrd sdiooU the recreations of 
ohQdfvn chiefly couHist of drill, or 
li romping in the pliiyf>ruund. In 
r <>f the falatial erections wliieh are 
do:tJ><l iibi>ut in the thickly popu 
districts, the mauaf^ers have erected 
Ibd bora, swiuKS, sjid trapeze ap- 
ron;, and tJiese are always well patro- 
I by tb« chiWren, 
Lttendaoce.— Without r^aUnl^ ot 

attendance satisfactory P<SRHPI impos- 
sible. The thorough maxtetf^^a lesson 
generally depends upon the preceding les- 
son having been learjied : consequi-ntly 
the child who misses tbe llrat is likely to 
be incapnble of benefiting by the fti^cond. 
Nor is the evil confined to the individual, 
for the whole class has to waJt wliile tho 
teacher is helping the pupils who have 
been abnent to overtake the rest. The 
iiiixchief does not end even with loss of 
l■^sso^s or wiislo of time. Education is 
concerned with the formation of good 
habits as well as with the aeijuisition of 
knowledge', and it is iinpossibln for a child 
who is often kept away from school to 
form a habit of regularity— a hnliit not 
oidy valuable in itself, but the foundation 
of many others tha,t are valuable also. The 
chief causes of absence from day schools 
are : alisence from home ; illness ; bad 
weather ; truancy ; poverty, resulting in 
want of boots and clothes ; petty employ- 
ments, such as ' minding baby.' ' taking 
father's dinner,' 'fetching mother's work,' 
Ac. ; the apathy of parents ; their desire 
that their children should be earning some- 
thing. .\m the Inst four causes, pei-liiips the 
last live, operate only in sohoolB (or the 
pool", It is only in such schools tliat irre- 
gularity of attendn,nce is a serious evil. 
How serious it is the tigures furnished by 
the Committee of (.'ounei! show. Tho re- 
port (1B8.5-86) states (hut there were on 
the registers of public elementary schools 
in England tho nnnies of 1,112,148 chil- 
dren, but that the iiveragf? uttendance for 
the year was only .1,U71,3l!-''. Thus the 
ttverngo attondance was only 76*4 of what 
it should be ; in other words, nearly one- 
fourtJi of tliose who ought to he in school 
were permanently absent. 
' Good attendance may be promoted : 
(1) By making school pleasant physically. 
The r(K>ws sljoutd be ckiui, liglitT well 
ventiSuttid, and ^in winter) well warmed. 
Tlie wttUs sliould be bright with pictures 
and the windows with llowers. ('J) By 
I making school pleasant morally. The whole 
tone should be kindly and cheerful. The 
teachers sliould never sliout. or speak 
harshly ; the discipline, though necessarily 
Gnu, should be mild ; and work, thoucli 
1 necessarily sbouhl lie agreeable, 
' (3) By cultivating friendly relations witli 
I the parents and int«resting them in the 
I progress of their children. ' SyieetV ia.'jaj 
bnMl:iiig up parties, priia dVatvtoaticvia, 

and 'puWiatwaitiitifttions' have heprn found 
v«ry useful in this I'usjmct. (4) By sttnd- 
ing iiot*?s tfi, or ri'ijuiring nolcs from, the 
pureiiti in u,U tr.i»fx of iiIkrup'^. Tilts is n, 
very elFutlivi! method of preventing tru- 
ancy, (or it renders iniintidiiLt*! dL-tection 
oertJiiu. \5) By giving rewanls (or good 
atteudunca. (.V«h Rewards and Pusish- 
MENTs.) (C) By a steady, cunstst«ut, and 
discreet use of the power of coupul&ioa. 
{Sff School Boakim.) 

Attention. — This term refers to a spe- 
cial degree of mental activity called forth 
by the Action of somu pnrticular stimulus 
at the morapnt. The state of attention 
thus coil tmiitH with thntof mentnl relnxa- 
tion, in which there is no special (h'rpptinn 
of thn thoughts upon a given ohjri-t. Wc 
iniiy iitfrnrl either tii some external ohjt-ct 
or to soni« intftrniil thought. As ustwi by 
the teopher, the word ' iitu-ntion ' is com- 
monly conliiicd to the former direi^tion of 
mental activity, the liilter being marked 
off by the li^rui "reflectioiL' The aut of 
attention assumes one of two uiilike forma 
according' as the stimulus springs out of 
the object itself or is supplied by the mind 
that attends, llie former ia illustrated 
in a child's responsive attention to a, bright 
light, the soiii; of a bird, and so on. This 
crude and early form of attention ia known 
as reflex or nou- voluntary. The htf-her 
and mor« perfect form of attention, which 
is illustrated when a child tries to fix its 
mind on a subject, is called voluntary, 
because it implies an independent wish 
and purpose. The full development of 
thix power of voluntary attention is seen 
in whnt is known as f.nnerntratinn — i.e. 
the n-solute keeping of the mind fixed on 
one subjept and what is relevant to this, 
ami the turning away from all dixtraoting 
objeeta and suggestions. All prolonged, 
attention implies the presenee of a feeling, 
wbioli feeling ia the souroe of what we coll 

inlcreni (/j.v.) In educating tho att««- 
tion the teacher must aim at eular>;ing 
the sources of interest, and at gradually 
strengthening tlie power of voluntarily 
concentrftting thethoughta. The olstadef 
to attention differ according to th« nature 
of the child. Some are indisposed to at- 
tend from mental dulness and indolence. 
It is obvious, too, that any failing oS 
in vigour of brain through ill-health or 
fatigue must induco a lethargic condition 
which is uDfavourabk to the <^xcrd«e of 
attention. Many children, moreovttr, who 
are by no means dull and inactive, prove 
bad subjects for that sustained attention 
ivquired by the school-teacher. Thus 
there is the familiar butterfly type at 
mind that flits unwearyitigly from suliject 
to subject, yet fimls any prolonged etfort 
of attention irksome. Tlien, too, there ts 
the dreamy imaginative laind which tends 
to be alisorlied in its own inner world, 
and to grow dull and seemingly stupid in 
relation to external Impreasions {eee Ab- 
SRNT-uiXDEDN' In building up the 
habit of attention, care must be taken at 
the outset to remove as far as poESit)le all 
sources of distraction and mental pre- 
■Kcupation. and not to exact too long and 
fatiguing an efibrt at one time. Variety 
of occupation and a certain mdasure of 
relaxation sliould thus be introduced into 
school life. Any form of occiipatioD 
wliK'h has become thoroughly familiar 
and esLsy by repetition may serve as Si 
relief to the attention. (.SV15 Sully's ffand- 
book, chap, vt., and the references titers 

Anstralia {Education in). iSe« Laif 

Australian Vniversities. Sf« Vst' 


Austrian UQiverBities, Set Uhivsr- 

Authority. S'c Disciplisk. 



Bachelor. S'« Degkecs. 

Backwardness. Sm Ddll SceoLABa 
and Stupidity. 

Bacon, Francis (Lord Venil&m) (b. 
\Ti6\. d. IGS6). the famous Engli&h chan- 
cellor, philosopher, and essayist, was the son 
of a distinguished lawyer, and his mother 
wttd eminent for learning and piety. He 

went to Cambridge in bis thirteenth year* 
and in his sixteenth began to ijuettion th' 
philosophy of Aristotle. He left Cam- 
bridge to study law in Gray's Inn, aitd sub* 
sequently spent conaiderahle time in Pterin 
He W.-15 called to the harln 15S'2, aiul aoo^ 
bad a considerable practice. He was * 
relative of Cecil's and a friend of tfae Etft; 




of Bmex, and aa th«ae were sworu foes 
bt a«m got inW iroable, Bacou's cou- 
plet towvda Essex, later od, is a. fruHfal 
MOm oC apology and censure. In 1618 
if wu madp Lord High Chancellor of 
Ed^^Und, and crcaUvi Itwon Verulani : 
kl wftJi Rubw]iicntlj- disgriK^ and de- 
fri^wl of his high offiiv on tonviplion of ft 
tlMTgc of cfirruption. In the hfight of his 
MTRT he pabtixhfvl his Ki^'tt work, the 
JovHin Orynnon, whtrh had occupiod hi< 
Iboagbta for miiny yi-nrs, and it* puhlioi- 
liaa anKUMtd conHiih'nihlr intc^nvst at hnnii' 
ml alirood. Mr. Sjn-dditigtuiysour philo- 
K(ih* ' wuJi born ubcmt Biifon's timi!, imd 
Bacon'* luinu Itiut biwu iuKurih^d upuu it.' 
But othen rygard fi«g<?r Itiu-ou i'f.i\) as 
tl» falliu-of esp«riniental philoauphy uti<1 
fte wigtiMtor of the Inductive Method. 
Ibovgk tii« points of similarity between 
Ibme two great men are many, there are 
Dot lacking wide ditferencee. Roger e.t< 
at«d littl« influence and founded no school 
of philosophy, whereM Fmncie prorluced 
■ profound impre-tsion upon all thought 
Slid ch&ngMl the methods of invustiga- 
tioR. [tacoti (like D»ii--artes) led tnen away 
from »choliuttici8Di, to investigate nature 
bfofaavrvation, experiment, and induction. 
fia fint pctt«ived a philosophy of the 
■cicnees, and proclained that pliycics was 
'the mothiT of nl! the sciences,' and thus 
tskps importAnt rank in the history of 
education. Hiit Adiiaju-'-numC of Lrarninif, 
vliicli n|n>camd in IGC), discovered the 
ldenU6c hanii of educational method, and 
ilwu ta this work that Comeniuewas in- 
d«4iUd for Diucli of liis edocntional doc- 
Ifiae. At FrofMuior I^iurin points out, 
lowerer (Comenitui, introd. p. 1 1), ' Bacon 
*M not awttie of his mlutions tii t)ie sci- 
ttce and art of education ; Iik praist-s the 
}*nit acbools (<j.v.), not luiowing thut he 
•M rabvcrting Uieir very foundations. 
IPe know inductively that was the sum of 
Bacon's t«aohing. In the sphere o( outer 
lalflie, the scliciaatic saying, iVt/ii/ rut in 
iiUtileelu quod nan jyriug j'uerit in sensu, 
■■• scoepted, but with this aiklitiou, that 
tta tmnrOEsions o« our senses were not 
Hniimjimi liilii liMiili il The moileof ven- 
ding nnae- impressions and the grounds 
rf valid and nei.'«saary inference had to be 
invmtigated and applied. It is manifest 
tint if we can tell how it is we know, it 
fulbws that tJie method of intellectual in- 
ftroction is scientifically settled.' 

Btci>n. Roger (fi. near IlcheAter about 

13H, d. 1292). — He was educated at 
Oxford and Paris, where he was so suo- 
eaaaful in lua studies that the de^tve 
uf D-D. wus couferre<l upon him. He 
returned to Oxford and took the vows of 
& Fritnciscan, These vows were poverty, 
manual labour, study. His reputation for 
learning was e.ttiwjrdinary, and I.'r. Jebb 
classes his writings under the hea<is of 
' grammar, mathematics, pliysioa, optica, 
geography, astronomy,' Ac. Hallam says 
of hini tliat he ha<l ' almost prophetic 
gleams of the future course of science, 
nnd the best principles of the inductive 
philosophy.' He is the reputed discoverer 
of gunpowder aiid the tetescoiie. The ring 
of a true education is heard m pussagns of 
his Opvt MajuK, where he Kiys iJiat ' moat 
stud<!nts have no worthy exei-ciae for their 
heads, and lunguish and stupefy upon bad 
translations.' 'There are four stumbling- 
blocks in the way of arriving at. knowledge 
—authority, habit, appearances as pre- 
sented to the vulgar eye, and concealment 
of ignorance with a show of knowledge.' 
' We must prefer reason to custom.' Yet 
this man was Irented as a nmgician, and 
supposed to have the helpof infernal spirits, 
andafterhe was sixty-four years of age was 
allowed to reniaiu in a French prison ten 
years. Roger Bacon's great, merit is that 
he was the first in England to clearly tench 
that experience is the basis of knowledge. 
Hethusanticipnted his great iiitniesake by 
four hundred yeivrs. Mr. Stanley Jcvonsi 
maintains that Roger Bacon is more enli-( 
tied than Fnincis to the honour of liavine 
introducnd the Baconian or Inductive Me^ 

Bangor Traiuii^ College. ■S'^fBritisii 
A.VD FouiiioN School Society. 

Basedow, Johann Berohard (1723- 
1700). the celebrated German educational 
reformer, was born in Hamburg, educated 
at Leipsic, and subsoc|uently spent some 
timo as a tutor in Holstnin to a boy of the 
age of seven, for whom he worked out a 
new method of teaching hin^uage. In 1753 
he was nominutc>il professor of ethics at 
Soroe ; but in 1761 he retired from this 
post on account of hia theological opinions, 
and removiHl toAItona, where he published 
his hritnrodox Mntkodical lH»lru(lion, both 
in natural and biblioil religion. Six years 
later be \vit off his theological speculations 
and devot«l himself with ardour to edu- 
cation, of which he conceived the project 
of a general reform in Germany. \l«\ixfti 





liibed in 1768 his Addrt»g to th« FrwruU 
of Jlunuinily on- /f-'hooh aitd EJuetUion, 
in which In? cJilliil fnr the reform of schools 
«nd of ihf comiiion nicthodsof instruction, 
And .iitvnciitixl tliiT cxttahliKhmdit of an in- 
stitwti? fnr (iiinlifying tj-nchcrs. In his next 
WQi-k, thi? Bunk, lie developwl 
hilt Kclntiim for the mluoatiiin of thi- young, 
which is jiiTicticjilly un t-Dcyclopirflia irf 
ovi^rythitij! worth knowing hy children, as 
coinprebt^iisive, indeed, as tim Orhi* I'ictua 
of Cuiuenius. The pupil was first to re- 
wive iiiatrueliou in the knowlcdgeof words 
and tilings ; he was next to Iil- tnught to 
reiid without woarineas or loss of time by 
an inconiparahle tuetliod founded upon ex- 
perience : then he was to be instructed in 
nalaral knowledge, followed by a know- 
ledge of tnornls, tile mind, and reasoning 
—fill instruction in natural religion lo !«> 
thornugh and impressive, atid all beliefs 
to b<! doNcribiid impurtially, so that it 
should not iit nil Rp)H?nr of what belief is 
th» tfjii>hcr himself ; tinn,Ily he was to re- 
ei-ivc u knowledge of ^ocift! duties, of com- 
merce, Jsu. The work wa» received with 
great favour, and B>-uhm1ow xoon obtnined 
the means to estiiblis}! an institute for 
education, which he termed the Philnn- 
thro[tiiioii. at Di'smm, in order that ho 
Dlightupply hia principlcji in trnining men 
who might spread Uiem throughout Ger- 
many, Tliat waa in 1771. Jn 1774 he 
brought out the Brut nutnlior of Arc/i%ir», 
theorganof thePliiliintbropinnn, in which 
he demonstrates that tlie aim of all educa- 
tion is that the student niuy endure little 
grief, trouble, or sickiieKB, and thiit he may 
Tonra tntakiy real pleasure in whntiRgood. 
The wiRdnm of aU wisdom is virtue and 
juact!. Tlip useful part iu (mwIi scinnne 
should only bo leaiTied. In 1771 he brought 
out a. {lamphlet entitled T/te PkiUinikro- 
ptnonjo-undivl at D'ttait, containing the 
dduiK of hit plan. In itself t)ie Philan- 
tliropinon was not a suoceaa. Few sclioliirs 
ever uamn, and Itasodow soon hat nil spirit 
LR Uie «ntiM^rise. He Imd, \ieaidea, iin 
nngoveriiable temper, and lif t|uiirrelliHl 
with liis eollcAguej) one after another. The 
Plitliuithro)HnoQwiu closed in 1793. From 
it, hownver.a gnat podagogical excitement 
and •fiitation spreiid over Genuany and 
Switwrland, and, indeed, over a great part 
of Europe ; and the most thinking eduuu- 
tiouists openly advocated bis plan. Ratli- 
nmiui in \''i'l and Meyer In 1791-92 
brought out editions of his life and work*. 


Baahf uIdvsb, or shyness, is a porticu 
form of timidity, and as sitch a » w*ll' 
marked characteristic of childhood. Ibt 
proper exciting cause is the presence o( a 
stranger. This appears to evoke, in the 
case of the infniit, a di.stuict form of iube- 
ritedfenr, (.Vsc FeAR.) Busbfulnettu ahows 
itself later, and presupposes a oert«iii tie- 
vetopmeiit of stiK-conscionKiieBS, It may 
lie defined us a feeling of timidity ansing 
from distrust in one's own powers when 
midor the observation of another. ITie 
feeling ia thus nourislied by the general 
timidity of childhood, and in a q>eciaJ way 
by tlie child's sensibility to others' opinion 
and the desire to please. In its intei 
degrees it constitutes an acute form 
suSering, and in the case of more than 
distinguished child has been a source 
real misery in early years. It tends 
produce awkwardness of manner, itmliili^: 
to converse with others, ite. In the ci 
of children whoarespecinlly Pager t*>pli 
though the victims of self-distrust, it o(i 
engenders an unnatural atul alTuctcd luan-j 
ner. In extreme iiistanecjs it may v 
lead to a morbid sliriiiking from society. 
It is a quality which calls for the b[ 
consideration of the educator. A ce 
measure of shyness is proper to childh' 
and the an.yiety of which it is an expi 
sion has its moral vrIup, since it favours 
nice care in lieliuvinur. At the siine ti 
it must clearly be kept within due bourn 
The educator should remember in <leali: 
with bashful children that the feeling U 
deepened and fixed by every fonn ol re- 
pression and diBcouragement. Its proper 
corrective is the gradual accustoming ot 
the child to tlie society and convenmtiuo 
of others, and the encouragement of it in 
the natural exorcise of its powers uiKler 
these circumstances. School eduoattOD, 
with its greater publicity, ooniniouly octe 
as a con'i;ctive to tlie aliyneas due to the 
exclusion of the home. Yet just be«ann 
of this publicity, and the severe demand 
which it iiiukes on the cluld's seU-couS- 
dence, the scliool tiiaclier has a sptwially 
difRcult task in tlie treatment of sbyuess. 
(On the nuture of the feeling, w« Baia^ 
M'nial and Moral .?ct«»o»,' bk. iu. chafk 
iv. § iv. On its educational aspects, IM 
I^ocke, Ediimtlon, $ 70 : article ' BlSdlg- 
keil,' in Schmid's Eneyf-lop'idie.) 

Bathing. ^The addition of a swimming 
bath to every large school would be a moM 
potent factor in leading (O tncreand 


arji* ot school nhildron. Fftiling 
_^ tnntmicvrK of aacli nchool should 

A adniimvn fur thn tfholars to public 
kUn in tbe tuu;ibbourhi>oil, or in ooilntry 
dkOoU a iMuglibmiritiu Klnuiin or potid (not 
M deep) shoulil Iw cboscru tar tlic pii rprom. 
i ikouM lilwftvs In- r(>tiit-iiili(!r(^l thut run- 
king water has a more lii'imuibing «tl<ict 
ihao sUgnant wat«r, ouiiig to th<! Euct 
Int in the fonoor caae Jiffereut kyera of 
•»ter are conM&utly coming iu «oiila«t 
vitli the body, rapidly abBlmctiiig heat, 
tod increasing thu danger of cramp or 
binting. Wherever the bath, scholars 
tboM onljT he allowed to fr(?4)uent it 
iindRrKtrict su[iar%-isioo, and thefoUowiug 
nlm should lio carefully followed : 1. The 
laUi xhould not be tnknn witliin two hours 
«l the hut idpaI. '2. Children should not 
b« allownl to loiti-r in undressing. A 
llatf walk ht'fon- nittTing th^ bath is fui- 
rinole, in ordiT tlmt thii skin may lie 
Win umI glowing ut the tiniR tlie biith is 
Ufcen. 3^ Cliildrvji sliouhl not he allowud 
lomuaio in the bath loo long, nor in any 
caK ontiJ chattering of tenth or bluetiess 
of t^ li|M or iiailB is produced. The 
ptnou ill charge of llie swiraniing-batli 
iboujil Diider^taud how to use lli« proper 
RMorativeaitioaiF of awidentn.! immersion, 
•ad ihtae iucaaun.-s should lie xigorously 
steadily ciu ployed. (See School Sdr- 
mr.) No boy ^lould be allowed to row 
luitil be has lauut to Hwiin. The teinper- 
«tii» of tie trat^r in the awiiuiuiiig-IJatli 
Aoald \m from &5' to 70" Falir., wheu it 
i* iatraded that cMldren aliould remain in 
'K beyond a few minutes. Where this tem- 
pnUore is artificially kept up, tlie hot 
water must' !« introduced at tlie lowest 
IfrJ of the bath, for, being specilically 
l>)^r tban cold water, it tends to rise to 
i^ tnriacc In addition to its effect on 
(ieanlini'ss, and in improving the general 
boe of tlie system, bathing combines, in 
Ifat lonn of swimmiog, both exercise and 
Wlbin^r. Swimming Irnds to expand the 
^ft and ontnrge the lungs, at the same 
<»« ttrangthcning the muscles of the 
tnnl and Umh«. 
Belfuui Daivertities. Sw Ukivkb- 

Sell, Or. Sbc MoMTOutAi. Svktkm. 

lif foiit*- iiti-ratitni, and inclinli^n iioctry, 
^•kia, icfxhviie criticisni, and all that kind 
*f lilfratnrv writtva in o^^cordancc with 
^ ftindplD ot art for art's sake (fiirl 

fiottr tart). The term ts sometimes used 
in associntion with those- studies which 
treat of the oral as well os the written ex- 
pression of licjiuty. Hence in the Scottish 
iiniveniitieje llieri! ari< Joint jirofRssorships 
of rhetoric nnd hellrx-lfllrrt. 

fietieke, Friedrich Edward (h. 179)^, 
fi. I8'il). — .\(Jeriiiari philrisujilii-rwho ren- 
de-rl^d coiisiderablu service in »tublisbiiig 
the true- principlps of the art (if limdiiiij;, 
lie wan professor of pliiloHophy at Gut- 
tlngen and Uerlin from IS23. He waa 
the author of a large number of philoso- 
phical treatises, and, in opposition to the 
popular idealist or a priori school of hit 
day, whose chief representative was Hegel 
{q.v.), Beneke adhered to a form of tho 
Experience PhilosophyvcrysimiW to that 
of IiQcke, Hump, ,1. S. Mill, nnd the prin- 
cipal English philosophers of the same em- 
pirical sch'iol. Tliut part of his system 
to which BeneUe iittitched inoKt iujport- 
nnue wna his psyclmlogy, which beuni a 
aoiisiderable resemblance to the doctrines 
of Herbart (y.v.), and tlie results of which 
he up|>lii-d to (Klucation. The chief works, 
in wliich he develojied his ideas in till* 
depiLrUiient are : (I ) his Doctriruf v/' Eilu- 
cfUiiin and Imtlniction (Enaekmiyn- und 
UiUerrichUMirr, 3rd edit, by Dreasler, 
1864) ; (2) his Logic iw thf Doctrine oj l/i4 
Art o/ Tkmkiiig {L<i'/^ aU KunntUkre 
df» Deiih-tut, 1842) ; and (3) his Pni^iiMlie 
mUmofi/ij/, or I'syelioloffif ill il.g Appliea- 
tian to JA/e {l'r<tffiiuitisch( I'hiloneijihie 
uder Seehfiiekrn in der Antwudinu} an/ 
dan L«ben, 1850). The development of 
intellectual consciousness, according to 
Beneke, depends entirely on tho fact tliat 
the human mind ia endowed with the ca- 
pacity of receiving impressions from c)C- 
leruad material phenomenn. His theory, 
which had been anticipated by the Eng- 
li^ philosophers like Lorke and Jnnics 
Mill, is capable of very fruitful applica- 
tion in education, and nttractefl great at- 
tention amongst fiernian pedagogues. (.Sea 
Schmidt's ' liiography "f Beneke ' in Dift- 
terii^rif'* J'adiiijoipjiCMt JaJirhueh, IS.IG, 
and l>ro.sslcr'fl monograph on Beneke arid 
hif )i'ritingg, or in the 3rd edit. o( the 
Lihrb'ieh Hrr J'fj/ckolnj/ir, 18(11.) 

Benevolence, ^w Svhii-aiiiy. 

fientley, Bichard {f>. at Oulton, near 
Wakrileld, lfifi2, d. 1742), tho son of a 
small farmer, was educated at Wakcfiidd 
Grammar School and at St. John's Colle^ 
Cambridge. In 1682 he Waha VlusA- 



inaattr of tlic fp^mraar school atSpaHing. 
Aftt'rajeartliere he became private tuUir 
to the son of l)r. Stiilingfleet, and acoom- 

iianied his pupii to Oxford. Inl691 Hpnt- 
ey published hU dinscrtation on thp chro- 
nicler Malalns, whii?h won for him a, place 
arnongst the grontf'st critir-sof Eurofie. In 
1692 ho prcncheii l.hp first series of tlie 
Boyle Lectures. !n the following year 
he wns appointed kenper of the king's li- 
brary, and this wns the accidpiitut cause 
of bis DianrTtation on tht EpUll-rx of Plui- 
titrii: Bojk- of Clirist Cliurcli edited these 
epistles, and sjiokt! disparagingly of Benlley 
in the preface. Bentley had determined 
in liJB own niind tliat the epistles were 
GporiouB, and lu 1C97 he wrote to this 
effect. Boyle ajidhia friends were aroused, 
and the greatest scholars and wil« of Christ 
Church joined to refut* and lampoon Bent- 
ley, who in 1699 published his enlarged 
I^ing^rtatUitu, in which he conquered for 
nil time his array of opponents. In 1700 
hp was appoinl«il Miist^r of Trinity Col- 
logf!, Cainhriilge. Uere he soon came in 
collision with the senior Fellows by his ar- 
hitrary conduct. A most serioias litigation 
followed for more than a quarter of a 
century, in which Beiilley outwitted all 
compra. A detailed and highly amusing 
account of this can be found in Do Quin- 
cey, Worlm, vol. vi. All through the long 
years of litigation he continued his work 
as a scholar and critic. In ITIT he ob- 
tained tlie post of Regius Professor of 
Divinity, by doubtful means, and in 171 8, 
by a vote of the senate, he was deprived 
of all Ilia degi'eea. Bentley, however, had 
seeD too many battles to leave the tield. 
lie appealetl to the king, and after five 
years a mandamus was issued to the niti- 
versity to restore him. TSextUythKEpiHf-f 
qf I'halariv, perhaps his edition of Horace 
procured him the highest fame. He played 
frcoly with emi.indations of the text, whidi 
ho introduced with eitraordinary ing*i- 
Duity. Hn also edited Terence, Pliiedrus, 
and portions of Cicero, licKides writing 
numerous thoological works, ilis activity 
was wonderful, and it is a source of depp 
regret that his life should have been wor- 
riwl by personal strife. Though nn in- 
TBtcratc litigant, however, Bentley was 
■nngularly happy in his domestic relntion- 

Bible (Gr. TiV /Ji^Xii).— The books or 
scriptures containing the Old and Kew 
Tentunonta or ««ered writings of the J«wb 

and Christians. Whether regardwl aa 
inspiror! Word of Ooil, and constqueni 
the ultimate standard of morals, or 
OS a time-honoured collection of Iiia 
poe.ticai, and ethical ltt«>ral«re, a IcnO 
ledge of the Bible is indispciuable tO 
cation, especiallv to the educatiou of 
lishmen, upon whose histon/ it has exi 
BO powerful an influence, Eiiglajid ii»* 
been at the most eventful period in 
annals ' the land of one book,' namely, 
Bible. Much controversy, however, 
arisen upon tlie question whether it is 
function of the schoolmaster to impart 
knowledge. By the majority of th« 
gious sects, who hold that the Itibl« 
tains the sole rule of faith and practice, It 
is contonded that not merely a litemiy 
knowledge of it, but a doctrinal knowWn 
of it is essential to the developmont of tne 
moral character, and accordingly, in mott 
of the sectarian schools in this country, 
instruction in the Bible is prescribed as > 
provision of the first importance. Otbsr 
religious sects, however, holding equally t 
belief in the Divine origin of the ScT^ 
tures, and equally desirous that children 
should be instructed in them, contend tlist 
the instruction should be given, not by the 
schoolmaster, but by ministers and i»rtOt* 
The secularists also support lliis vie*. 
Bible teaching in the public elementary 
schools under the control of tlie Schod 
Boards is left to the dei-ision of tlww 
bodies, and as a rule a compromise bet w«b 
the contending parties on the subject '9 
arrived at by the adojjtion of the regulation 
to the eflTect tliat the Bible shall be tv*i 
without comment. The litorary value of 
the Bible may be estimated from the fact 
that the success of some of our mo«t effce- 
tive writers and orators (John Banyan, 
John Bright, for instance) has bcien attri- 
butable mainly to the freedom with which 
tliey have drawn their illustrations. Ml 
from the mythology of the (iroeks anJ 
Romans, but from the sacred writings af 
the Hebrews. (.SWalsoNATiONAL lit>i:o^ 
Tios Leaooe.) 

Biforcation. *« Cla«sikicatios. 

Biolo^ 0''«t. life ; >.oyyt, a word) 
the science that deals with the laws, 
phenomena, of living things. Of thvtii: 
great divisions of matorial thing* — •ni 
regotablo, and mim-rnl -it ta conci 
with the first two, leaving thn third to 
sistor- science, geologj-. Augxist« 
placed it fifth in his sixfold olassificAi 

t the sciences, tbc pupil p^^^Bbongli 
.themntics, astronomy, p^HKr nn<l 
IwniistrT tm eenrirlprwl comf^ti-nt Ui 
tedvbioic^; anilinnnyTOinplotcHclifmp 
f MUCftdon somr knnwl'xlgi' of tnnthc- 
itica, physcx. Mid chRinixtry nuglit lo 
f««H]«- thr study of biology. Hprbi-rt. 
ipcncf^r plncr* it in hix thinl gn>uj), tiin 
MDcrrte MU-nccc, iw ui np|)lic'iiti()ii of the 
tnivensKJ Iiiws of tJi« rvdiiitributioii of 
;t(T and motion to ttie r«ulni of or^uoic 
niKt^nw. He Includii^a in il tli*? aub- 
Kience:! of jiayclKilo^'j Mid sofiolojiy, tie 
Mtr of wliicli was nued by C'unite to tlio 
Etnk of « ftandamenta] ecietice, mid placed 
asth. or highest, in his a^c^iiiliiij; ncalt^. 
Taking biology in its iullcst lueatiiiig wo 
in toe following sub-divi&ions : — 


I ' 

In iu narroviM bpusp, as uiipd in the 
tdseational curriculum of our »chool«, bi- 
ilo(y tahes as objeclsi of titudy cbiinxcter- 
Mic tjrpes of auinial and vejji-tJtbl* life. 
t ooamieiic«s with tlip study of Ukibc 
Dwptt organisms wlilcb im iieitlx^r diM- 
liDciivi-ly animal iior disf.iuelivelj' vfgel- 
Mv, tnd ATv classed by Haeckel as ' Pro- 
luta.' These, he says, ' form the bridge 
Hat Dnit«s tb» two great kinjjdonis of 
)tj^nLc lif» into one Tast whole ' {I'opulnr 
^e^mtijie I.4f.lurrt. No. V.) The simplest 
i t)i««e are merely little masses of jelly- 
ike nutter, nlhaminoid in chnracter, irrit- 
Ue, and locomotive. Tlie most convenient 
cttidy i« ono which is a little more 
i^y orgnniux). the «mn?bft {u/m'^w, I 
Ittflffe). It may be obtained by steep- 
ig small pti-cex of raw meat, in water and 
bciii{ a«ron the mmt bits of cott«n ; the 
mt alioald tbi-n be placed in the sun- i 
line till most of the wnter is evaporated, ' 
nd if then ■ pii«e of eot.ton is lifted out ' 
nd plaved un a gt»is ^lide in a drop of 
xtn ■aoAct the micmiicopp, annrbir will i 
MwnUly be foDod on it. It will be eeen I 
be a SDwU irregular masts of granulated ' 
istfer (protoplann), thn inner part — en- ' 
Marc — j:TaniiLu-aDd semi-fluid; theonter 


' - — ecto»irc — clearer an j^^^^Bd. TisiUd 
also within it is a roil ndeO^HBBM nucleus, 
' containing another yri Eiuuller rounded 
' miusi the nuclpt'lu.'i. Cnrftfu! obsi-rvation 
j will show thjit it moves slowly by pushing 
uut u portion of it-s Itody (psi'udo-podium 
=pe''udo to(it) ami drawing after this the 
remainder of ita body ; and that it feeds 
by pusliing out a pseudo- podium against 
a food-particle and retracting the pseudo- 
podium into its body with the adlicrent 
food. There is uo better type of the funda- 
mental unit of all animal and vegetable 
life than the amo'lm, ; similar cells are 
fouiiil wandering in the vessels of tJie 
bighrr animals as lyinph-cnrpiiKcles and 
white blood -corpuscles, whiteall tissues of 
more complex organisms are merely cell- 
aggregates, the conditions of aggregation 
modifying the ultimate" sliajie and com- 
position of thp original cells, A clear 
comprehension of the independent cell, 
as seen in the anitfbu, is a necessary in- 
troduction to thi? study of the changed, 
differentiated celts which form aggrega- 
tions modified for the (Uscharge of vari- 
ous functions in tlie higher oi^nisms. 
Another interesting type of the Protista 
are bacteria— minute organisms of dif- 
ferent aliapes found in connection wiUi 
diseased conditions of the tissues of higher 
plants and animals. They are organised 
ferments, or organisms which cause chcmi- 
c-al changes in the organic medium they 
inhabit, which changes are of a character 
destructive of the medium. It is inter- 
esting to note that any tiitrogenous cell 
may set up similar changes, the changes 
being apparently the general expression 
of the need of the cell for oxygen. Bac- 
teria can be obtained by infusing hay in 
warm wat«r for aliout half an hour, filter- 
ing ofi' the hay, and keeping the filtrate 
warm. It will gradually become turbid, 
and a drop of it examined under the mi- 
cniKcopi- will be found to be full of bac' 

Loaviiig tlie Protista, typical organisms 
distinctively animal or vegetable are next 
to be studied, and as vegetables are less 
comple.v than animals it is well to begin 
with them. Plants are divided into cryp- 
togams (Kpirarot, liiiideii ; yafio^. mar- 
riage) and phanerogams (lioiVui. I show). 
The lowest division of the cryptogams is 
that of the Protophyta (r-puros. first ; 
^trrai; a plant) ; the plants comprised in 
it fall into two ranks— t\m u.\^», tvT lAiXcKi- 



phy 11 -containing (xAiufwt, gn^m ; ^I'XXnr, 
n Itnti : thi- grM?n-i;i)Jouritig miiltcr of 
leiivem), and thi- fungi, or nim-chloniphj*!! 
contuinin);. The btst tyjiua of lln-sn for 
study muoug Uie ulgie nrv : protocoociuH, 
lUt u uui-oelliilar orgiimBui^it irmy be 
found lu raiii-watwr, in ;(utterti and nbe- 
where ; spiro;;yiu, as au eitainple of the 
airnpleat tissue, a series of cella arran^od 
in a row — it amy be found iu the water 
of pools. Urdinaiy seaweed, nod charas 
a freshwater plant, sen'e as esamplos of 
more corapks orgnnismB. For fungi it is 
well to hcgi]! with the moulds, such as 
may ecuUy ho nhtninod on jam, choose, or 
on an old hoot jiWcrl in n damp spot ; 
mocor, pttnicillium, n^porsillus, are tJioso 
mo)>t onmnionly found. MuKhrnoms sRrve 
conveniently as cxiiinples of the- higher 
fungi. V«ry noticKiible in tlm Protophyta 
is the variety of foriiiB of reproduction : a 
single (.■etl niuy givi* rii>» to ii frerah cull by 
rejuVBDeHcencp, i.e. by the ru-arrungcmeut 
of its protoplasm ; or to two fresh cells by 
fission : or to many by free- cell -formiitiori. 
Cells thus formed may be motile or sta- 
tionary ; they may develop into new plants, 
or thoy may he gametes (yu'^ov, marriage), 
of whic)] thf^ concourse of two Isuecesaary 
for reproduction. In tb« higher plants the 
rcpi-oductiro cells are |^erally g&metefi, 
although traces of their ancestry remain 
in their capacity for ' ve;>etative reproduc- 
tion " by buds, cutting, it. As examples 
of the higher cryptijgams we have the 
liverworts (bepatica-), mosses (muscinie), 
forns (tilicc«), one of each of whiuh might 
Imj taknn to show the growing coiiiplesiity. 
Pnning from these to the phanerogams, 
any flowiiring plant maj servo as type — 
the wullllowpr, ttir Iman, the buttercup. 
The clone invnrtigation of all cryptogaius 
ftud pbanero^taniK would land us in that 
braitch of biology which it distlnguiahod 
as botany. 

For typical nnimal*, it is usual to 
select tiio freshwutiT hyilm or the sna- 
aiiemoue as examph'x of the ciElcntfirnt^, 
and the luouel un an csamiilo of thc^ mnl- 
lOBCa or aoft bodiiHl animuli. The (earth- 
worm and tli« liitistrr are goorl typrx to 
select a^ reprc»!nting thi! ringtNl animuls, 
the aimulucn. The mig is typical for the 
amplubia, the pigeon for aves, the guinoa- 
pig for mammalia. But hnrr! a^in we 
pass into u branch of biology, tlie ituily 
of animaU, or zoology (?.t>.) Scm! Prac- 
tical Biology, by Profusor Huxley and 

H. N. Martin ; GeJutral Biology (&■ 
ally adapted for the South Kensiiigt< 
examination), by E. B. Avoliug, DJ 
(Lond.) ; for more advanced studeD 
Analoinij of JiieerlfbraUd AnimeUSf 
Professor Huxley ; Elf'm/inU <>f CiHH, 
tiw Analoiuy, by Karl Gegeubaoer ; 
'H/ites of tliuloijij, bv Herbert Spencer. 
Birkbeck. George. M.D. (b. at Sei 
1770, (/. lf*41j, was the son of a me: 
and baidicr. After receiving his 
education atNewtonandSedlterwh, ho 
monced, at the age of eightepu, his niedi 
studies at Leeds. These he pursued l>oth 
London and Edinburgh, where he took 
degree. He was subsjci|uently elected 
the professorship of the Ander^oiiiaD 
tutioii at titasgow, and in 1 799 oominei 
his lectures on natural and experimew 
j>hilosojihy. For these lectures he had 
good instruments, and had to employ 
diiiary workmen. Whilst wattliing 
men construct a centrifugal pump, of 
use of which they were ignorant, it 
occurred to hiiu to give them a course 
scientific instruction. In March 1^00 
communicated his wishes to the tnisi 
of the Andersoniau Institution. They 
garded him as a dreamer, and D' 
came of his proposal that session ; but I: 
he lectui-eil to the mechanics of Q 
with the greatest success. He 
to London, and in 1820 lectured 
In the JfeeJianicg' MoffastTtef October I 
1823, appeared his ' Ihopcsals for a 
don Mechaiucs' Institute.' Aft«r Tarii 
preliminary meetings, on December 
1 823, the officers of the ' Ixmdon M 
Institution " were appointed, and J>r. Bi; 
lieck was elected pw-sidcnt, which office 
held till liis death. The movcra«nt 
promoting adult education (q.v.) which ha 
thus inaogurfit«>d rajiidly ajin^d, and roe* 
chanics' institiitifS were founded in almost 
every centre of incjustry throughout tbe^ 
country. The Birkl>erk Institution ill 
Cliancery Lane, Lomioii, which, without 
the aasistancp of wealthy endowniifnta, 
carries on the work of n great univnrfi^ 
and technical school combined, in a tiobte 
monuuK^nt to Dr. Birkliock'a memory. 
Bishop Otter's College. Ste Tkaixim 

OK Tk.M?1IE!«. 

Blackboard. .Sre FoRXiTimR, aud 
Architbctube of ScHooLa, micL Clatt- 

Blind (Ednoatioii of). Sm Eoucatios 
or THE Blikd. 


Blae-OMt SehooL Sue CBRiar's Hob- 

Boud School. S'X' RctiooL Boards. 
Boarding Sehool, >>'' Day .Schools. 
Boloysa. .SV'- I'vivKusiTii-'' 
Barougfa Boftd Training College, .'irf 

iBITl.lll AND FuBKIGS Scillllll. Si^CIKTV. 
Botany. — TIip utmly nf pl.tnts c.nn Im- 
t«i ill iwvcrul liirDctions, Wc tniiy 
jnire iiito Ibe iiuuiber of viirii^titiK, thrir 
Wnliution ou ibu Kurfnco of tlio iiirth, 
jdtimr proper relatJoii^iiji to (mch oUkt. 
^H|^ the province uf sysltuiintic boUuij, 
IB ontil of Ut« years wita the cUivi in- 
of botaulaid, aiid in still tlie uiiuu 
He to botAiiit«1 knowled^. aud the 
Tftluablc in icliool training. But 
its are diK»ect«H by the old of tJie mi- 
DCGojw, tbcir forms are examinol and 
plomi down to the minutest colls. This 
ibr tAsk of structural tuicf morphological 
ly, which am Iwth includpii undor the 
'organography,' Again, the functions 
the IiTiiig pUnt att: Ui b<* studied, the 
of it* lifi> and n-pnjdudicm. This 
obUciI pliyMological hotiiny. Undrrthis 
wc ni;ty diUB tlic reflations liipN of 
lis to (Mu^h other in the xtrugfilt! for 
drtmce, and thu mlii^itatiotDi whiiih they 
idergo to bmMinn cnnforniablo to t)i«ir 
iTinMini«nt. And, lactly, there is paln>- 
ttolosiaal botuny, in which the kimlB and 
^^"''■"OiM rf cxlifict vi>gi?taliln life ari? ci- 
Tbn gnsit naiiii' in cliuitti fieri tory 
ix Uiat nf Liiinn^u.-i (ITU' liiK), 
ve an our inoiliTti im-thod of uani- 
U by two nanuK, a Hja-citic and an 
widiul name. Thus, Jtanuneulux bul- 
'}■•• name of tJi«winiiiion buttercup; 
Ui the Kpiiwiea Ranaueulut, aiul 
(ii.-Luii.'tudied frofii sev(.-nil (ttluTeouiiuOD 
of biitt«vup which ^rov in our lldda 
tla kavinj; rvllcx*^ «.-jiaU, no (jrouve in 
Momrr sWm, »hicli in sli^jhtly hairy, 
tumog a little bulb al the base of its 
JMt below the gromid. It is to this 
CtTCamstence that it owes its par- 
sod discriffiinatiug appellation of 

Now tliat the I>snciniaD theory of 

TUntwn o€ species is accepted in 

vlen importance stladies to the con- 

I of definite species. But as n means 

rdunfiakttoD its importance is riill ud' 

Liiuueus distinguished U^tu-efm 

Bt« by mcMU of tlie differenoex of the 

He arrvngod them into dirij^ons 

to the number of stamens, and 

following upon tbat according to the num- 
ber of ttlylea. In ttiis way he obtained a 
very obvious and easily observed set of 
families. Aud having so far arranged the 
plants in groups he distinguisliod between 
the diffeivut speeiefl with great sharpness 
and accuracy. But, starting in this way ■ 
wiih ono particular test as the criterion «■' 
likrneiti) or dissimilarity bittwnen pinnts, 
hr put together many kinds whinh should 
\tv widely separated, and found in diffemit 
jtfirtji i)( bis systpiii forms wliich were 
ri-ally closely alliix!, and only hupjjened t« 
differ wiil^ly in oiw particular respect — ^th» 
number af tlit- staineiui or styles. A mure ' 
natural elaesificatiou was bi-ought forward 
byDeJussieu (1748-1838) and by DeCaa- 
dolle. This is the system which, with 
some modi li cations, is still in use, and it 
forms the really scientific mode of studying 
systematic botany. The special ad vantagesL I 
of botanical study are the closcncu oC, 
o>>!icn-at]on which it demrmdR and th« ac- 
i]Uaintance with nature which it produces. I 
A large part of the knowh-dgn deDiantlod-J 
ill Imtany cnnsistg of minute ditTen^nces 
Imtween closely allied species. And tins 
luicui'atv^ training' of the itye and nicnigry 
forms n valuable discipline. It is uliso- 
lutoly impossible to replace knowledge of 
the facts by theories or guesswork. The 
ilisiuIvant.'Lge of this kind of bntatiicnl 
teaching is ttiat it is only nuilly SL-iPiitilic 
where there is iiccess to a rich flora. 
Where flowers cJinnoL be obUiljied in larjje 
variety a mere description is apt to be 
taken in place of actual acquaiiitauoe. 
But too grwt BtresH cjumol be laid ou the 
usefulness of ac<(uiriu({ a knowledge of 
clasaificiitioii. However limited the field ' 
of Kludy may be jji materials, still in 
botjiny llie science of classific.itiou is tiiught 
better than in any other subject which 
is acccvixible in ordinary eiluimliou. The 
study uf flowers is emiiientty suitable for 
youn^ cliildren, and is found loss advan- 
tjti{eouH fur boys, as ou the one hand ft 
lai'ge knowledge of systematic botany it 
of uopractiealadvautageexcept for special 
pursuits, and the other branches of bo- 
tanical study re<|uire many appliances and 
specially trained instructors. 

As now pursued, Iwtany forms a vait 
and highly important field of research. It* 
prosecution dates from the hilioure of Ray, 
Urew. and Malpighi in the sevent^wnth cen- 
tury, whoma<ie tlie first applications of tlw- 
microscope. Under a compcUiTi,t UiacVw 

Sots (education of) 

instriiction ia it leads th«BtudenloTi tn the 
threiiholcl of the science of living Iwings liy 
KnipleiiiidhftrniksssUiiK. Ingi-iiprnl.hoya 
exhibit mi>ro intTPRt. in animii! than v«jfc- 
tablplifc ; biitthnditlicillticsiittentling the 
prosrpution of hinlngicwl work in sclitmls 
•re very greiit. Too m\ich stri'Hs (.-iiiiiiot 
b« I«i<l on the introiluotifin «( an observii- 
tioniil »!iencp int<> the school curriculuin. ■ 
In phyiucit, aiul even in chHiniiitry. tlie-ory 
is BO tiir udvanctwl that Uie direct appre- | 
ciatioii of fiwUi of observation is upt to be 
oliseured by tlie expl&uationa with which 
the beginner has to be made familiar. 
But ill botany the pupil has to observe for 
himself, and the knowledge of forms D-nd 
facts is of fundamental importance, Therft 
are many good treatises on 1>otfl.ny, but 
the essential condition of using them pro- 
perly is thjit thpy lie tjiken merely as 
JinndbonkB to the atudy of plants them- 

Boys (Ediioation of). — Milton deGnee 
theeiiucatioii of boys to be sueli education 
lis ' lils a man to [.>erform justly, skilfully. ' 
and mngiiaiiiniously all the oftioes, both ' 
private and public, of peace and war.' 
Education as thus delined was much bet- ' 
ter suited for the ancients than for us. | 
Indeed, Xenophon relates of the Persians 
that their youth were to Ije instructed in 
the cardinal points of justice aTid virtue, 
in such exercises as would assist them in 
peace and war. and generaUy in everything 
that tended to the public good, not omitting 
a simple diet. At Athens education was 
compulsory, and children were instructed 
in reailing, writing, and music ; whilst at 
Rome the education was generally under 
the guidance of the father, although there 
were some notable exceptions — such as 
Cornelia, the wolher of the Oracchi, 
who i*rson!iUy iustructed her own boys. 
Uduiilly a teacher (liiiii magiiiUT) whs em- 
ployed to give instruetion in the 'three Tl'a' 
ajiil rhetoric, although again there ware 
tome notable exceptions, such aa the elder 
Onto, who also personally instructed his 
own boys. The question of the eduf^ation 
of Ifoys has Ifoeti uiucli discussed in our 
day by Mr. Herbert Spencer, Professor 
Bain, and other able writers, and t}iey. as 
was to be expected, do not approve of 
Hilton's definition. A boy's education 
depends, in the main, upon two elements : 
the direct instruction given and re- 
ceived, and the indirect influences under 
vhi«h a child is placed while receiving it. 

The IcKons a boy actually 
knowledge gtvirn him by liia teaob< 
schoolfellows, tlie gradual developme; 
his intellect, an- parts of &chool life 
are within the inmiediate circle of a si 
purposes and miinai^ment, They e 
duc:ilile to rule and method, and the 
cess or failure of the rules or me 
ascertainable by direct examination 
fairly sufficient limits. But the 
influence of a master's justice, abilit 
earnestness, or of his focltlencas 
leanness, the sense of order and pu 
or of disorder and helplessness, thn 
the daily life, the conflict in temper 
abUity with Bchoolfellows, the whole 
and mora] Atmosphere of both scbo(J 
home, arc no less powerful causes 
termining fnr good or for evil the 
exertions and the future conduct 
boy. The primary object of a 
course, is direct ti'acliing and I 
the indirect influences are the 
concomitants. Tliese influences 
portjuit and vary mucli. They vary 
iu private schools {q.v.) compared 
public schools {ij.i:). in schools for boarden 

iq.v.) compared with those for day nchi ' 
q.v.). These differences have grrat wi 
on a parent deleriuining the school 
boy. It is well that there are such dilfi^ 
ences, for it is not at all desirable, uvea 
if it were possible, to have all scbotk 
moulded on one type. There should ht( 
DO training for employments to the neglfrti 
of general cultivation. Such training dii"" 
organises and breaks up the ^--i^' 
confers a transitory instead ot , 
benelit, A boy, e.g-, taught 
system of book-keeping at si . 
' the counting-house a diHcrci. 
practice, and has difficulty ::i ■ 
' it ; had he had n thorough nw. 
I arithmetic he could have leanicti 
I tem in a very short time. Tbi 
' should never be made a substiluti 
I prenticeship ; it should teacli what mii 
fiiirly be conisidered as likely to be ow 
' to all its scholars whether aa meotal H^ 
cipline or as viiluable ioformatioD. tli 
' subjects of instruction, apart from til 
' ' three R's,' may be classiHed under tlwrf 
I heads — language, mathematics (includilg 
arithmetic), and natural Bcienc« ; but ' 
command is imperative — ensure a 
elementary education before beginning 
of those subjects. latin may be. 
usually is, the first branch begun. 

:*nct' FroTO direct preparation 

ipnl, mny Iw clusiBpd as that 

is to stop Rt *l>oat 1 1, that which 
(O stop at aljoiit Ifi, and that which in 
oontinud till 18 or 19. Thn diftrrrinH! 
tbf Liin*> nsu^ncd in.-iIcvx»>ini-iliircMinii-i! 
tbc wry natan-- «( the iHlucatioii itself, 
a boy cutinot n-iniiiti ut sahon! l>i'yi>nil 
cagp of K, it is tiiwlettsto be^tti t«iK-tiiut[ 
m such :((jl>j«t.-ti> aa re*|uire a larifjer time 
ir tkL-ir proper «lu<ly ; if ho t'Jiii foiitiuue 
U 18 or 19, it may be «spedi<.-iit to post- 
u some siiuli«s tliat would otherwise 
Mtataraced tuirly. Outdoor sports »nd 
hysical exercise generally should never be 
Brulle System, ."^ik Education dp 

Brain- — Tbo hrain is tho organ chiefly 

in acfaool-frork. It iii of the 


iM DiMpntand thi; brand fattlA rrtating 

its Rtracture and functions. A true 

of tKlucutioti call only bi» fouiidi-d 

the principlci of pbyaiolof^y and pxy- 

StriKlurf of iroim. — Tlie nervous 
oooaista «tEieutially of fibres OEilk-d 
M, vhicb carry impressions, tuid cells 
'kich i¥L-eive uod api>reciate tiieiii. Tb« 

itral orgaua coiiluiuiiig rit-rve ceW& am 
brain uid spinal L'ord, tiiid frmii these 
»ia oervM whioh ro to every purl of the 
IMiy*fKl put tlieiu in corn 111 u III cu lion with 
be wntrat orfpMa. The larger [wrl of the 
•ain coa&ists of the two hemispheres, and 
lure is little doubt that these are tiie 
IgatfiS of the intellectual powi^rs. Eai-h 
aiUBpher«> is subdivided into a number of 
OBVolutioiis, having a thin layer of grey 
ntter (aerre-cells) coverinif them. The 
lan compliotted and numerous the con- 
ohtions, the gn-at«r the intellectual force 
ni actinty. Man's lirain is absolutely 
earirr than that of any other animal 
xo^ th« clfphant and vbale. In rela- 
ion to tlMt body weight, the preponderance 
t tfa* hanuui brain is even more striking. 
Examining tie dnUiled structure of the 

in, it ia found that in man's brain tho 
brnl convolutions, and not tho lower 
u^ia (wliicli are concerned with organic 
k),prc|v]ndcrate, unlike the caxe in lower 
niioals. The avimtge n-rigbt of the- brain 

th*- adnit Rump^an is 4!) to .W ounces. 
n dviliH-d rajvs it is heavier than in liie 

• civtlisMl. The boarie-st brain nmirdrd 

that of Cavior, the naturjlisit, which 

was 64.J) ounces. At birtli the weight of 
tho brain averages I3'87 ounces. It ra- 
pidly increases in the earlier years, more 
slowly in later years, acquiring the gieatest 
average weight at the age of 'ia in tho 
male, and of !il) in the fi>male. Moro 
weight of brain is not the sole criterion 
of inteJIectual capacity. The quality of 
tli<! (N'n^hrnl structure must he taken into 
aci^ount. Exi-rcise of Uie nientjil facultie* 
tends Ui incnase tJie number of cerebral 
convolutions, to multiply the points of com- 
munication Ijelweeii dilTureut nerve-cellsi, 
and thus lo render the brain more efBcieitt, 
though it may remain stationary in wei;{bt. 
At the sixth mouth of fo-tat life the human 
brain is smooth, and without eouvolulioiis, 
but at birth the chief convolutions are 
complete, secondary ones being developed 
during cliildliood and youth. We may 
rouglily classify the parts of the central 
nprvous system as follows: 1. The cere- 
brum, consisting of (1) the cerebral con- 
volutions, which lire the central organs of 
intelligence and volition, and ('!) tlie basal 
ganglia, which connected with sensa- 
tion and the autoriiatia phenomena of life. 
i. The cerebeHum, or little bruin, tlie chief 
function of which appe.trs to be tlie co- 
ordination of muscular movements and the 
maintenance of e<|uilibriuni. 3. The me- 
dulla oblongata, from which arise (amon|; 
others) the nerves controlling circulation 
anil respiration. 4. Tfie spinal cord, which 
' serves to transmit nervous impulses be- 
, tween the brain and the periphery, and 
also acts as nu independent centre for 
^ reflex and automatic acts. 
I Functions of hirtin. — Two sets of nerve 
I fibres connect the central nerve organa 
with every part of the lK>dy. One set 
I bring sensory impulses from the periphery, 
I which are perceived in the brain, and in- 
lerprete*l by it. Another set carry im- 
j pulses from the brain to the muscles of 
! the body, re-suiting in the production of 
I movement. Excitation of a sensory nerv9 
I (as by tickling the foot) leads by refl«x 
I action to muscular movements, the object 
of which is to withdraw the foot from tho 
irritation. This reHeit action maybccar- 
rie<l on when the brain is iiaWp. If the 
same movement is effected while the sub- 
ject of the experiment is awake, tho move- 
ment is a voluntary one. Or one may 
prevent the natural impulse to withdrawal 
of tho tickled foot by a voluntary inhibi- 
tor t/ influence. 



The rhiirf funptions of th« Inrain are : 
1. To rpi-oi\T »i'nsr>ry impiilKPS nnil inter- 
pivt thpsr. 3. To i'iin(,r'>I thn niiixoular 
movMnoTiU of llin IkmIv. 3. To M-rvii as 
thi" nrgun of miiid, i.p. of fwliiig, tliougiit, 
and volition. The inwoiHliiif; vifiw of tlw 
functions of lilt- brain liua iniptjrtiint lnMir- 
ings on pra.t'lii-al Mlucution. It uiiiat not 
Ik^ forgotten that ec]uuitiou,usiii;fUit!Woril 
ill the sense of brain-cultivatJou, is not 
confinmi to §chools. but begins R,t the Urst 
momeiit of life. And continues throu|>hout 
Jife without interruption except by sloep. 
I>uringchilHbooilthespn80ryand museiilar 
parts of thp brnin are cultivated to an 
enormous rstdit, n* also tho powers of 
ohscrviition ; bat the rcnsoning powers re- 

iloaeph Tjirn'Asfi-r, t.lionf;li bei was in! 
spnsR its founder. He utidi'rtook Mo i 
responsi bill tips timt in 1807 hv to 
Iiiinself hopelpasJy in debt. His crealit 
were clauiorous, nnd tlie Ufe of ewiry | 
atitution in wliii^h lie was couceruMl ' 
thrwitened, wlmn WiUiaia Coraion 
JnsHph Fox cimie Ui ]m rescue. At ' 
Bton's Louse, No, 30 Ludgat« Street,! 
January 23, 1808, th«se two rMolvedl 
form a aoi-iety for t)je purpose of aflbr' 
Muuation to the children of the 
They undertook to pfty nil Lan 
deljts and to lake the whol* man 
of Ilia pecuniary affairs into their 
hands. At the end of Jnlv Corston i 
Fox wore joined by John .(iwkson. M 

main tf> a large pjtt'int undi-vcTopcd. For . Josepli Foster, and Willijim AII(mi. 

the first SfiVPn years of lifp thp natural 
order of evolution of the tnental funirtinns 
should lie iinitat'-d, tliu iiiuspiilar and aen- 
Kory and obwrvitig powers lii-ing chielly 
cultivat<^. Kindergiirtcn work is vory 
valuable in this connet-tion. Deficient 
muscular and sensory i-u I tivation ia certain 
to make all subsequent mental eOnrts ha/.y 
and unpractical. Each sense retjuires 
spe<nal cultivation, and becomes skilled in 

Proportion to the education it receives, 
lifl imp'^rfect cultivation of any sense 
implies a defective condition of the oorre- 
KpmdinK pt'-i't of the brain, and it is a.lso 
Irui' that the imperfect performanee of any 
one mental function reacts injuriously on 
olheni. The blindness of the dahea living 
in the dark caves of Kentucky is an iti- 
stoaoe of atrophy of a disused organ. The 
BUBS lesson is taught by the chickens 
which were put on a carpet immediately 
they were hatched, and never showed any 
tendency to scratch until sand was scat- 
tered on it. The lesson of disease also is, 
that if paralysis occurs in the young, the 
COrre-spoTidinft pnrt of the )irain wast^. 
Hence mimoular and sensory eJierei-'M? is 
important, not only lnwauw^ of its imme- 
diate utility, hut IxirnuMe of its e fleet on 
the dcvelopmimt of thi^ brain and on the 
more punny mental fimrtionK. fJ--r also 
OvcKi^itiwitritH and Piivnk^al EinirAnoN, 
Breaking up in the term usually ap- 
plied to the- party or ei-n-mony which takes 
pisice on the day prnvioux to that on which 
a school eltwest for tlie torm. Strirtly 
spejiking, however, 'lireakinK up' mnnns 
the actual dejiarture of the xcholnn. 

British and Foreign Sohool Bociety 
(The) vraa thu outootne of thfi labours of 

and Fo.x were the real leaders of the mo 
nient in favour of iinsectarian relia 
eilueation. One of tho first acts 
enlarged committee was to ask tlie pii| 
for a loan to lie applied in relieving 
caster's 'inconvenience,' 'filing hia{ 
iug) establishment on a penaanent 
ing,' and ' enabling him to diffuM 
good oH'ects of his system more 
it was to bear interest at live per 
and to be repaid as the gains of the pr 
ing business allowed. 4,000/, was 
nluost immediately. In nearly every i 
the interest was given as an annual t 
scription, and ultimately the loan 
verted into a gift. Allen, Fox, and lh«ir 
colleagues used every endeavour to est*- 
bliali schools. They sent Lancaster on 
lecturing expeditions throughout England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and their efl'orts wen 
rewarded during the first throe yean <ij 
the oouimittee's existence by the opandnM 
of eighty-seven schools and the siibscnb- 
ing of nearly 17,000/. to local funds orW 
the centra] institution. In Drv^emher 1 81D 
themanagementwasgreallyeiilargeH, TtM 
Duke of Bedford and Lord Soniervilli 
were chosen presidents, Fox secrntary,»x* 
Allen treasurer, while then; wtM in nd<]l 
tion a * finance committee ' of forty-»e^^" 
members, including I-ords jAnirfoa^— ^ 
Moim, Carysfort, Brougham, R»milly,i^ 
Meflars. Whitbread, Fowell Ituxton, C^^H 
son, James Mill, and Samuel Rogprt. '^™" 
anaoeiation was called 'The Society 
Promoting the Royal Itritisli or I> u'~L-r 
terian Rystem for the Eduoatitm O^Bi 
Poor.' The first public m<*tinjr o ^^^^ 
subscribers was held in May 181 1, 
year the last tmoo of tli« originally ] 

tlwrmoTement (Imppear^d. 
fnpoaed tiiat, on coiidition of 
inf! over to the comimtl«« Lis in- 
ntt iu the ISoroagh Road premises and 
npttrty, he should be ex on era ted from all 
it <let>U iu connection therewith. Riid t.he 
Mpoaition wius accpteH. The coniniittiv' 
iCa det^mined npoii a moonstitution of 
le ftKSOcintion, nnd nt n nin<ting heti) in 
moagton Palnci; in August l!<i3, iitidcr 
epnttd«ncy of thi- Dukr nf K<^nt, the 
aMfortJir nl^w ontuiiisttion wi<ri^ Aj^reod 
pOD, The suliscrilK-rs nit-t on Novi-mber 
0,Andn<lopt«l Llientrw I'oiijitttutimi. Tlie 
Mrth rule Uid down Uiti ]iriii<.'i)ile to 
ti<Ji the sotuety haa alvrays udliered : 
All nchooU which ahall he supplied with 
Mcbcni at the expense of this institudou 
lull l>« oueu to tlie cluidren of pttreute 
t oU rvligioos deDominations. . . . No 
tt«cltisias or peculiar t«]iel8 shall be 
uf^t in the schools.' The king won 
tuftMl the patron of the society, the Duke 
( Bedford president, while the vice- 
nridents included ten peers nnd aeveu 
Umbere of I'nrlinmf^nt — among them, in 
dditwntoscreml nn'ntiontHl Keto re. Lords 
lyno, Darnh'v, nnd Fingntl, and Mvssrs. 
fntten and willii-rforfi'. Tlio ciutios to 
rkirh the society nddressed itsplf were : 
. To Stimolnte and diri^ct local (tflnrt to- 
mit th« f«tAblUhment nnd mnint(.'naiii.-r> 
4 (chools ; '1. Tn tmin tciu-.hcrit ; 3. To i-sbi- 
iU«fa kindrnd »aoii<ti«s in fonrign countrii's. 
Uter If SO a fourth duty was reeognisiHl, 
lat of promoting tlw elhciency of schools 
J friendly and Klcilled inspection. T)ie 
aocDK obtAined at homo unil nbroitd was 
Miat moourBtfing. Schools were 0]:eiied 
biMi^hoat &)gmiid and Wales, while 
loorithii^ tioeieties were estaWLslied in 
MntUnd and Ireland, in nearly every Euro- 
>pctal, and iu India, AustraUa. and 
Tlie building iii Belvedere Place, 
Road, erected by Lancaster in 
MH. was aoon found to he too small. A 
tteOD tli«olhersideof the road was there* 
DrelfSMd from tlie Corporation of Lon* 
ion, and the college and schools built 
lliereon were opened In 1S17. l"hc year 
1833 marks an epoch in the history of 
ilOBeotAry edacation. for it was in that 
mrthat the first Ciovemmentgra.nt«(9.v.) 
wtn paid. Th« sum vot«d by I'nrlinment 
■as 20.000/. Every application for a sharv 
rfit bail tobereiiyimmendedby the Hritish 
md Ftmga School Society, or the Na- 
iOMlSoeie^ ({.v.), and the money was to 


be used only in supplementing local oSbrt 
for the erection of school houses. In tha 
first year the Urilish »nd t'oreij-ii Reboot 
Society forwari led memorial* solifi ting aid 
towards the building of 211 schools, tor 
which tlie districts interested had already 
subscrilwd 2a,38.1f. The schools helped 
had t^ lie open ti> Inspection, and in 1838 
the Lords of the TrcAitiiry offoi-ed tJie 
Sritisli nnd Foreign School Society .'lOO^. 
tn insjiect the scli'iola which, on its recom- 
mendation, had ubtiunctd aiiiiitancc. The 
ooiuioittw' replied that ' no inquiry could 
prove satiafaclory which was not carried 
ou by parties uncomiecied with tlio socie- 
ties whose schools Uiey wi-re t<i vi*it and 
report upon.' In 1&39 Govenunrnt in- 
spectors were appointed, the British and 
Foreign School Society being allowed a 
veto upon the choice of those to be en- 
trust<?d with thework of examining British 
schools. In 1S42 the college in the Borough 
Road was rebuilt at a cost of '.'0,000t 
Towards this sum the Committee of ).!oun- 
cit contributed ■'',000'., and it also contri- 
buted 7-'>0/. a year towards the expenses 
of the training iti.'stitutton. These granta 
accentuatod a ilifference of opinion which 
hail l>een slowly growing up among tho 
members of the society. A section, small 
in point of numbers, but weighty from 
cliariicter am! position, thought the British 
schools which accepteil Slate aid must 
finiilly become either si-clarian or secular. 
A meeting of ttiu subscribers was held 
on June I, 1847, to discuss the (jucstion. 
The Rev. John Burnet moved a resolution 
to the effect tliat the true policy of the 
society would be to abstain ' trom any dn* 
clai-atiou of sentiment on the subject' of] 
Government grants, and at the same timu 
to decUne accepting such grants. Dr. 
Lusliington, M.P., moved an amendment 
to tho effect that it would be best for the 
interests of the institution to confide to tha , 
discretion of the coninjittee the acceplanca ' 
or rejection of any further State aid. This 
was carried by n large majority, and the 
leaders of the minority thereupon severed 
their connection with the society. Tho 
chinf of the seccders was the late Mr. 
Samuel Morley, but when events proved 
his fears to be groundless he rejoined the 
society, nnd was for years one of its most 
honoured vice-pnif-idcnts. (>n the issue of 
the R<nnsed Code in IWl, the committee, 
after considering Mr. Lowe's pro90BB,V&, 
recognised ' the soundneaa oi tVw. ^ntn'^ 


of a. teat of the sta.t« of elemejitary in- 
etruL'tioQ in a school as oiu> bcuis of the 
pOCUuiary aid mndrrrivi,' hnt conilnmned 
the making of tliiK tin? 'only basis.' The 
committcp iIkc) protcxt^id ngaJiut ctusaili- 
cation l>y agi\ u.iid iLgiiiimt the changes 
affeotjntf touchers. The yrair t^!lO saw tlie 
prindpio wliich the suuioty had ulwuys 
COnxiKtciitly mail ilui lied udajitL-d us tlie 
Eoundntion of a luitiuiiiil sysU-ni of eJucii- 
Uon. Mr. Furster b mea.aure, by lu.'ikiiig it 
ooinjmlHury on each locality to i>rovide suf- 
ficient school ai;coiuiiio(lation, relieved the 
society of one jmrt of its work— the estji- 
bliabment of schools — but enormously in* 
creased another pnrt, the provision of 
trained teachers. lucrensed eHbrts were at 
once put forth to meet the incre-aswl de- 
mand, and two new colleges were opened 
AS soon OS possible. The society hfis now 
six training collegtis : Bomugh Road aiid 
Bangor for uiLstom ; Stoekwell, ^!waiisca, 
JJnrlington, and SulTron WaUlttu fur mis- 
tresses. Bangor is under locid manage- 
ment, and Saffron Wakleii jirepares stu- 
dtnita specifiliy forinfauta' sehouls. If any 
Sclioul Board adopts the system of the 
British and Foreij.'n School Society there 
is no reason for maiiitaininj^ a British 
school in tlie diatTiet, and many Brttish 
schools have been transferred to School 

Brougham. Lord Henry (&. at Edin- 
burgh, 1 7'S, d. ISOS), was edueatwi at the 
Iiigh school and Uie university of his 
native uily, where ho distinguished himself 
by his mutliematical studies, lie travelled 
for some time on the Continent, then re- 
turned to Edinburgh, and was admitted s 
member of the Society of Advocates. In 
180^ the Bdivhurijh Revirw was started, 
and Brougham 1>ecamo a versatile and 
constant contributor, together with Jef- 
(ery and Sydney Smith. In 1807 he wont 
to London and cjuiilified for the English 
bfiT. As iin ally of the Whig party, he 
was returned to the House of Commons 
in ISIO. ileri! he became very distin- 
guished for his VRheiiient Hloijupncii. In 
1820 hn was callnd upon to defend Queen 
Caroline, In 18,10 he was mode Lord 
Chanc-Uor. Re is one of the most promi- 
nl^nt ligurcji in the history of Englisli jioli- 
tics during the esciting decode IS30 to 
1810, hut throughout his public career he 
waa actively aasociated with various edu- 
cational movttnienta, to which he devoted 
marvellous irncrgy and ability. He lent 

his vast influenco to establithing tlie 1 
verstty of London, which bM given 
great impetus to advnncctd education I 
re1igia\is toleration. He aided the I 
for the Itiffusion of Knowledge by < 
buting it.1 first publication, an «cny ' 
tlie Plearurci arid AdvaiUagtt of r 
in 1S2T. At tliit period a rant 
(or knowledge arose. VarioHS instit 
I and schools were started, and it is a I 
, ing glory to Brougham tliat li<! dcv 
his untiring effort to originatt; thiTm 
! foster tlieir growth. He has found 
immortality in one single seiitencv ho] 
tcred at that period — ' The ^cliools 
is abroad.' Brougham is also the ttut 
of tJie celebrated diclum that the Ub 
educnti^d man is ho who knows 'ev 
thing of something, and something 

Buchajiaii, George (b. at 
Stirlingshire, 1506, d. Edinburgh, 1! 
was the son of poor parents, and by 
death of his father he was at an early i 
thrown destitute u|jon the world. A I 
ternal uncle, James Heriot, sent him,! 
the age of fourteen, to the Univcnritj 
Paris. But after two years the undo i 
and he was reduced once more to ci 
poverty. He returned to Scotland 
joining an auxiliary corps, and for 
time after his return be was prostrated 1 
sickness. On his recovery he jtMned ' 
troop of French auxiliaries, and saw actj^ 
service, but the hardships he endu 
again impaired hb health. We next i 
him a student in the Univeraityof St. . 
drowB, where he took his degree in 15^ 
The following year he went to France i 
studied at theScottiah College in Paris,i 
there ho was immediately incorporated^ 
the same degree as he hod t»ken at 
Andrews. In 1529 he was chofiOD 
curator of the 'German Kation/adii-ii 
of the students which comprehendisd 
from Scotland. He was appointed 
fessor at St, Barbe, and afterwards tati 
to thesonof thcEarlof CassUis, In It 
he returned to Scotland, and was a|>point 
private tutor to James Stuart. At ■ " 
time he wrote his Somnium. iti dertxioaj 
the regular clergy. The king liked 
and asked him to writ* sometliing i 
u kindred character. In aocordouce ■ 
this re<(ueist he wrote I'liliii-odia and Fn 
cisianus. These works brought upon 1 
the vengeance of the Church. He 
seized as a heretie, and imprisoned, 

Be«ton offered a bribe to Kin;; 

BM to hAve him put to d^ath. Uu- 

, nupectiDg tbiit his greedy pntrou 

I (*ka tJwi bribf. vscinpcd from prison 

fled to Hnglnnd. Iln, howovrr, pnid 

■ for hi* »itim(,anil bi-ainic ii wr-nry 

KtrivinK to hidi- fmm thu cnr- 

Kr tuught [jitiii in Piirix, und in 

I wul PortugaL Here th« ' InijuiKi. 

found him, aud imprisoned him in 

cell of -a motmsletj as a. )ierctic. 

1 Wi free he found a vessel at lisbim 

I (ailed to Eii^Utid, but soon retumetl 

tPnace. In 1560 he returned to Scot- 

uid two years later was clas^cal 

to Queen Mary, who gave him a 

on for Vifir, Afterwards he was ap- 

ntcd I'rincipal of 8t. I,eonard's O'OlIege 

I 8t, Andrrw», iind ohosi-n Mixlcmtnr of 

' Genrml Asunnbly of thn t.'hurch of 

In 15(0 he wiut appointed tutor 

ttt iufant kuig Ja,nics. Tliis np- 

nent brought liim vurionii privile^i-s. 

1 be died Rliiiburi-li pive him u ]>uli- 

bneral. liudiaimn wus one of the 

tbtiUiant Lat iiiists of tbe Keiiaissance, 

Ift ewfo re cUiius a prominent place in 

I history of schoUnihip. He translated 

I of Euripides into Iiiitin verse. His 

rion «/ (A« Ptat>n» is i«garde(l as one 

[tiM best. His DtifiilAon t.-/ Iier DohujH 

I liways considered an ungrateful ri?tuni 

I Mary for her pension. He tried hai-d 

I aiake « scholar and n philosopher of 

ftnd whpn nfturwivrtla reproached 

: be bud only made him n peilant, he 

* \x WAS the \tf*t 1 could ma.lce of 

In his celebrated treatise Dk Jui-e 

ri optN^ ^koltM he ndviinced democratic 

I republican pr)nci])l<?s. 

Blllyutjasttiiohool tc^rm muy be tuken 

I tlm opfiosite of ' facing ' in mimy re- 

, only that ' fu^t^ing,' or the acting 

_ ' lor anoUier, is recognised as it 

I put of whool life, whereAH buUy- 

^MHcUj T«pteesed. It i-t the brutal 

■ of dder boys over the juniors, 

SchoolJ are schools in Ger- 

jr, oecvpyiiig an intermediate position 

tli« Realschulen (g.v.) und the 

nbxry. Th«y do not take up Latin, 

' geaenJ subjects — commercial 

algebra. Ac. They are al- 

I cbiefly by the children of tradesmen 

I Mechanics. 

Bonu. — 1. In Enf;lish, the bursar of 

I ,tBege or nMHutstery is the purse- keeper 

'^nmant (Franch 6cw*«, a par«e ; from 

Low Latin l/Hraa, « pmree, skin, leather). 
2, In Scotland, a person who holds, or is 
entitled to receive, n bursary (y.e.). 

Bursary. — I. The tremniry of a college 
or monastery. 2, In tin- Smttish univer- 
ntics a bursary is a scholarship — n sum of 
money awarded Usually on entrance, and 
|inyul>l(' annually for a crrtjiiii number of 
years, to a student for hia niaintnnnnco 
at the university, tierived from a perma- 
nent investment for the purpose, and 
sometimes awardetl by competitive exam- 
ination, sometimes bestowed by presenta- 
tion. At Abei\U-en U-tdonrgity there are, 
in the Faculty of Arts, (1) about l.'iO bur- 
saries, of the ag^r^gato annual value of 
about 2,500A. open to competition on en- 
trnncr. to the Arts course : seven are o( 
3.'it, fifteen of 30^., and so on downwards ; 
('i) aiiout eighty presentation bursaries {the 
liestowal of wliich is vested in ]>rivate 
[lutrons), of the aggregate annual value of 
nearly I.GOO/.: eight are of ^0^, twoof 33?., 
three of 30^, and so on down to 6/, ayear; 
(3) about thirty bursaries, under the pa- 
troim){>> of the magistrates and towncouucil 
of AVierdeen, of the aggregateannual value 
of over 400/,; these are usually submitted 
to open competition ; (4) four butsaries, 
of \hl. to 30i. a year, under the patron- 
af;e of the incorporated trades of Aber- 
deen. These Arts bursaries are tenable in 
nearly every case for four yeara — that is, 
for the full curriculum. In the Faculty 
of Divinity, there are (1) eighteen com- 
petition bursaries, of the annual aggregate 
value of 2.'13/., each tenable for three ypurs ; 
and (2) twenty-tliree presenftition bursa- 
ries, of the aggregate annual value of over 
fiOO/., each tenable for two, three, or four 
years : four of these are of the yearly 
value of 75/. and tenable for four years, 
.ind seven are of 20/. In tlio Faculty of 
Medicine there are ten burBoriea, of the 
a^-regate annual value of about 17.*if. : 
there is one of 3.7/., one of 28/., and three 
of 20/. In the Faculty of Law there are 
three bursaries of 20/. a year, and one of 
35/., each tenable two years. — At Edijt- 
bar^h [/nio&rnity there are in the Faculty 
of Arts about ISO bursaries (including 
two of 90/. a year, one of 60/., two of SO/., 
two of 4S/., two of 40/,, *c.), usually ten- 
able four years, and mostly burdened with 
special restrictions. In the Faculty of 
Divinity there are (1) eleven presentation 
bursaries, varying from S/. to 25/. ; {^'\ 
twenty-two competition butH&mt, vnclVxi^- 


ing two of B2I. 10«,, one of 401., one of 
3flt, Ac. ; and (3) three of 30^, teiialte 
for four y«&ra, )^ned in the Faculty of 
Arts, and helil At pleasure of the gamers in 
the Faeulty of Uirinity. In the Faculty 
of Medicine, twenty-fiTo bursaries. tonaWe 
mostly for four years ; inducing two of 
40^., one nt :iL'/., five of :iO(., four of 25/., 
Ac. In the FiicTilty of Lnw, thirteen hur- 
Biiriea of 19/. to 30/. ; tive l^iiig of 30/., 
three of 26/: 13*. id., and four of 25^.— 
At Glatgoio Vniifrntij there are al>out 
seventy bursaries in Arts, including one 
of 80/.', 0(16 of 50/ , aevemJ of 40/., ic. ; 
thirty-five in Theology, two of them being 
of 4'2/., aodMxof 4t/. ) fifteen In Medicine, 
one of them 4S/., one 40/., and several 
SS/. ; and a considerable number of valu- 
able bursaries common to two or more 
fftcultiea. — At St. Anrirrvg Uniivrs^ify 
there are attached to the TJniterf College 
about one hundred biirsarles, vtiryins in 
value from ftlmnt ol. to 50/. n year; nine- 
teen In-longing to St. Mury's College, of 
G/, to 30/. a year ; and twenty of the aiime 
viilue transferable from the United Col- 
lege when the bursai-B proceed to tlie study 
of Divinity, 

Buiby. Richard (h. Lutlon, in the Fens 
of Liucolnsliire. 1G06, (/. lOai).— He ob- 
tauied a kings scholarship at Westminster, 
ttnd was sulwequeiktiy elected to a student- 
ship at Christ Church. Oxford. He was 
so poor tliat the parish of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster. grajit«d him money to pay 
the fees upon lAking his degree in 1S28, i 
and he gratefully Acknowledged this by 
making many l>«]nefit« to the parish. For 
Komr^ time he was tutor «t Christ Church. 
In lt>3i) he was admitted to the prebond 
•lid rectory of Cudworth. He was ap- 
pciint^^i! nrnater of Westminster provision- 
ally when OslxiiHton was deprived of that 
office (1 638), but the elevtion was not oon- 
firnied liinG40. In the Civil War he lost 
t)iR proGts of his rectory and prel>end, but 
ill spite of his staunch loyalty and Church- 
ttULiiship. which led Pyni to deulnre tjiat 
it would never be right with the uiition 
till they shut up Westminster School, he 
EDMiaged to ret'kin both his studouti^hip 
and his mastership. One of his troubles 
during this period was of a local character. 
'Xhe second mast«r, Edward Bagshaw tho 

younger, tried to supplant him, but 1 
removed out of ' his place for his insole 
in May IC.'iS. Bogshaw puMishcd (\i 
an account of the transaction fromhist 
point of view. Busby iiiil>»w[uent)y 
fei-ed fur bis political principltM by tui* 
his ears cropped in the presenci' of hi* | 
pils. Upon the Resloratioii Bu.iliy'ii 
vices were recognisttd, and he wkji 
prebendary of WeetniiiiBter by the 
and BubEequently canon rosidentiaij 
Wells. At the coronation of Cbarl«6J 
Busby carried the ampulhi. It was I 
this time that the story arose which t«lb 
that Busby walked in the presBnce of I 
king with his hat on, ' lest the boys i 
suppose there was any man in tho ' 
grcntcr than the master.' He wa» <tl« 
proctor of the chapter of Bath and ' 
Busby became proverliinl for si;vcrity, 
yet his rule seems to have lieen einin» 
successful, for he gained the venomt 
and love of his pupils. A reinarkablo| 
of this may be seen in a letter from 
count I^nesborough, whicli Is 
ii\ fffetininel^r School, Pturl hth 
by Foi-sliaU (p. 183). Tlie letter 
' Dearest Master,' and contains refe 
to the remarkable care of the master. 
volume conlaina other letters aUottiati 
scarcely less striking. John Dryden 
other (Qstingulshed men of his era hod I 
his pupils. The school became famous, ' 
the highest families in the land sou^t I 
gain Aflmission for their sons. Stcerle' 
opinion 'that Busby's genius for ©due 
had asgreat anetfect upon the as« bol 
in as that of any ancient phi losophpr. 
have known great numbers of hut sell 
and I am conHdent I could discov 
striinger who hod been such with . 
little conrersfttion ; those of great 
who have passed through his instrac 
have such a peculiar readine&s of 
and delicacy of taste as is seldom 
in men educated elsewhere, though o(< 
talent.' Atlerbury says of Busby, *l 
a man to be reverenced very 
Aiilhony Wood speaks of him as a 
son eminent and exemplary for pie^ i 
justice.' Much of his cliaract«r is : 
in Dr. Biuirr't Corrt«pontUnee. I 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 



Calignpby (koAu*, bo*utiful. ypd*ui, I 
f), — The Mt of pcniDanship, or clear, 
\t writing ; tlM recording of Ideas 
neuis of dumioUTrs. Writing wna 
Iscod U> iho WrHtf-rn nation* bjr the 
ici*n«, who p^^l^«lllly liawHl thi'ir ays- 
00 that of the Egyjitian*. The Phoi- 
writinK wts c!Xt*'odeil ovur GreecH 
Itnly by couiui«rciul intercourse, auci 
neoeedettlaUtrby tlmtof the bo-chIIwI 
aad Freoeli. The chief points to 
ID riew for suct^essful mli^;rH|)ky 
each letter being well formed 
ictly recognisable, chariieter in 
Ittyle, and ease Rod mpidity in practico. 
I acquire ft good style thti pupil should 
am tJio advftntnge of inntruction from 
nuwtor who is n proliciunt in the art. 


GlUrtheilio (Or. KoXkiirOti'^. ndnrtift] 
ilh vtrcngth^ KoAiit, beautiful, and 
Rvat, itnEDgth) in tlio art or pnictiui' of 
iLing exerdau for health, strength, or 
nee ot iDOvemeut. It compreht-iiils nvery 
iad (it action which niay tend to give a 
ru^fal liffnrR and an nosy d«portni<?nt, 
0« the faiuat exen'isBit of the drill-in- 
nictor to the ■ culiBtheuic exercisea of 
e nofortiiiiale young women' whom 
bcktny one day saw pulling the garden 
Der. It ia nau&lly, however, restricted 
> what is popularly known as driU and 
ilMlt«d exernsee, and as such ia coniniouly 
nght in oar schools by some retired cor- 
nnL In taking up the tirst p<:>sition of 
rin, in whi<;b position the pupil stands 
tfomocKftfir being drilled, it is necessary 
at he (hoald stnnd with his Hhnuldcrs 
id body Muaro to thr front, heels in a 
H ann cIow<l. knccji bnicc<I up, toe^ 
mod ont at an angle of 4-T> it^.grpi^s, and 
tma hanjiing Inoat^ly by the Kide, and 
Bai^t hit! X vcriliiblf! Corjinml Trim, 
■faoold bi) no pDHttive (change in the 
Iptr parts of tiiR bmly, although the 
crliiflliacuilH- relaxed whim n»t stimd- 
Entlieruilui The pupil should alwaya 
9 hia diot advanced and his slioulder* 
hftck,fbj- if be rmuiiiKH liia original 
Vatiitm no obMt whatever is gained. In 
intrrval bfiween the exercises tlie 
U>1 toay at«t)n al euae by putting the 
tt <if tke lijlit hand over tlie back of 
Wft, and hy drawing labile the right 

foot and piftcing tho hollow ngainst the 
left heel, slightly bending at the same time 
the left knee. Marching is a very useful 
oierciae, as by it tho pupil learns to walk 
stendily and in regular time ; in the slow 
march the pupil ia aJlowi.<d 65 paces a 
minute, and ni the cjuick march I IG paces 
n oiiimte, c*ach pace meaauriiig about 
30 inchca. The arms abuuld fie kfrpb 
steady, and the tirst poaitiuii inaintiLini^. 
In turning, the pupil places the feel in 
order to turn in the direction indicated ; 
he cannot turn if the heels are square ; lie 
must either draw back the foot or advance 
it the required distance ; nor should he be 
nllownd to walk round, but Khould ntise 
the toes, and turn on the heels. Another 
UHefu! exercise in expanding the chest and 
strengthening the nnns ia the arm exer- 
eise.s. which iire done in fiix different grades, 
iilVr the manner of dumb-bell e.xcrcise-s. 
Thi' dumb-bell is a short bar of iron, with 
a knob at each end, to be held in the hand 
anil swung to and fro for exercise. No 
pupil under eighteen should use dumb- 
bells above three pounds weight each. 
Other calistlienic eiercises are leaning, 
lunging, and club exercises (are Cubva- 
TUBE OF THE Spise). A very handy book 
on this subject is Mr. T. A. McCarthy's 
CiiWiK/ciiiVs (London, 1881). 

Cambridge. See Univrrsitieb, 
Campe, J. H. [f>. 1746 in the duchy of 
Brunswick, d. 1818). — A celebrated Ger- 
man writer and pedagogue. After studying 
theology at Halle, and serving for awhile 
ns chaplain to a regiment at Potsdam, he 
was in 1777 summoned by the Prince of 
DesEau to replace Basedow (i.v.) in tho 
directorate of the Philanthropinum, which 
lie mised to a high degree of prosperity. 
He also founded an educational establish- 
ment at Triltow, near Hamburg. lie was 
in luldition entrusted with the task of re- 
fomiing the system of education in the 
dudiyof Brunawick. Hedevoted the latter 
port of Ilia life to educational literature, in 
which he was both a succeEsful and a bril- 
liant writer. Hia works include his Jia- 
/linniin Crtmoe Junior, 106th edition, 1883, 
Ike., G&rtium Dtctionury, 5 vola., 1807- 
1812, ThrophroH^ CollfOtlon of ci-lthralfd 
Voffayet for IM I'oMny, 12 vols., (itmeroi 
£tvi«ioH of the Scluml System, \Tia-ft\, 




IG vols. In his educations.! principles 
Caini>e followed closely those of Basedow. 

Canada (Education In). Se« Law 
(Edi'c.vti'ival) and Univkiwitiks. 

Carpenter, Mary {h. Eteicr. IK07, d. 
lST7),wjwt.liPp|(Ifst,L'hiUlof J)r, UintCur- 
penlrr, and sistt-r of iJr. \V. B. Curppiiter. 
She wnn ptiuciitpil witli hpT father's elder 
pupiU. Her work in Sunday school riirly 
ijxciUid littr interest in tlip poor. From 
1829 to 1S15 she wjls occupied with her 
niolber and siat^rs in a school. After a 
struggle of some years, in 1S64 Parliament 
[)iis£eU a bill providiii" for the establish- 
oifDt of reformatory schools. Meanwhile 
Mia« Carpeut«r had 8tart«d one at Kin^- 
wood. She was one of the chief promoters 
of the Industrial SehoolK Act, passed in 
1857. In ISjJl shi? ndvocnted in Our 
Conoicli thoftppHcalion of the reformatory 
system to adult criminiilK. In her sixtieth 
year xho visited Indtii. to iiuguiru into 
fnclian (education and prison discipliiK!. 
8ln) wrote uii account of tliis in 1S67, 
und«r tlitt title of Sic MuiiUis in Indui. 
She miwle three voyages to India after- 
ward'^ and laid the foundation of a system 
of female education for the country. In 
187 1 she established ' The National Indian 
Association ' (ij.v.\ and edited itsjuunial. 
She died suddenly at Bristol, after a life of 
unselfish devotion to all that is best in 
education. A good sketch of her work was 
published in the Timf», June 18, 1877. 

Catechetical Hethod. — Instruction by 
question and answer, the pupils being 
required to answer tho questions of the 
teacher. By tliiti means the cxplanntiona 
requisite for thp complete comprehension 
of a subject uro discovered and gii-en. 
8nni(^tinjes the answers are committed to 
memory from the text-book, and are re- 
cited to Bet ([nestions. Several olijections 
are advanced against this method, the prin- 
cipal bi'ing (1) that the pupil, biiing re- 
quired only Ui repeat what is enunciated 
in the language of others, loses the excr- 
ciue of his own peculiar faculties ; (2) the 
logical relations of the facU are liable to 
be oierlooked or imperfectly apprehended ; 
{3) tliat the answer to a question being 
merely learned, the full idea of the truth, 
of which sometimes the essential part is 
contained in a question, fails to be grasped. 
The oatechetic-ai was the method adopted 
by the early Obnstians to teach their con- 
Terts. and especially before the New Tes- 
tiuaent was wrilUn. 

Catechumen (Or. Ka-ntypifunnfi).- 

who attends a chias for imstruction, i 
the teacher im|iart.9 bis knowlwlge or 
It had a jjpecia! meatiiiig as applied 1 
converts to Christianity who were 
prepared for the rite of baptism. 

Cathedral 8ohooli. S«s 

Certificated Teachers. — After 
eRtablishinent uf the Committee of ( 
cii in 1S30, their attention was for 
directed to the creation of a body of 
educated and skilful instructora. 
famous minutes of 1846 (inf. (iovKRN 
Grasts) called into being two or 
teachers — pupil ■teachers {q.v.) and 
floated teachers. The original cer " 
of merit (as they were called) wfirc oi I 
classes, known as the upper, middle, I 
lower, and in each chiss there were ' 
divisions. The grants which were 
to normal schools contemplaled a 
years' residence, and a student who ' 
through the full course would be ; 
the close of the first year in one > 
divisions of the lower class, at the do 
the second yeai' to one of the diritioD 
llie middle class, ami at the clone 
tliird year ia one of the division* 
upper class. A large uuDil>er of 
actually at work when the minutes ' 
first issued naturally desired to 
certificates, and provision was ron 
them to be e.iamineil. The syllabuai 
elastic, and the class of certifioftt« j 
depended upon the diflicidty of 
jects taken and the proliciency aha 
To certificated te-achers the CommitUe I 
Council paid n yearly ' augmenbttjon ' I 
salary, ranging, according to daaa and i 
vision, from \bl. to 30/. fof masteca,] 
from 10'. to 20/. for mj rt re Bii M. 
Revised Code of 18G2 swppt avay 
augmentation togetiier wjith the 
scheme of certificates. Hi4oeeforth 
were to be four classea — the firet 
undivided, the fourth d rided into i 
upper and a lower grade. In th" lo 
grade were pUced those wl A pajsed in 1 
fourth division at the exani ioAtion ; in I 
upper all who passed in tl le fint, : 
or lliirddivisiorL Nocertii i»t»« waai 
alxive Uie fourtli class. I'l imotiou tot 
of the higher classes 8i)r-"i|«*i"'ly 
tained by five years' giu'li wrvice, 
of certificates. Th*-]. mi rii in fuiurr ( 
of three classes, with no -'•vl 


who pOMiid in Uio fourth division 
tbt examination n^ccivcd c<-rtilicAt<» of 
Uiinl dajui ; oaiiilifUttsi who pftsaed in 
•L'coiid,ur tliird diviiiiiui rt^dvnd 
of Uk SL-uoud claiw. No kpt- 
waa issued altuvi? llie atwond class, 
to ibe Br»t beinj^ only oblnined 
yt^tn' good service, Tlie fode whs 
under the direction of Mr. MiuiduSlu 
1682, bat the roli^s respecting uertifi- 
were little altered. Tiie full course 
.mtion for n teacher extends over 
jr*n — in a sense, over eight years. 
ooJDC four years of npprentice-sldp fts 
papd- teacher, with a Uoveminent ex- 
la at the end of each. Then oonies 
ecunination for i]ui»n'ii (cho1nrshi{>s. 
niLliif^s who puss this high riiou^b on 
list cnltr a Iruiiiiiig oollrge, whuro thyy 
icirlwoyea»,uiKli.Tgoiiiuan examintt- 
U the end of eai-h— llm 'first ytair's' 
velf . The names of the sucveaaful 
ididates are arranged, according to the 
of mccess, in three divisions. A 
idonC who has completed his training is 
fall intents and purposes a ccrtilicatvd 
icr, but ho does not actuiilly receive 
Gcnto (or 'parchment,' as it is fa.- 
called) till he has been under 
' for at least eighteen months, 
rauxt in oar *r.hool obtain from tbe in- 
two fiivoumlite reports with iin 
of li year l)i-twe(in tliem ; if the 
be Dot prvctHiMl tiy six iiiiMitlis' ser- 
it cannot count, unit a thir<l iiiunt Ix; 
befoni tJie paruhmont is issui^l. 
t«aar«ofUirmdiMuws. CiindiduU-s 
pus the second year's i-xmiii nation 
cvrtificales of the aetund cliiaa. At 
ifispecttou of the school the hiapector 
upon lhec«rtilicate ii coiR'ist- report 
tetxiver't work; when t«u ^mui.) re- 
I hava been obtained the certllJciite is 
to the tirst class, and no fui-tlier re- 
arc entered ou it. Oaiidiilates who 
the iirM year's examination receive 
of the third class, which can 
raiffld by passing the seixind year's 
itwtinn. 'fhe holders of third-class 
tes are not allowed to take chargw 
l-t«Bchers. Much of the course 
d is optional. The only compuU 
ant tfar pawing of the timt ynur'n 
tion atid thi- snr%-iiig of n, pirriod of 
To brrf^n with, though im ii fitct 
th* candidates for admission into 
CoUtgcaiiare bceu pupil- teacher^ 

the cxnminAtion may be taken by ' open 
qiioen's Bcholars,' that is, by candidates 
wlio have not been piipil-tcachfirg. The 
apprenticeship dons undoubtedly siirvp to 

gii'u teitchiiig skill and the confideiioo 
which conii^ of skill, but it is a ijucistion 
whetlinr tlie same result might not bo 
more certainly obtained if the practioal 
training uiine somewhat later. Then the 
uertilii^ate examination of both years is 
open to •act'mjj teachers,' that is, to can- 
didates who have not been through col- 
lege. It is easy to suggest improvements 
in the existing training college system, 
and it is true that some untniine<l touchers 
have been highly suceessl'u! while some 
trained teachers have utterly failed; but 
there ia no denying that, other things 
biang eijual, the trained teaclieris sup«rior 
to tlie untrained, and that till the standard 
for certificates is considerably raised tlie 
education giv^en in elementary schools must 
too often be narrow and mechanical. At 
the date of the report of the Committee of 
Council for 18S5-6 there were 40,340 cer- 
tilicated teachers at work. Of these 43'8 
per cent, were untrained, while S'6 per 
cent, had been trained for less than two 
years. There are no figures to show what 
papers were taken by the untrained 
teachers, hut the published lists prove 
that a majority tJxik the tirst yeur's ; yet, 
by ji gross anomaly tJiivt existed till tho 
end of 1«83, untrained candidiit«s who 
passed in the third division on the first 
year's papers, and candidates who Imil Ijeeii 
trained for two yi'ars and pissed in tho 
first division on the second year's i«i|)ers, 
recL'ived the saiue class of eertificate. {See 
Training of Tk.\ciiers.) 

Channing. William EUery (k at New- 
port, lUiode Island, ! 780, (/, Boston, 184:i). 
^An eminent American Unitarian theo- 
logian, educationist, and writer : was edu- 
cated at Harvard College, and obtained 
great distinction by Ids eloquence and his 
writings, especially his review of Milton's 
7' of VMntian Ponti-ine, and review 
of Sir Walter Scott's Li/' of Nnpoh-on. 
His collected writings were published at 
Glasgow, 1H40, in 6 vols. His chief edu- 
cational works were. On Srif Cv-llurtf 
and Thf EIrwfiiin of ihr. Workint/ Cla«He.». 
{ 'hnnning regnrded tiiucatinn as the means 
for the perfection of the individual, and 
supporti-d the efforts of Horace Mann in 
spreading education among al\ TO.n\i& «A 
societj'. Not only did theae vdeaatrvraa^ 




in tlie TTiiited States, but also spread in 

ViiriouB fouiilries of Euro|ie. 

Chapman. George (&. 1 723, d. 1806).— 
A Scutcii prcifeasor and eduoationiBt ; was 
for a quarter of a cpntury n very success- 
ful pi'ofessor and <lin»ctor of a school at 
Damfrios. AmongGt his sdiolastic works 
are, Tri-atinf on Education, 1773, which 
pnssi^H through many (editions, Advantages 
^ II Clamncal Ediii-.atiim, At. 

Character (Or. ^apanr^p^ a, mark) 
nHintiN, wlii'ii applied to a. Iiuiiiati being, 
thti piM'utiiir group of mt-ntal and mural 
(|uuUtii!H by which lie is distinguiBhed as 
an iiidii'idual froio olliera. lu this sense 
it ia equivalent to ludiriduality (whieh 
snr). Its natural basis is also marked off 
aa idiosyncrasy. In a restricted and 
ethical sense chnr(tcti?r means a good or 
virtuous condition of the mind, and ^spe- 
cialiy tlic emotional dispoaitiona and the 
will, Moral character is the highest result 
of moral develop incut, lieiiig the outcome 
of a. persistent spries of i-fforts in doing 
right. It corresponds with what Kant, 
oalla a good will. Character has its chief 
nappurt in moral habit, which implies a 
lixity of purpose in certain definite di- 
rections, as the pursuit of truth and of 
justice. But it includes more tlian a sum 
of habits, x'iz. a conscious self -subjection 
to duty, and a readiness to take pains to 
reach the truest and hij^hest conceptiou 
of duty. This moral character, though 
conceived abstractedly as a common at- 
tainment for all, is in every case vitally 
connected with, and in a sense an out- 
growth from, individual character. In 
truth, if tlie highest duty is to make the 
moral best of ourselves, it is evident that 
individuality has its rij;htful claims within 
the limits of nioruj growth. TIip educator, 
M a foriiit-r of character, has no doubt to 
inaist on a certain uiiiforiiiity of moral 
action and of niolive. Nevertheless, his 
ultimate aim aliouW l>e t<) harmonise the 
claimK of the moral law and of indivi- 
duality, by helping the child to develop 
to tlie utmost its own distinctive good 
qualities. (S^ Mi-s. Bryant, Bdvcatiunal 
Endt, iutrod. and pt. i. ; A. Martin, Vidu- 
eafvm du rnraHe-re ; Buissou'b Dietion- 
fuiiri: de Ped., article ' Caractire ' ; Selunid's 
EticycJiipiidu, article ' Charakter.') 

Charades. — These entertainments, 
iDude up of pantomime and dialogue, siig- 
gestinfc by the various <livisiona of a piece 
the gyllablea of a complete word seleoted, 

are a favourite amusement at hrmki 

parties. Intelligently arranged, «nd 
vided with appropriate costunn-s, A-c, 
may 1>e made usotul and phnsant adj 
to education, giving the jicrfumiCT* 
conliilence in public, and habituali&K 
to the ]iractice of elocution, espevi 
tlie performers be trained to speak ci 
and distinctly, and to take au iai 
interest in tlie ri^U tliey each aHume. 
Charity Schools. — Schools endowi 
the purpose of giving an elementary 
cation to tlie childrea of the poor. 
large number of such schools were fo<j: 
in the reign of Queen Anne, and arc 
distinguished from the endowed 
schools iq.v.) founde<i about the ti 
the Reformation. The grammar 
appear to liave been designed gi^nvmlljrj 
the purpose of affoniing nieaiiK of " ' ' 
eilucation to nil who might be wt! 
learn. For this object it was pro' 
that the poor should lie exeoipl«d from' 
payment, or, lest the poor should still 
neglected, that no fees ahotild be jiaid \tf 
any. The chanictor of tlie teaching hs* 
however, usually been of a kind not suit4d 
to tlie wonts of the working classes. OW 
rity Bclioola, on the other hand, were !»• 
tended mainly for the use of tliat class M 
the population which now attends pnbw 
elementary schools, and for the purpow <■ 
aflurding them that sort of education wtueU 
ia now provided for all by conopulsonr Iswr i 
The Select Committoa on tfi« Endowed 
ScboolsActiftppointodin IKS6,mcnmroiu»4 
that when a new schemo is mad<t for oa 
endowed elementary school, it should aia 
to provide the children of thn worki^ 
classes with a practical instructJnn aujt-' 
able to their wants in the particular <if- 
cumstances of each locality. TIm! purpOM 
of such a revision, in the opinion of II14 
committee, should not lie the rvlidf <rf 
school rate, but the rndowmftnt shooM 
used as a means of providing aome edi 
tional benefits which tJie poor would aol 
enjoy if the endowment did not exttt; 
for instance, in rural distriola, ind 
agrieultunil instrucUoQ suttabliB totkoM 
bouring population. | 

CLart«rhoase. .S'm Pcbuc Scnootft 
CheerfuloeSB. — Tlds term deacrilx* *i 
more or less permanent cowUtiou oratti-j 
tude of mind, which is at onoe alm^l 
pleasurable and promotive of acttritf^J 
nienta) and bo<lily. It contrasts, aa llM*! 
oiie hand, with all tiuhappy states of 

firetfolnen, d««p4ndencr, *nd what in 

tfaiowD as low spiribi ; »no, on tbr othor 

I Wad, wibh all itetos of pluiviunible i>]ccit«- 

at, aa bouteroiu mirth. It may l* 

ivi\ fts tie prmiuct of tlinw fuulors : 

' (W thf-i* the first is the iiilluwice of tlit- 

bodily condition, corresfiomling to 

phyxiologista and paychologiats are 

the huhit. of describing aa the vitel 

[ ■»•*, or the fcfling of well-being, unfl it« 

I ^i|K)*il«. Thp profoand infliiriiicp of vary- 

1 i^ bodiljotHiditioiiE, pnrticiilnrly those of 

&e vita) orguui, u\ tuiaing or deprrssing 

j.tbe laeata] toii«, is utrikingl^v itluKtrutL-d 

b HKrutnl diinaiie. luui ia cliwrly u1wi>rvii' 

Ud in children, wIiobi? whole iiieiilal life is 

[ta J ntinMUely connected with Ijoitily stutes. 

«« ln«ui hy a hH.|>])y natural dis- 

I or cheerful tempemtnetit probaltly 

ilor it* chief ingredient a well-ori^aiiised 

h<«lthy f'hynqu4>. 2, The second 

I infliuincKi h that of the surroundings. 

IjibjiKal and mornl. A huppy, eheerful 

[nniditMMi of mind in early life prpsuppnses 

I ■ niffidt-ncy of tnt«!ri;sting ohlf-cts and 

(fcannek of aotivity. A hrigiit, pretty 

I (Bvinxmieut, whether out of doors or in 

^oors, eJieiviKMi n markod inlluein;e on thu 

I <UU'a spirits. jVgrtM;alj!o openings for 

laOnity, aud the pri-apnee of bright com- 

F Itnions and pl»yi»iiti!!i, arv a f urtlier i^n- 

■nion of tiua dtuimble inontal atute. The 

Mrking of uncoiueioua imitation is strik- 

hgly exemplitled In the iiiiettious (.'tm- 

■etpr of cheerfulness. 3 Iii its highest 

fam as a permanent habit L'heerfulness 

lepnvmta the reault of a series of volun- 

•wyriTortB, By trying to rise above any- 

ibiitg in our circumstances which is pniuful 

tnii dnprcCKing. and forming a habit of 

boking br preference on thi" bright side 

if things, wu arc all of us able to some 

txtent to make good a dclif^iency in na- 

tuml dinposition. The ivlnentor is con- 

amed with the pnimotinn of cheerfulness 

Mtfce yaoiigjinthe interi^ts both of intel- 

betUBl aud cuoml tmining. Rince a gBntle 

bv of plewturable fei^ltng ia most favour- 

•tikto mental activity (mr- Ple.uhtrp.), the 

khool-uacber should inaki' it one of his 

nun objecta, by the choice of attractivi^ 

nnoOMUngs, au agTeeablc uianner, ia:., 

to maintain a dieerful tone among his 

popiU - and it is not one of the least merits 

i tl>c Kindergarteu {q.v.) tluit it so amply 

■l£k these conditions. Farther, the moral 

vcator sbonld early begin to exercise tlie 

M in Bocb a control of the feelings and 

thi! thoughts as will best contlnee to a 
habit of cheerfulness, cf. article SvM- 
P.\TIIV. (Am Fit<!h, L'eture* nn Teiwhiiiif, 
p. 16, and articles 'Frohsinn,' ' Aufmun- 
terang,' in K. A- Schmid's Eiteylupddif.) 

Chemistry. — The acienoe of Clieniistry 
seems to have been tint pursued in Egypt, 
whence it takes its name. According to 
Plutorch Egypt was anciently named 
Chemiii, on account of the blackness of 
its soil. ' The same word,' say Koscoe and 
Svhorlcmmer, ' was used to designate the 
block of the eye, as the symbol of the 
dark and mysterious. It ia therefore pretty 
(certain that 'chemistry' originally meant 
Egyptian— or sec ret— knowledge, asitwo* 
afterwards termed the secret or black art ' 
{Trvatiaf on. Chtniintry, vol. i. p. 1). Liko 
other sciences, chemistry took its ri«e 
in fanciful and aupei-stitious ideas : «a 
astronomy had its rise in astrology, so 
chemistry grew out of alchemy ; and 
the iinceators of the Daltona, Boyles, 
and Jouies of modem chemistry were the 
searchers for the elixir of life and tlio 
philosopher's stone in ancient times and 
in the Middle Ages. Of all tlie sciences 
that of chemistry demanded most of coiir 
age from its votaries, and the experiences 
of in(|uiring cliemista who, greatly daring, 
put togetlier and treated unknown sub- 
stances and awaited the results, form as 
exciting reading as the adventurer of 
travellers in unknown lands. Thrice was 
Roger Bacon stretched on the Boor of his 
cell for dead by uTiexpected explosions ; 
many lost eyes and hands, and life itself, 
in the perilous experiments out of which 
has grown our modern knowledge of tho 
constitution of material things. 

Chemistry is often described as a 
braneli of molecular physics, i.e. of the 
science which deals with the relations that 
exist, not between bodies, but between tlie 
molecules, or particles, of which liodiesare 
composed. It has for ila domain the in- 
vestigation of the ultimate constituuiits 
of all substances, living and non-living, of 
t<])e laws of the combination and disas- 
sociation of these conttituents. Tfiere is 
no science with wider Ijearinga on human 
life ; since the time of Paracelsus (1493- 
1 .'i4l ) it has Iteen the foundation of medi- 
cine ; on it scientific agriculture is bas«l ; 
mnnufacturing industries owe to it tlieir 
great expansion ; sanitary science isoneof 
its latest births ; by the synthesis of food- 
stutTs it is bogimiing to open, up Wbecte 



niidrsftmed-of posRibilJties in the wny of 
Bcic^Dtific alimentntion. As nn instnimrint 
in the education of t)ie young it iiiis bcKii 
bat too much neglei;t«<l, for it ciiltivat«s 
keenness of observntion, noaunwry of ro- 
cordal, strength of iniMnorv, utid putience 
of invpstijiation ; in its theories it tulti- 
Vfites tJie rtMisjuing fuculties, while iii its 
]>riLcti(:e it tratna the «ye hji<] tlie hund. 

Robert Boyle (1627-1691) may per- 
haps be regarded as the fatlier of modern 
chemistry. He first laid down the dis- 
tinction between elements and compounds, 
and discovered the relation esiating be- 
tween the presaure on n gas iind its volume ; 
the stntement of the tact that the voluiue 
of a gns vnriefi inversely aa the pressure 
u[M>n it, other circumstunces remaining 
tlie Banie, is known im ' Boyln's law ' (aome- 
tiiiies as Boyle and MiLriotte's law). 
Joseph PripBtlcy (1733-1804), on August 1, 
1774, diswivered osygen by beating mer- 
coric oxide, a. discovery 8ai<l also to have 
been made independently in France by 
lAvoisier, and in Sweden by Scheele, 
Henry Caveudiab (1731-1810), utilising 
the observation of Priestley thnt some 
water hud been produced when electric 
Bparlca were passed through a mixture of 
hydrogi^n and air, succeeded in 17.SI in 
tile synthesis of water, thus determining 
its composition. To these discoveries 
Butherford added that of nitrogen, and 
Bchede that of chlorine — the latter also 
preparing a number of orgitnic substances. 
Lavoisier (I7'13-1794), taking up the dia- 
ooveries of bis conteiuporuries and adding 
(bento bis own, laid down tlie true theory 
of combustion, swept away the old notions 
of phlogiston (a kind of combustion-Eout 
rosident in all combustible bodies), and by 
a aeries of admirable monogriiphs placed 
chemistry on a sound basis of fact, and 
established the indestructibility of matter. 
John Dalton (17(if)-lSU) in 1803 iRsned, 
for the first time, a Uilile of tlie ' relative 
weights of tlie ultimale particles of gase- 
ous and other bodies,' and in 1^07 his 
'atoiiiiu tlieory ' was mndi.' known to the 
world. This theory posits the 'atom,' or 
indivisible |>article, us the fundamental 
unit of tlie chemical element ; each atom 
liaa ita own weight in relation to other 
atoms. Hydrogen being the tightest 
known element, the weight of an atom 
of hydrogen ts tjiken aa one, and the 
weight of every other atom la a multiple 
of t^t Oif hydrogen. TIub, oxygen being 

sixteen times an' lieavy ■■ liydrogM, j 
atomic weight, or the ' weight ntmi 
oxygen is 16. Aa an »ton) is tJiO t 
particle of un element that can enter j 
combination, this relative weight of ■ 
gpti is the least weight witli wliich it) 
enter into combination. Atouu are I 
ther classified according to the uuub 
other atoms with which they comli 
Tbe combining power of hydrogen id 
one, and elements that combine with I 
drogen atom for atom ar« called mo 
Elements one atom of which 
with two of hydrogen are dyads, tbowf 
combine with three of hydrogen 
and BO on. A line is sometimn 
denote this combining atomicity, andj 
term ' chemical bond ' is used to deacf 
it ; then we obtain graphic foormulie «f 
compounds. Thus ; — 

11_ _a H^ —0- — K 

Ilyilriit^pn. (.'hlorini!. Kjdrogi^ri. Oivjf«i, Hjdngcft 

Tl^dniclJorir Had. 



H N H 



e--fc n 


C^C«ib«ii. TetruL 



The letters used are the first letters ol 
the names of the elements, and ara calUi 
their symbols. When all the bonds of tlM 
elements in a compound are satisfied. La 
joined to others, the compound Is stable ; 
when any bond Is unsatislied, the ooia- 
poand is unstable. When to the atomio 
theory of Dalton was added, in 1808 by 
Gay Lu£sac, and in 1811 by Aroeadn^ 
the law of combination of gaaeous bodiM 
by volume, the foundations of oliemisttj 
may be said to have been completed. 

Chemistry was for a long time divided 
into two great brancbea, inorgaiuc aud 
organic. The first comprised all sub- 
stances which were not produced by liv- 
ing things ; the second all products <A 
animal and vegetable activity. Tlie &nt 
could lie artificially produced, the secood 
could only be produced bj vital action. 
This distinction was broken down in 1838 
by Wi'hk-r, who produced urrra aitiGcially. 
Alccihol was soon after made in the la- 
boratory, and since then hundmds of on 
giinic substances have been manufncturfd 
by the chemist. In 1837 Wuhlcr dc«cTib*d 
organic chemistry us an 'endless and patJi- 
les3 thicket, in which a utun mar wdl 
dread to wander,' The thicket u --" 


I hj p«ths easy to travrJ. Hat it is 

jcr ' DTvantc ' cbuniUtry, for the oid 

I m brid^M. It in now ' tiin cliitniistry 

At carboii cuuijioundit,' for the pns 

9or«b((enoeot<tarboD, with its Ktmii^ 

I of ■elf-ottocUtioii, ia now the di- 

; mark o( the two gKia.i branubcs of 


Tlie chemistry of carbon conifiouutls 

huB^Q two mftin divisioiis^tbat of th^ 

pnfiin, oleliDo, aod allied groups, and 

i titet of tbo aromatic hydrocarbons. In 

I Ab fint «crif« thv CArbon atoms are linked 

[fachuns; in theseeond they form n closed 

E, cftUcd, from lli« itnmo of its proposcir, 

knlc's rii^ Thus wo hure ns types of 





C— H 


Propane. Blhene. Acetylene. 
Itypeol the other ; 



C— H 

C— H 



In inorganic chomiitry tho prngress 
h*8 been pv^t, Uiougb li-jw strilcing. In 
1837 liftr-thm itlunienta wtirn known ; in 
IWI the number liiui ris'-n li> nevoiity, 
■nd it is sUe^i-d tliiit some twnity more 
fcs*? be«u diawvered in nire Sc!iaiUuu.via.n 
nMakby Knuaaud Nilsou. As yt-t, liow- 
•wr, ' inoTfcanic ' chemistry baa fail(-d to 
yifid generalisivtioDs similar U> tbose of 
'W^uiic.' and it remains a mass of sonie- 
«Mt disjointed facts. The i^uestion of 
Ifce imraibility of decomposing the bodies, 
kow r^acded as elemeotary, is engaging 
the attention of chemists. Crookes has 
MraHted ibat all chcmicai atoms are but 
■Ul^tM of a priiupvnl substance, 'pro- 
tyle,' bot his Uioory still locks experi- 
nental rcritication. 

In l««ching chemistry it is important 
tiaithatCAcbcr should bear in mind Wil- 
obtain bj mcftns of their Moses and obser- 

vation an exact knowledge of th« objects 
with which they are concoFDed fill thntn. 
selvfis simply with ' inane fnncips nnd 
empty imaginations.' As Pmfpssor lIuK- 
Iny says, commenting on this reinnrk of 
Harvey's, ' You may tell a stuilent tliat 
u-at#r IS comjHjsed of oxygen jind liydro- 
geix ;you may give him Uie formula writ ten 
ill pretty letters, nnd sliow him complifai.ed 
signs witli bonds Ut-tweL-iv tliem, an<l all the 
rest of it ; and by so doing, if 1 mistake 
not, you will till bis mind witli ibo inane 
formulas and empty imaginations of which 
Uarvey speaks : or you may take the com- 
plete substance — a glass of water — nnd 
without going one iota beyond common 
Ungaage and matter of olwervatinn yoa 
may get out of it the elementary bodies of 
which it is composed, show him the pro- 
cvn*, anil thereby fix in his mind for «ver 
a eompli'te, real, physical conception, on 
which be can build.' (See TrmUite on CAa- 
minlry, by Professors Rosuoe and Schor- 
leitimer, 3 vols. ; Cfifininlri/ of Uie Catbon 
CompouniU, by ProffSHOr Schorlemmer ; 
Walls's edition of fi/utu^/ Organic and 
Inorganic Clu-mistry. 2 vols. ; Organio 
Chei'ii'lrij. bv H. V. Morley.) 

Childhood (Characteristics of). — Ohild- 
natui'e forms the special materiiLl on which 
tlie teacher has to work, and, as such, the 
study of its characteristics is a matter of 
prime concern. In attempting to define 
these we must be carefal to select only 
common and eitsential traits of childhood. 
Children difl'er much leas from one anothnr 
than adults; nevertheless, individual dif- 
ferences liegin to present themselves from 
theiirst, (.fe Isdividualitv.) The child 
is to lie regarderl as a distinctly human 
being, in whom the liiKher attributes, in- 
tellectual and moral, thikt mark off man 
fruiii the lower aniniiils are nnscent, and 
tiia educator has first of all to view the 
child in this light. At the same time ho 
hail to reirard the child at Ma great distance 
from adult man and as a link of connection 
between tlie species and the animal world 
and nature as a whole. In order to illaik 
trate lliis we must distinguish between 
the several modes of activity or functions 
of the human organism. These may bo 
conveniently divided into(i) the vegetative 
functions, by which the physiciil frame- 
work is being built up and onlarge*l by 
exchange of materials with the envir()n- 
ment ; {b) animal functions, sensibility 
and motility, by which U&ipl«SUT»Q& aw to- 



Mdved from without, and movemetiUi eze- 
catod in s(lju«tm«tiit to these impressiaiu ; 
snd (e) tliu spt'ciallf humao functions, 
which mako up whitt wc ftall oonacioilsriess 
or lil'i- in its higher rlevelopmeiits 
of intn11i^iic:i- or thought, (^tuotian ami 
will. TJic diilil itt hniwlly marlced off 
from thi- uiiult by thn pr<!]ioniienince of 
the lower fuiictiousi over the higher. To 
this exWat it may bo auiJ to U-long more 
to uiiture aiiil tlie iiiiimul world tliuii to 
btUDauity. At first its life is lurjjely phy- 
aoai. The varying' &tat«a of siitisfnction 
and dissatisfaction coDiiected with fluctu- 
ations in the bodily life luikke up its plea- 
sure and its pain. Tlie lirat nclivitics of 
the orgnnM of sense und niovcmr^nt nrc 
directed towiinis the sntisfar.tinn nf phy- 
Bicut wiinta. The lirst iictioiis arc prompted 
by instincts which it slmrps with the lower 
anitniils. At the sunm time the chihl is 
diBtiiiguished. from tliii mere animu.1 from 
the liegiiiniiig. Tliis is seen partly in the 
fhirt UiiLt instinct pliiysu vtry limited piirt. 
While the newly -hiitched chicken can not 
only run alwut, but osccule nice muscular 
adjustments in the net of pecking, the child 
bus tn lejirn the use of its rye-s, its hands, 
and ita feet by ii slow and difficult prncpsa 
of trial. The very helplessness of infancy 
itBelf, contrasting in ita degree and in its 
duration with the corresponding state of 
the lower animals, is a iliatinetively human 
feature. For, according to theevolutioniat, 
the prolonged dependence of the buman 
otlspring on others' protection and aid is 
cloaety connccljrd with the growth and 
deepirniiiK of the social feelings in the past 
liialory of the race. From the very first, 
too, tlio child displays the ({erni of a fi'eer 
spiritual acliiity. Thus, the infant shews 
itself what tlie animal never tdjews itaelf, 
a perfectly dtsinterested observer. It looks 
at and admires tlungs which have notliing 
(o do with its pbysicjil ne^s, and shows 
the first crude germs of a sciontilic curio- 
sity in examining the objects that are put 
into its hands. The whole Geld of chil- 
dren's playagain is a striking illustration, 
both in its pure disinterr'st^ and 
it« mimicry of adult action, of their supe- 
riority to the animuL A proper luider- 
Ktnnding of the relation of the human to 
the Kub-human in the child is essential 
to its proper managctriont uiiil cducution. 
Thus tbci parent has to watch the elVcct of 
bodily atatcit on the teiu[ier of the iiifiuit. 
the teuohing uf Puttduxxi and Frocbcl as 


to tlie true method of infiint-tninin 
based on the recognition of the truth 1 
the use of the organs of sense nod of i 
ment is the slartins point in tbo dov 
nient of mind- Turning to the 
strictly mental char»cteriBtic8of tlie i 
we 3i« tliiit it contrasts witli the i 
respect of each of the tliroe phases, i 
ligence, feeling, and will, Witit reep 
the lirst, sense knowledge, i.e. the* 
tion of outer objects, miilce« up tlie i 
part of llie intellectual life, the hig 
activities of iniAginatiOD and rca«on 
pearing only in very crude form and ' 
close connection with sense- tK^riMiptioii. 
The pi^-occupatioo of the child'x minil 
with out^er things is a serious obstAck t* 
the growth of that reflection Uiion *elf 
which is necessary to moral developmeat. 
At the same time tlie cJiild's advancing 
knowledge is secured by an insatiable cu- 
riosity, which shews it^lf on the one hand 
in the direct exaiuinAliou of objects of 
sense, and on the other hand in ceaseleo 
questionings of others. The t^nchableneu 
of the child arises from tliis abunduit in* 
quisittveness, aided by a belief in otJien^ 
superior knowledge, which is only the ex- 
pression in the intpllectual S[>h<!m of ita 
dependence on others, (.S''' Cui(IOKITT-) 
The feelings of the child again aiX' chano- 
terised hy the preponderance of tiut senao* 
element, and the absence of those piYiCMM* 
of imagination and thought which ar« in- 
volverl in all the higher emotions, ns the 
liner sort of sympathy, the love of trutli, 
and tlie sense of justioe. Ttie violence «i 
childi«n's feelings is closely connected wili 
the excessive force of sense -i in preasions, 
tlie absence of reflection, and the want ct 
will-power in checking &nd coiitrolUug tie 
outburst. With this turbulence w« bave 
a striking degree of volatility and Cftpri- 
ciousness, which contrasts with the lasting 
afiections and dispositions of later life. 
The dependence of childhood exprtissest 
itself in the region of the feelings, not only 
in the instinctive love of society, hut in 
the natural desire for others' good o|)iniaai. 
(,S'e/? Emotidxs.) Lastly, we sc^o tliat tbe 
child's power of i-oluntarj' action is tiar- 
rowly circumscribed by its inahility t» 
represent the more reniot<« conituinences 
of ita actions and U) check or inbiUt the 
solicitations of the iuuued)at« prewut. 
The depeiiiiencc of childhood abows itaeU 
hffre as the instinctof obedience, by wbieh 
tlie will, under favourable conditions, eaail/ 



and withnut much pninfiil friction subor- 
diMite*il«clf laninprriorvil]. (.SVW11.L.) 
(Par » d(it*ilpd Account of thf^ clmrtcliT- 
miat of childivn, tn ttin wnrka on cliiH- 
mdiokifcjr by B. Pctm, Fimt Thr<!f Y'.arii 
tfChildiood, Sic, Prof. Prcyor* /)i> grrk 
in Kindiri, aina Cliild ami Child- XtUurn, 
bf the BurouesB Slaruiiliultx Biiluw ; ct. 
uticle ' EiifHDce' in Butsaon's Dietionnaini 

^-VksiA't Hospital, popularly known uti 
'iMBIueCoatSctiooI, isoiit^of Ui«Gvi!ll()yaJ 
BoipjtaJa of the city of Loudou. and was 
faiiiik(lliyEaw»rtVl..l.'i53. Theaubual 
ICTHititt of this witilthj- foundation fluu- 
tetai coDxiiiBmbly, Imt, exclusive of its 
•MuioD choritisi for the blind, is seldom 
Wlhw. fiO,00<W. Tliriiumbfirofchildren 
M ibc- foundiktion is nliout I l/iO, including 
10 girls Mid 300 bcij's at the jircpanitory 
Btthliahnienl al Hfrtfurd. Al«^ut 180 
MB a«lmiU«l ^luiuiklty. Thn timn of «H- 
mittioD is trota vv^hl to teit years of age, 
■■d, «xclauve of upecial riKhtti, under 
fvtain tmaU rested in City Compunieii 
nj otheT tiodies, ia by preseiitiition of a 
|Dmnior. 'l'h«' chief qiiaJiliculiou for ub- 
Uining a prc«entation, in the vwta of uhil- 
dnsu not orphans, ostensibly rests in 
pumt« not possessing ad«(|uat« iiieanii for 
tk muntenance and educatiou of their 
bnilies. Th« usual qualification fur th» 
ttcctton of a govi?mor ia a donatioti of 
soon A> tho children in the sclioola are 
hoanlcd «n<l clothed, ns well as educated, 
■ large omounr. of the annual income is 
CEpendnd upon clothing and mainteiiauce. 
VwiooK Mrlicnuw hare heen proposed of 
kle jtmrt tot mmmlelling this imporlajit 
tODnoBtion, Mtd liringing it into harmony 
with th* reguin-nmnts of the times, {See 
Xrporl vf StUei Comtiiilte/i rm Hiiiiowfd 
SAeoUAct*, 18S-.) 

Ciril Snrice. flee Examinations. 
Clurie*] Studies. -^inc« the revival 
of Inming the place of honour in the edii- 
cMiofial ^at«us of Europe has bpi-n occu- 
fiti by the study of the uUsiiics. The 
»orii 'classics' (icriptoivii elamrici) mwins 
prupwly ' of or belonging to tlie/rj( dnas,' 
<r 'fottliy of being classed'; cf. the Ox- 
fonl distinction between 'paas'uitin and 
'dan' men- But the word bss been imr- 
■W»«J down U> denote the writers of Gret'cu 
ud Rome. Ouring the period of scho- 
hn i eu m (until the end of the fifteenth 
•Mary) int«reKt. in Oreok imd Latin lit«- 
atan imd be«a decaying; the impulse 


given by Charlemagne in founding schooln 
for the stu<iy of Latin and also of 4jli'eek 
Hied oot,fiud Latin was cultivated for prac- 
tical purpcwes only, an<l an a matter of 
nrccsJdty ; for Latin was tho only universal 
iiKidiuni of communication, nnd was the 
language of the Church and the law. The 
Rpniiissance — that griuit roiiction ugiiinst 
medieval ism — resulted in the first placo 
ill a revived study of Grpek and Lntin ; 
tho clnssics were studied in tho spirit of 
Schiller's poem, Dtr GMIer GrieeJvmlandu, 
as embodying the wisiloui and beauty of 
a lost order of thin^, as s voice from a 
higher world. For the ' practical ' Btu<ly of 
Latin was sul'stituted the study of Greek 
nnd ]>Atin literature. At the present day 
the cinsaics niay be said to l>e engaged in 
thp struggle for existencp. Botli in Mng. 
land iind abroad there is a strong party 
chiiming as a right the aWitiun of the 
c!iia.iics, or at any rate Uieir relegation to 
n, sulionlinate position. How this move- 
ment originatjid is a, i|ueation which wu 
need not discuss lier<!. For tlie present 
we are uoncernetl with (1) the arguments 
wliich may he advanced in defence of it; 
and (2) the counterarguments in defence 
of the classics. 

Tlie main contention of the supporters 
of a 'modern' education is that so many 
other subjects of modem growth demand 
recognition in a scheme of education that 
time cannot be spared for the long disci- 
pline of Greek and Latin. The tiinn do- 
volj^d to cinsaics would be suHicieiit to 
oiiihrace a complete cycle of the physical 
sciences. Modern languages are a disci- 
pline in language, and might, from tliat 
point of view, makn good in piirt, if not 
entirely, the lossof the classics, while their 
practical utility cannot be left out of sight 
by a commercial nation likt! ourselves. 
Tne study of Eiigliah literature would, it 
is maintained by Professor Huxley, he a far 
Itotter school of literary taste and culture 
than that of the writers of Gi'cece and 
Rome ; ' the ascent of Parnasiius is too 
steep to permit of our enjoying the view,' 
and few reach the top. What thorei is of 
good in the classics could be better studied, 
from the lestlietic point of view, in trans- 
lations. ' I should just as soon think of 
swimming across the Hudson in a coat of 
mail when I can take a penny steamer,' 
cries Emerson, ' as of studying the clasidcs 
in the original when I can read tlicm iu tho 
admirable translations ot^r.^\\ix.' ^Tbe 


cUsncA,' says Yn^sor Huxley, ' are aa 
little suit«d to be the staple of k Htieral 
eduwttion nspftlajontoiogy.' The great aim 
of education, hti holHs, is to impnrt. a, koow- 
leilgr- of till! univ<!rs(! aA govcmcii liy law. 
Nature hp tiimiparcs to a hnnnGceiit aiiKcl 
pluyingagameof chcjntwitli man, in whiuh 
defeat mejiTis il«ith. Binoru-i' is u, know- 
leilgo of tiiu lnwii of thn pime. Thus 
tile dcniuud is for what Ims bii«ii (.•ullej 
uu 'autoL'hUiouuus' tducaliDii — an educa- 
tiou rooted in modem life and modem 
needs. That such aa education is a pos* 
Bibility is proved by the example of Greece 
herself. From the point of view of train- 
iujl, Mr. H. Spencer and Mr. Ruslnn ninin- 
tnin that 'tht? science which it is the highest 
power to possess, it is also the best cxer- 
cise to auijuire'; in fact, that there is it 
sort of prc-estJililished harmony between 
utility and cducativt- valuK 

On Uio other hiiiid, the cliiasicH are not 
without powerful chiuupionB. JuluiStuurt 
Mill, uut hiiuself a blind worshipper of 
'authority.' held cuost strongly that nO' 
thing could repliu'e Latin and Greek as 
educational iiistrii meets. He defended 
them mainly on the atwre of formal train- 
ing. 'The distinctions between the va- 
rious parts of sp«ich are distinctions in 
thought, not merely in words. The struc- 
ture of every sentence is a lesson in logic, 
. . . The languages which tench the laws 
of universal grammar best are those which 
have tho most definite rules, and whiuh 
provide distinct forms for the greatest 
number of distinctions in thought. In ijimlitiuH thu classical liuigiinges have 
an incoiii [iambic EU|)eriority over every 
niodt^ni language;' it might be adde<l over 
Hebrew and Sanskrit, Again, in per- 
fection of litorury form the ancients are 
pre-eminent; the 'idea' has thoroughly 
])enetr>iled the form and created it. Every 
word ia in its right place — every eeDt«nce 
a work of art. Modem literature locks 
tin- simplicity and directness of the aneient 
cluasica. What they would have expressed 
in a single sentence, a modern wril"3r will 
thrvw into three or four dllirrent forms, 
presenting it under dill'enmt lights. In 
{act, Mill claims for da^ical literature 
vliat Hegel claimed for ckMieol art, that 
the form and tho matter am Bd<^(juate one 
to the other. But oven though the stn^ 
of litomry enjoyment be not rwich cd, there 
ar« many who hold that the truining in- 
volved in » ma«tory of the element* of 


Latin (q.v.) is invaluable. Modpm 
guages are too like our own to givn i 
degree of emancipation from th« thmldo 
of words which comca from comjisriu 
classic with t'nglish modes of expn-Kiion.! 
To translate ' 1 should havo spokt-n ' Jnt 
ift.n)Win. is more of a lesson in thoa 
than tfl translate it into /cA tciirde 
rprnehen habcn, or .Tauraig dil, becaus 
the fonn is worn different^ StiU ,__ 
stress is laid upon tlie educational vals 
of the higher kinds of eompoeition. 
recasting of the thought, the exenT»« > 
the CM ilh-iniur involved in clothing i 
idea in Greek or Latin, has been ouli 
the ■ microcosm of a lil^eraJ education ' (i 
Sidgwick), Perhaps the atrongcait tcaitl^ 
mony of modem times to the value of 
classical education is the Berlin Meinuru 
of l>if<0, addre^ed to the Prusouw 
ister of Education, on the question of ( 
mission of RraUchiilrr (?.«.) to the 
veraiticE. This memorial represenw 
unaiuinous views of the members of 
faculty of uliilosophy (ie, arts and 
ences), auu was signed by Hoffn 
Helmholtz, Peters. Ziipitza, Ac, as 
as by the classical professors. The me 
rUl insists upon the value of cL 
philology in cultivating 'the ideality i 
the scientific sense, the interest in sciei 
not dependent on nor limited br pntctio 
aims, but as ministering to tiie lil; 
education of the mind and thn man] 
sided exercise of the thinking faculty. 
To hold the scales between »'i<(W» 
strongly held and so ably inaintainod ia ] 
diHicult tusk, but must be nttfwpted [ 
In the Brst place, it niiiy lie well to disp 
of certain fallacies whicli rest upon popular 
prejudice rather than upon any busis of 
reason or experience. 1, That the olassica 
train only the memory, not thought or 
observation. It may fairly be replietl that 
llioujih memory ia involved, it is not ne- 
cessarily involved more than in any other 
discipline. The learning of gniminarl 
rote is falling out of favour ; the diction af 
meanings of words are learnt not by i 
conscionflexevclseof theportativeraemor 
but ill the same way as the namrs 
dowers or animals in studying natur 
history. The syntactical structure 
lAtin and Greek ia mor« ' logical " in it 
chaj^cter than anything in thn disciplii 
of physical sciences. (Hiscri-ation — not, i 
course, sense-observation— is ixinstAutly 
exercised in tmnilation and compositta 

9or » it practicaUy fonnd tbat cliuisical 
■cbokn u« 1«8S capable, ss t.liliikers, tlinn 
phvxicUts. '2. Tlia,t cla&ucs ioeVcr a blind 
wliifivtice toauthqrilv. itut no ono now- 
^jm hotiJa th»t the cUmic wriUtrs am nil 
Bqull; worthy of acl mi ration, or ckims 
njr speml considciMtion for th<' npinions 
vUeh tbty expron. (iminmnr {q.v.) is 
aM the ortn tiMy cmUion of aohm)! iii:ist«rs, 
\m the record of Uw diRcoverml by piittent 
lilwiiiillinii. nnd liublt! to ri->viHi[)u by any 
•^MtttDt inquirer. Hill lii*lt] prt.-eisoly 
Iba DppoMt« 0|i<nibn us to tlie effects of 
dmieiil sUuljr. 3. Thai tJiere is some- 
Ikiu grot«aque and medis'VHl in classical 
■lUiiiM. It has been shown above that so 
iirtroiu being mediwv*!, tho ciftwiics have 
WaUkibed tiieir position in our schools 
tod nniTersities by a n>volt iiKainut ino- 
diMtvlism. 4. That the mi-tho<l of tc^uch- 
ii^tkeclaMicscuinotlm further iinprovp<l. 
Sn br is thiii front bf ing true, thiit the 
Kinntific problem of constitutiiij; the rules 
tifmaxaur is still only in proceitfi of solu- 
tiin, and the exialijiice of tlie didactic 
pnlileni of detemuiiiiig what and how 
nuch tlioald be taug^lit at e>'VL-)i stjvge hns 
caljr begun to be realised in its full import. 
On tli« other hand, the championii of 
phjncftl MctntKM! do not always have fair 
pby. It in pofiularly supposed that ' sci- 
tnott'conxiKta in uccuiuulation of infomiii- 
tion, (ucli as tliat when a candli? burns 
mter and carbonic acid .^re produced, and 
thil the Kood of physiciil science may lie 
got by studying its results in books. This 
is lo misunderstand and undermtiO the ilis- 
cipltDe o( the laboratorj-. Tlic value of 
tninini; in the physical sciencos h not to 
he mea&ured by the pOR5(%siun of so many 
urfal beta about gaaes, plunts, and aui- 
mtls. If rightly pursued, it involves not 
anljrapoverof w'nM'-obsnrvjition. without 
•bieli a man tnitst bi- coniiiilf>red iis bo far 
uiiMd and di>fcctir(!, but also a habit of 
niad and attitude towards thn universe, 
■Wch havo a very direct beariuK upon 
bolli the criticism and the conduct of life. 
He man or womiin who has physiologicivl 
fauwlcdgn will be so far in a better posi- 
Hon to maki! a study of health and to 
briofCBpchtUIreu wisely: will be less likely 
toiigaora the 'laws of the j.'ame,' to helieTo 
ia Uie ilominAtJon of chance, and to make 
nih cxperimeiita in amateur niodicine. 
For to be scientific is to know one's limi- 
tstir«i, anfl thij is a power. 

niepmctttal qaeslioo is, to what extent 

can we afford to make education as com- 
plete as possible 1 and, supposing that 
something has to be sacrifioed, what is it 
bosl. to sacrifico I That the literary side 
of education cannot lie oven relatively 
completi! without classics maybe taken as 
denionatratpd. Our study of Greek and 
L<itin is not so much the study of a foreign 
culture as the study of our own past: K> 
intimately is modern culturu connected, 
through the JU-niUBaafice, with (Jreece and 
Rome, We stand to the classics in a dif- 
ferent relation from that in whicli they 
stood to anterior civilisations, Gi-eek cul- 
ture was, generally speaking, aulochtlio- 
nous ; mcKlern culture is not. And the 
man who has no Latin or Greek tluds 
himself unable to proaeciit«< his literary 
studies far, or to 1k) a master even in the 
literature of his own country. Still the 
i[uestion remains, can wn afford to pur- 
chase this completeness at the price which 
it costa— a less complete development in 
tlie direction of modern studies '/ Tho 
answer to it must depend upon tlie aim 
which pupils set before tliemselves in lifit 
— upon utility in its broad sense — and 
upon the length of the school course. For 
those whose tasles are literary or artistic, 
classics may be the most ' useful' of studies; 
for those who have to contemplate an early 
entrance into practical pursuits, they may 
well be a luxury of too high a cost. At 
the present day the classics retain a firm 
hold of our higher English schools, and 
I.atin, at any rate, is liccnming recognised 
as nn important it«ra in thn education of 
girls. The cluss lists of the universities 
show no fallingoff — if anythingan increase 
— inthenumberofthnse who devote them- 
selves to classics. At the same time there 
are signs which some interpret as pre- 
saging a change. The recent circular M,t«r 
ofthehead-niaatersof Winchester, Harrow, 
and Marlborou;(h {August 1H8T) to prin- 
cipals of preparatory schools, urging that 
Greek should not be begun till tlie agH of 
eleven, though intended not to dist-ouruge, 
but to fui'tber the study of Greek, is re- 
garded by some as the first step in the 
direction of abandonment of the clasaical 
lines. An exclusively classical education 
has had its day, and the classics will doubt- 
less have to take their place among other 
subjects for the future. If it is true, as 
many competent teachers think, tliat Greek 
and I/itin may be begun at a later a^ 
without iny loss ol ultimaW pttAcwmcij, 



then those who BUppurl tliis change Are 
tho true friMids A damicnl education. 
(.S''« articlfis Latin, Giikkk, nnil Sci kxor 

Clusifi cation.— Two distinct ideujj aru 
convcyod by tliis tenn. The lirst is the 
ebujii^cntian (sQui«tini<!a callnd grading, 
though not in the aen««* iii which thiit word 
is Tiaod in Auit^ricu) of a m-hi/ul, in relation 
to other suhools, aocordiii^ to ita nima mid 
the mnge of a^ea Ijetween which it receives 
sofaoUra. In this sense schools would be 
claaailIedae(ii)Eilementary; (A) Second Ary. 
Elementary schools would be further clas- 
aified into (!) infant; (2) boys and girls 
(coixed or Bepn,rate} ; {3) higher gnwle ; 
(4) t(«hnicn1. Sncnndnry sohools into (1) 
the nins great public schools (peculiar to 
England) apeciti.!ly re|)ortotl upon by tho 
){oyn.l Cotnmiasiou of which Lord Cla- 
rendon was tho chuirniitn; (2) etulowed, 
privat*, and proprietjuy schools reported 
upon by the Si'liuoU Iui|uiry CommiBaion ; 
3. Advanced, techmcitl. or trade schools. 
In ita aeuoud meaning the term refers to 
the classification of nch"lnr» (or grading, 
in the American sense of the word), and 
covers such poinl« as (1) the nietliod of 
division of tiie scholars into class'^s ; (2) 
re- classification for particular subjects; 
(3) mode and kinds of prnmotion; (4) 
method of stalling, whether thpre is a 
separate leacber for e-nch snlijeet, or (or 
each class in all subjects; (5) bifurcation 
into Clascal and modem 'sides,' or de- 
partments, in the same school. 

C In-Mifif^tinn of tfhools. — -{a) Ele- 
vunUart/. Tlie tenn 'elementary school,' 
■under the Elementary Education Act 
(England), 1870, lueaiis a school, ordepart- 
mrnt of a. school, at which elementary 
itduetition is the principal part of tlie edu- 
cation there gtvon, and does not include 
any kcIujoI, or department of a school, at 
which tlie ordinary payments in respect of 
iniitruction for each scholar exceed nine- 
pencoaweek. A 'publicelementaryschool' 
II ddiited by the same Act aa an elemen- 
tary iichool wliich is couducted mly6ct to 
A coiiHcience clause, and in accordance 
with the conditions required to he fulfilled 
by un uhniientary schonl, in order to obtain 
aa annual Parliamentary grant. It must 
alto be o[)en at all tinier to the inspoctton 
■ of any of her Majesty's iimpectors. Othw 
elementary schools rri;ogni»iid by the Edu- 
cation Acts are iiicludftd with public ele- 
Biejitary schools in thn term 'certiliod 

efficient schools.' Such sohooll orei 
workhouse school certified to Iws nffi 
by the Local Government Board, any ( 
or State-aided olenientaty school in 1 
land, uny national school in In-lai 
uerttfiHt day itiduiitriaJ school, and 
elementary schdl which is not coiidl 
for private profit and is open at all rei 
able times to tho inspection of her Maji 
inspectors, and requires the like ai 
ance from its scholars as is requi 
public elementary school. The deti 
of a public oletnentory school, tjiken t 
junction with section l.Sof theCode^ 
provider that no attendance in, as a 
recognised in a ilay school for any 
under three ypiirs old, or for any 
who has pussctl in tho three elemi 
subjects in the seventh standanl, vi 
fixes the ages of three and thirteen 
average inferior and superior limits 
in such a school. But children ar«r 
(juently admitted wliile under three 
of a^e, and as aeven years is the 61 
oi^ at which a scholar can be exftl 
in the first standard, and many ore 
than that, it follows that children of J 
toen, fifteen, nnd evensixtMDjeAn 
arc to be found in public elomootaiy 
who have not passed tlie seventh 
On the other hand, the avera^ 
which children leave school is lo' 
the fact that the standard, the 
which qualilies for tot«l exomptioa 
school attendance., is rarely higher j 
the fifth by the by-laws of the toca) 
riiy, and h frequently only th«i 
Infants' schools are usually limit4 
scholars under seven years of ogc^ 
young children who have not p 
Standard I. are frequently ret*iiH 
such schools until seven or eight yti 
age. llii/hi-.r ffradt eUmimtari/ trnot 
Various schemes have been put in n 
tiou by the school boards In the I 
populous centres for 'higher grodal 
mentary schools. The purport ol ( 
si'hemes has been either (1) to prof] 
school tor children whose parents ora 
and willing to pay a higher fee tluui' 
ordinarily paid in the place, in retail 
wliich they are oflTcred a somewhoi 
larged curriculum by the introductil 
more class or specific subjects. It is 
possible to work such an ext«nded 
owing to the greater regularity 
scholars, the grc-ater attention gi 
the parents to the horoe-lcmons, 



Ut agfi op to which such parents 

,t to beep chrir children at school. 

Mtbools woold coiittuD classes corre- 

to all the stnnd^rds of tlie Code. 

(?) to collect into one central school 
ik« scholars in the highest standai'dK (fre- 
{oeotlT vny fow in nuinht^r in » single 
Kbool) from a Kroop of kcIiooU under ii 
kIiooI bimrd, and, with or without an :n< 
mturd frn, to ipvv them tlm iid vantages 
tt edocatioii under lliest.' uiorii fiivouraJile 
ootiilitiona iu tlie fonn of it wid<;r ooursn, 
or ksjiecial technical ooutse(lhutiK, work- 
tbop tnatrattion, drawin;;, luauhine uon- 
■traotioii, chemistry, itc), suited to tlie 
imfaable careers of the scholars on leaving 
ninxA for work or bunneBs. These schools 
voold contain clfiHcs cormipomling only 
to tlt« higher standnrds, the fifth or sixth, 

(£} S'cvitdartf mJnn>U. — Thia term 
Kpvn all KihoalK wliidi fpvc an educa- 
boo brtwiMni the eleiucntary or prinmry 
•dwoli on IIm) one hand, und the uni- 
*miti(« on tlie other. At the top of the 
bl would c«me, for HnKltud. the nine 

CpoUic schools of Eton, Winchester, 
.. Bunster, Cliarterhouse, St, Paul's, 
Herdiaiit Tajlois', Utirrow, Eu;,'bj-, and 
&Rwibtiry. Then wouldooine tlie SLhoolfl, 
■Iwtber endowed, private, or proprietary, 
viicfc (he Schools Inquiry Comuiissiouera 
divided into three f^rades, defined by the 
Ingth of time during which parents are 
nUing to keep their children under in- 
Mractioo. ' It is found,' say the comniis- 
vattm {Bfport, vol. i. p. 1 5), ' that, viewed 
in this way, edncatioD, as distinct from 
iiiKt preparation for cmploymodt, erm at 
{absent be clnMifti^d nx (I) that which is 
to flop at about fourttten, (2) that whioh 
tt to stop at atioiit BXtifin, iiikI (It) thiit 
*Ucb is to cnntinui? until c-.ightiM-ii or iiini:- 
Uen ; and for conviinii'-n«! wci shall call 
llinv Ibc third, tH!con<), und tlic lirst grade 
<4 education n-.ip«!L:vfly.' Furenls who 
iWn; lir»t p^ulu edncatiun are of two 
kifiilt: (a) tho*e of ample meiins, whose 
wiA i« to vidiyn education, and on whose 
behoof, therefore, 'bifurcation' into mo* 
ita bngiuge aod sdeuce sides has been 
aiktplnd at MXtMof tJie great schools; and 
IM thoM of ^ood education, but confined 
■aam^ wbotw wish b to cheapen education, 
hnttta who desire second-grade education 
«• alao of two classes; (n) those whose 
4iUnik are to enter professions requiring 
■rir special traiititig ; (&) ttiosc of strait- 

ened means, who are desoribed aM, tn tiie 
main, rejecting or being indifTArent te 
I^tin, and desire for their children a 
thorough knowledge of subject* which can 
Iw turncfl to practicnt use in business, 
t.o. Englisli, arithmetic, the elements of 
mnthi"infttics, some science, one or more 
modern liingmiKes. ' The education of the 
first grade, which continues until eighteen 
or piiHt, and that of the seconil grndo, 
which strips at at>out sixteen, seem toinoct 
the demiinds of all the weaJtliier part of 
the community, including not only thn 
gentry and professional classes, but all tlie 
larger shopkeepers, rising men of businesii, 
and the larger tenant-farmers. The third 
grtwlc of education, which stops at fourteen, 
would Im sought by the siunller tenant- 
farmers, thn smidl tradesmen, and superior 
artisans' {Rrptrrt, vrA. i. p. 20). The need 
of tliis class is summed up as a tninimum, 
' very good reading, very good writing, 
very gooil aritlinietic.' In the larger and 
more enterprising centres of population 
this class of persons la found more fro- 
({uently to desire second-grade tlian tliird- 
grnde education, and in fact either to rest 
cont^inted with the elementary education 
given iu thii board schools, or, if they re- 
quire anything further, to seek it at once 
in a second-grade school. As an illuatra- 
tion of this, it may be mentioned that tlie 
third-grade schools estjiblished by the com- 
missioners at Binningham on tlie founda- 
tion of King Edward VI. were found to 
he unnecessary, and were abolished after 
a fiTW years' trial, and have since been re- 
placed by additional second-grade schools. 
Secondary schoob of the cliuracter of ad- 
vanced technical or trade schools, such as 
tlifs Rcole Centrale at Lyons, or the Higher - 
Trade Institute at Chemnitz, do not exist 
at present in England ; but their estn- 
hliahmeiit liafi been strongly urged hy the 
Koyal Comiuiaalonei-B on Technical In- 
struction (2nd Rejiiirt, vol. i. p. .i28). 

Vlmmjinat'uin oj nchoUim.^When the 
scholars of a school ai-e divided up into 
classes in such a way that each class is 
composed of scholars of nearly equal at- 
tainroenla, they are said to be classified, or, 
in the United States, graded. The evi- 
dence of equality of attainments may be 
arrivod at by taking one subject of in- 
struction, or several cognate subjects, or 
all the subjects of the school course, into 
consideration. Thus, there may be in a 
school only one claHafic&Uon, ot, on XW 


otIier]iaad,Mmaiiyrlrunilicntii>nRM there 
an mbJ6CM of inUnx-tinn. In Enjitish 
AlC0UOt«i7 schooU, wliirti nrc giiiilt^) so 
laiKSlj V>y the 'litanilnrdK' i>f sxamination 
Inid Anwn for hfir M«ji»tj''a inspectors, it 
is ukimI to tind onlj onn clnssifioilion for 
all nijljjrtitji, vix. thut liy sUiniianlB, unJ 
tJi(! nrholnm in n fwrticulur itiiiidurd con- 
stitute a clufl« wliifU OBUally goes by the 
name of the iiULiidiird the syllalms of whicJi 
they are working during the year. In 
good aeuondary schools it Is usufti to hnve 
at le»st two citts&ificfttions, one for general 
subjects, in eluding divinity, English, Latin, 
French (and German), history, nnd geo- 
graphy, and another for arithmetic and 
□wthemAtics. Furtlmr n>-cJnasili cation a 
DMy tftho placn for Kricnn- nnd for dmw- 
ing. The limit to the numlicr of ro- 
claemficatioTiK is Urgi-ly detomiineU by the 
Raturn of the- stuH", and hy the faL-ilitips 
afibnlcd by th»! school preniises for rapid 
andijtiint niovenientsof thesfholara. Pro- 
motiunH from ela^is to class lake place 
annually in public elementary schools im- 
mediately after the annual inspection, and, 
aa no scholar who has passed in two out 
of the three elementary subjects can, except 
under very special eircu instances, be pre- 
sented for examination in the same stan- 
daril a second time, tho whole class (or 
standard) is promoted Wlily to the work 
of the next class (or standard). But in 
secondary schools promotions are usually 
at least half-yearly, and fre<{Uently t<?r- 
minal (i.e. three timea a year). The 
■tandani of the work of a given class is 
maintained by promoting only those in the 
cloM or chissui below it who have earned 
their promotion by ha^-ing reai.-hp<l the 
average standard of that clasa. It is usual 
in good Bocomlary boys' schools to have 
«pecial masters for each of the subjects, 
French, German, science, and frequently 
also mathematics, while all the other sub- 
jects an" taught by the 'class' master. In 
the girls' schools recently established under 
the Girls' Public Day School Company, 
and other proprietary bodies, the 'departs 
mental' system of stafling, in its fullest 
develiipinent, where every subject is tAught 
by a specialist', haa found great favour. 
This is largely due to tlie fact that in these 
girls' schools so many of the suhjecta of 
the curriculum are elective, and not cnin- 
pulsotT. The mode of clruaification known 
aa* bifurcation' — whereat a givtmatMjKR in 
bw tdiool career, cay, on arriving at the 

fourth form, a boy has tlie choice of 
tinning. a purely cla^ical course aa 
classical ' side,' or combining lea 
with more modern language or i 
tiiathematics on t]i« 'modem' Or ' 
side — tinds favour prindpoll; in 
pulilic schools, and ut SOEM 
graile schools. This plan is OfMQJ 
objection ' that it se^^ms often difBd 
prevent tliese modem departmeDl 
iwing a refuge for boys who«e infoi 
ability has prevented their ^laooeM in i 
sical studies, and a special d«E 
flooded with the idle and the dull can 
well be otherwise than* failure' (i 
Iitquiiy Cnmmi^nionprs' Rrpori, ro). 
p. 17), But this danger hiis been oh 
in many of the beet schools wluoh 
bifurcation, by treating both 'sides'ttl 
equal dignity, distributing tlie rewanbl 
the ischool impartially between the W 
staffing the two 'sides' with luastera i 
equally high attiuuments, and strenno 
demanding from both master and boys I 
equally hi^h standard of meritoriousi 

Class Rooms. Set AjtciiiTKcrpiuc 

Clerical Schoolmasters aro of 

classes. In many of the rural 
where the endowment of thfl school i 
small, the only way of obtainlnga grwtii 
master, where such is necessary by 
original deed, is to appoint to the mn 
ship the incumbent or hia curat«. Thi 
are n few cases in which this conrse 
peara, in the present disjointed state 
secondary education, to have in somei' 
gree lai.sed the character of the 
Indeed, in some of tlie northern count 
the combination of the offices of 
clet^yman and schoolmaster is frequ 
and useful. The combination, howev 
has Iwen objecteil to on the groond i 
a man with only half his heart in bia ' 
and only half his time given to It is 
so useful to a school as one who, witlt i 
minally inferior qualifications, has St 
tlie art of teaching, is in sympathy ' 
his pupils, and devotes his whole «ne 
to his work. ' Some of the worst sch 
said Mr. Ftteh in his Report to the Scbc 
Inquiry Commiaaion, 1867-88, ' whicb] 
ever saw in my life were conducted 
clergymen.' The Court of Chanceiy ', 
in various cases ordered that the ms 
should be a clergyman when the found 
of the school has not so ordered. 
<!^olet, the founder of St. Paul's, oido 


hU xtntntes that neither of the masters 
tliat school, if iu onion, Tior the chaplaia, 

" hsvD ainf beoefiua with cure or ser- 
which mttf hinder th« buxincns of 
:hooI. ITiere is no rule nf law which 
enta m master of a schoai from holiiing 
b«aeleuastic&1 pref emit' tit. If, of (^uiiriu', 
B bolding of the two offices should raiisi? 
n to ae^ecl the duties of either, thi- 
naedy is the snnie as if he uej^lectml 
Iter of his offices for any other uausu. 
w BPcoDfl c!nM of clerical sclioolraaaterH 
asstc of thoKc who havii taken holy 
[l«f« with the view miiinjy of nifvkiiig 
icbing A profetuion. It in nt times ad* 
Bt«^oiu for a HuhooliiuuttiT to he in 
JcTK, bt'caoiH! some (lurciiti urn not satis- 
d tlul the moralH of tliuir Ixiya urn witU 
jkfld ftft«r unless the sdioolmaiitur in n 
nymftu. His ttikinK to sohoolnuistRr- 
t&>e6 Dot. howe\-er, uiilitnte %'u.iii)it his 
iBoei 4)f promotion io the Church ; i»- 
id In many oues it is favourable to suuh 
Mootion. Mnny of our bishops and other 
GOr dignifiicd clerics have been sclioo!- 

Closini; Schooli for Epidemic Biseaies 
Kut u-Iilom recjuiri'il. thnuj-h mow often 
biiunling thati iliky st:huc>]s. In tlie 
fSMT iJm: nKnedty can usually be oh* 
[Cad by tMtly ivolntion of suspeoterl cnsps 
I dovotftil eiiMs of illnms should be 
■tad as llii>ii}cli it wn-H cerbiin tliiit 
tj were infevtioua), and by tlit.' nstiib- 
lunent of a properly orj^iuat'il school 
KnnArTors&ii&torium(i/.v.). The dosing 
dftj ecbooU under the followin;{ cirouiu- 
IbnioeB may be advisable : (1) If the at- 
nduice at school is gmatly reduced by a 
VR9 epidemic [as of Measles, for in- 
■oce), pr«reDting the continuance of a 
gakr coarso of study. (2) lu thinly 
Mkud rojAl districts, wh<?.T« children 
Udai neot oxct^t in school, closing the 
fa«d n»»T cffitctunlly check thi? spread 
i SB Qpidcmic ; but in towns unA large 
ftyi it is of littto use, ns thi^ children 
ky le^eth«r out of school hours. (3) If 
■ytonl nnil«iy d«foct« of thn >u.-haol 
ieUxiei, the school should bo uIosmJ 
their repMr. Oiildn^n are upt to 
roond open drains, to watch the 
m. Mid in titia way sore throat, or 
lipfathefia or typhoid fever, may 
'need. It should be remembered 
leloes] nuitttry authority of the 
id, on the advice of their medical 
; have power to order tlie closing of 

nny public elementary day school, and tho 

managers of the school forfeit tliu Rriirit 
from the Education Department on failing 
to carry out the wishes of the sanitary 
auOiority. This is siiljjfict to appeal to 
the Kducation il^jiftrtment. (1) If more 
CJin-ful iittention were paid to the eai'ly 
syuipttmis of infectious citsemes (q.v.), and 
all children suffering from suspicious synip- 
touia were sent home until uncertjiinty 
was retuoved, it would seldom bo neces- 
sary to close schools on account of a pro- 
valeiit epidemic, Attention to the fol- 
lowing additional rules would also tend to 
obviate the anme necessity : (2) No child 
should be allowed to return to school until 
arwusonabletimehiiaelapsecl (<™ Dukation 
OF Ixfkctio.n) from the beginning of the 
Uisejise, nor without a medical eertiticiito 
of freedom from infection, (3) No other 
chOd from the infectious house should be 
allowed to attend school, although appa- 
rently well, (4) All parents should he 
obligpd (under penalty of a line) to report 
nil cnses of infectious disease to the sani- 
tary authority. (5) Where the lost regu- 
liitinn is not in force, teachers or the school 
visitor should intimate to the inspector 
of the sanitary authority the nbsRiice of 
nil children whose cases are a\ispieious. 
Tea<?her3 not infre(|uently send scholars to 
enquire about absentees, and thus they 
are brought in contact with iufectioii, 

CoacE^Name given to tutors who 
devote themselves to the preparation of 
students in fecial subjects. The services 
of a ' coach ' are especially in request, and 
are proportionately valued, hy cnndidatea 
for the various examinations for uTiiver- 
Bity honours and ajipointmenta under Go- 
vemmeut. The ' couch,' l>cing a specialist 
in the subjeots for which he prepares can- 
didate-3, is enabled to direct his pupil's 
attention to tho technical and particular 
points which are likely to arise in any 
special e\ami nation. 

Cocker. Edward (h. 1631).— An en- 
gi'aver and teacher of writing and arith- 
metic, famous for a school-book with which 
his uame has been familiarly associated in 
the phrase 'according toCocker,' Cocker's 
ArilkmHir, 1677, published after the au- 
thor's death, reached the 37th edition ia ■ 
1720. Heisalao thereptitedauthorof four- 
t«^en hooka of exercises on penmanship, of 
which one is extant in the British Mueeum. 

Code. — Tlie term ' code,' in its stric* 
sense, is the short title tor lh<s ' Cc>d« ol 


Rp jTu liitionaTiy tR* towa nf Hi* Committee 
of tjie Privy Council on Education' (q.i:), 
laid uiumidly ou Uie table of both Houses 
of Pui'liuiiii-[it, pufsudnt to the 9Tth eection 
of tlie Elemeutary Edacftiion Art, 1 870. 
When it hiis bwn upon the t&Ur, for one 
month (during which itmny lie modi tii^H by 
Parlianipnt), it becomes luw — a schedule, 
•in fact, of tke Eleinentury Educutioii Acts 
of 1870, IHTS, 1874, 1876, 1879. 1S80, 
which together constitute the Elemeatary 
Education kw in force for the time being. 
There «re sejittrat* Committees of the Privy 
Council on Education for England and 
Wales and for Scotland, and spparato 
' codes.' These codes contain the condi- 
tions required to he fulfilled by pnblic 
elementnry schools, luid by training col- 
leges for teachers, in order to obttun an 
nimuiil Pnrliiimentary^mtinuid of main- 
tenaiice. The codus (or the two countries very similar in the character and acope 
of their re^lutions, the three main points 
of difference Ijeiiii; (1) that in the Scotch 
code the definition of the class of school 
which may receive Parliamentary prants is 
more elastic than that in t-hp English code, 
in the direction of allowing higher fees to 
be charged, and greater latitude for the 
teacbing of more advanced auhjects ; (2) 
that in the former code a training college 
is defined as a 'college for the instruction 
of candidates for the office of teacher,' and 
may tlierefore be either n. 'reiiident' or 
'iion-reaident' college; while in Uio Intter 
eode it is defined us an ' inntitutioii for 
boarding, lodging, nud instructing' eucb 
candidates, thereby excluding uon-reaideut 
colleges ; (3) gniduatea in arts or science 
of any university in the United Kingdom 
are rccognim-tl as teiichers under certain 
conditions as to practical skill. Accord- 
ingly it will be sufficient in the present 
artidd to Miwak of the Englisli code only. 
The following Is a brief analysis of the 
Codi:: 1. A public elementary school is 
a school at which elementary (Vacation is 
the principal part of the education thiTO 
(liven, and al which the fees do not exceed 
6fi, a w«'k per scholar. It iriust be con- 
ductwl subject toa ennjf.irnr' eUiimf, giving 
the right of exemption of any ncliolar from 
attendance at any religious worship, ob- 
servance, or instruction. Religious in- 
struction, if given, luunt take place at 
rithor the beginning or end of each school 
mwting. ?. The nnnuiil f,'Tants are mnde 
to UiH majiag'Ts of this ncbool, aft<Tr n re- 

port from one BTfier Majeirty's ir 
of achooU u|Joii tJie nUiUi of the 
building's, tbe quiitificatiaaKof tlw I 
and the atteiidiince and proficiency i 
scholars. No grant ia mmie fur aaj 
struction in religiona subjeota. 3. 
persons are eligible as managers of an J 
raentary school. School boards at*/ 
miiniigers of nil schools provided by I 
Mttna^^ers may not. de-rive any 
ment from their schools, and the 
must not be conducted for private | 
The principal teacher nmst bo 
(sf^ Traikikq TifACiiBitfl). 5, The'i 
must have met not less tliaii 100 
(each attendance being for not Ina 
two hours of secular instruction) da 
the school year. 6. The annual eran 
made up of several grants: («) In mf 
schools (ages three to seven), a_/(»«f L 
of 9«. (or 7i.) for each unit in the ava 
attendance for tlie year ; a merit \ 
2»., 4s., or 6s., if the inspector i 
school to be fair, good, or exoelle 
needlework grant of ia., and a 
grant of U. (orCt/.). (i) In boys' and j 
schools (ages seven and upwards) a, 
grant of is, 6f/, ; a mml );rant of 1a,| 
or ;ifl. ; a n^fdlfwark grant of l«. 
ft miJiing grant of 1*. ; an eram 
grant in ' elementary ' subjects, deter 
by the inspector's reporta on tli« per 
age of pEisses of xjidividiud scholar* i 
standards, at the rat« of \d, for eucti | 
of percentage ; an f-xanntkiUian 
'class' subjects of U. or 2«. (or eadi^ 
two subjects; un KcaminatioH granting 
moBt)two 'spocltic' subjects of 4(Lper4 
scholar passing in each subjnct (c 
Standa« VIL). All. 
the last-named grant jire calculated i 
the ' average attendance ' for the TMir. 
elementary subjects are niiding, writin 
and arithmetic. Theae are obligatorv, 
class subjects— examined not individoalt 
but by classes — areEngtiBli.RM^rapliy.eM 
mentary science, history, and ncjxllcwirf" 
(for girls). These, lOgetJier with HngioSj 
are optional, with the exception of nencLM 
work for girli in day acJlOob^ which i 
obligatory. (For further det&ils and 
of sjjecitic BubiftotG, «m onder COCBU ' 
ISBTROcTios and 8i'ani>akd».) 7. G» 
are also made to evening schools 
specified oonditionit n« to att 
and efficiency as tettnd by 
8. The code aJso oonlaimi schedule* t 
Iny down the seven standards of i 

in plfmiTitniy snbJMts, xnd the courso 
[ initniPtion in clnes »iihjci<Tt», in nr^dlo- 
forfc. mnd in lipfwilic: rnhjcnW; aUn llid 
InUtGcittJoiiit mul i:i>rtillciJ.ti-a irqiiirrHl 
t pvpil-teaoben {f-v.). 0. Tin- tccK^hirrx 
tea)im!(«d bv tlie Dopurtuirrtt in diiy 
^MKib are; (a) pupil -tAachori not less 
fmn fourteeu yvan o( uf^ ; (A) uiuatanl- 
kMben; (o provisioimll}' certilic&t^d 
paoben; (J) eertificaU'd teaetiera. Lay 
ereons only are recoji^Hsecl. The power 
[ appointtnent and disniissal of teochere 
)at» soktly with the maDagitre. The num- 
tor of papil-UnchcT* must not nxcmd 
kre« for thr princifuil U-acUi'r nnd one for 
icb CMiificntRl imixliint-ti'iiulxTr. 10. 
Vf hf m can (^>tiun osriilii.-iilr'H only by 
kmtnituition anilprabutioii by aulual st-r- 
(ce in K'bool.' The ftnLiuInutiou in u{>eu 
k (a) stud«uta who have resided for at 
patODejenr in traiiiiug iMilleges under 
txpeclion ; {(t) candidates who, being up- 
rgu^ of twenty years of agi\ have been 
paployed for not 1ms thrvn two yrnm n% 
korisioiiftliy certificated teachom, or hnve 
liTed ** Msiicbknt-t^iichf^rs for at teait 
irdvis iDonths in iniip'>-tj'd KchnoU umlpr 
■rtificatfd tcftcfanni. After puming the 
PDUniiwtion, cnndidntiM for ciTtilivatee 
BM*, ns todivra i^ntintiniisily ciign^dl in 
Wb «un« schools, obtiiin two fiivouriLtile 
MortB ^in an inxpivtor, with an iiitcrval 
K «t \fnat o«wf vpnr b<!tww!n tliPiii. {Sm 
flUIXlKd OF ■fEACHERS.) 11. The certi- 
pntc* nn of ihrrv ciaaaea. A suL-ceiiafiil 
IBBminfttian m Ui« aubie<.-t& for second- 
tax'* MwleutA (in training colle;^) en- 
Um to a seGond-daaa eertjficnte ; in 
Ike nbjects for Srst-year'a students to a 
tfiinl-<b» certificate. A third-cla^ cer- 
tiie&te can be raised to a second by re- 
naiiiiiiation, but n socond'closx can be 
ni««d to a lirst-c-lass by (t«ii yi»rs'} good 
■nice only. 13. The Code also contains 
iiiltBO for the liniit«tioD and roduction of 
Ik gnjii under c«rtnin circurojitnnees. 
Ar total annunl ^rmnt, cxdiiKivn af luiran 

rial grantu, is limit<<Kl to tho greater of 
two SBnw named, viz. (a) n xuin r[|iia1 
to 17*. €d. for naoh unit of avom^u nttfti- 
d*nee ; (&> th« totAl income nf the scliool 
from all iKiurcc* whatnvi>r othi^r tlian the 
pant, and from Moine xpecial grtints. The 
unul grant nay bit m<li]ci>d u])on the 
tnapector'n mpurt, for vjirioiia faults of 
wipUiM-, imtnivtion, or n-giitraliou ; and 
JBrbiBufficicnl accnmiuodiition, apparatus, 
' ttd tmcliiiifc ttalt 

Colbnrn, Warren (6. IT93, d. 1.853).— 
A cele^lnlted miit,liematii-ian and educa- 
tionist of the United HtatcH. Self-in- 
Htriieted, he entered Hnrvnril f^ollcgo at 
twenty-fnuryenrsof njre, when^ begreatly 
distinyuishwi himself in his matheraa-tical 
sludiPS. Colltprn, as ii member of tlie Com- 
uiiiiaion of Public Schoolu, rendcrtsl grtat 
service to primary educutiun by intro- 
ducing, in place of the purely luechanicnl 
methods and mnemonics then in vogue, 
the cultivation of the reasoning and re- 
flective faculty. Especially was this the 
case in arithmetic, on which subject he 
puhliahod (lK2l)u work, firvl l,ef»ong in 
Arithrn'.tie, whioh niarki^d un epoch in the 
study of that bi'atit-'h of ninth ematim, nnd 
is atill sold in the I'uiteil States. He also 
published A SuppUmerit to Firat Lfamnw 
in ArMni'^-ti'- {lr<-2i), Al'jebra (1828), be- 
sides some minor works. Although his 
ideas of education were worked out inde- them much in com- 
mon with the system of Pe.stnlo«d. 

Colet. John(UG6-l519),Deanof St. 
Paul's, and foun<ler in 1509 of the school 
now known as ' St^T^tiuTe^Sehool,' wnjt 
one of thn most strnang pcraoungHS of a 
most interesting period — tluit, namely, 
when the tirst stirrings of the raoveinent 
which led to Ihu Reformation in England 
liegun to make thpiiiselves felt. He was 
learned, clear-sighted, and outspoken— 
witli touches at times of an almost fiery iu- 
digTiationwbenconfrontedbyany ignorant, 
self-seeking, or slothful impiety ^ — pure- 
hearted, noble' minded. The most notable 
thing about hie school was its being the 
first in England in which Greek was taught; 
while Lilly, its first hea/i-master (or rather 
' high mnsfj.'r '), waa the author of, amongst 
other things, the famous I'l-o/rrin qw» ■ 
niarihiix and As in pririviiti. An esecl- 
lent short accountofC"''"''sZi/'fiiirf irnrib, 
by Mr. J. II. Lupton, lately been pub- 
lislied (G. Bell ifc Sons). As an example 
of Colet's clear- si glititdneas in matters 
of education, it may be nientioned that 
his statutes specinlly make provision for 
future changes and develupiuents. In his 
Aticidence, which he specially prepared 
for the boys of his school, he snys, ' In 
the bnginniug men spake not Latin be- 
cause such rules were made, but. contrari- 
wise, because men spake such Latin, upoa 
that followed the rules. That is to say, 
I^tin speech was Iwfore the rules, e.^ilxi'^^ 
the rules before LuCin speecU.' 


College ( Idt. colleffium) ariginally de- 
noted a eoileetion or society of persons, 
itiveatod with certnin rights and powers, 
find perfonniiig certnin duties, or WcupipH 
in the snnn" ©mploympnt, In ft purticuliir 
Bpnse ' college ' 5ignifi''B an assembly for a 
politicnl or occlpsiastitat purpoiH', its at 
Romn the ailhijium ponli/inim. In Great 
Brituui and America some societies of 
physioiatiB are called 'collegea,' as, for ex- 
ample, the Royal College of Physicians, 
incorporated by the Stat*!. The term im- 
plica institutionii Bjfi]iat«d to a recognised 
university whii^h are endowed with re- 
venues, their fellows, tutors, and students 
living tojrether undc^rn head in a particular 
buildinj;. The academic use of the word 
college began about the iiftpenth CPiitury, 
the first being eatablislied at Paris. The 
word is now generally used to signify 
almost all educational institutions of re- 
cognised repute, and has in recent years 
been largely adopts hy the proprietors of 
private Kchools From the title of Grey's 
ode, On a DiaUtiU I'ros/irH nf Eton CoUegf., 
it is evident that the term was long ago 
applied to that fainoaH public school. {S^e 
UsiVERsiTiKs and Provincial Coli.boks.) 

Combe, Andrew, b. Edinburgh 1797, 
and took his M,D. at that university. Be- 
fore reaching hi* twentieth year ho became 
an advocat* of phrenology, and, in con- 
junction with his elder brother, George, 
established the Edhilniryh Pkreiwlogical 
Journal. He visited Spuraheim, who 
strongly confirmed him in his phreno- 
logical vifiWH. George Combe was an 
ai^unt advocate of popular education and 
social progress, and Andrew seems to have 
imbibed from liim tliat profound interest 
in the physical and mentiil well-being of 
his countrymen which bo emincnily cha- 
racterised him, However strongly we 
may question the phrenological views of 
the brothers, their claim to fame and gra- 
titude rests chiefly on other groanda. In 
I8;U Andrew Combe brought out the 6rst 
edition of his frincipl't* of Physiol-oifii, 
ap}>l.i"t Ui ihr I'rrarrmlion of lli^allJi. and 
to tJif Drvrfapnu'nl nf I'hynrul and M«nlal 
Edui^ation. Thin book still maintaina its 
*upreraAcy lu a ]>ripuliir guide to physio- 
logy aa appli(*d to the prrscrvation of 
henltli. It i% a jiopuhir manual, interest- 
ing to all, without deviating from the 
sobriety and acouracy which should mark 
a manual on a scimfific jruhjcct. Its 
popularity wiui at once gmat, and itit miIo 

has hetm enormovs both in tlut 
and in tho I.Tnit*^i St»t<«. In thif 
eilition Dr. Cotnlie urged tli»t ph^ 
kIiouIiI form a part of gnnerai edni 
This was received witli Hdicule or di 
or even with disgust. Since that 
however, the wiadom of the proi 
has been almost universally ackuow 
though its prnclicid adoption is still 
perfect and partial. The scienco o( 
siology is one of the optional subjectasi 
the £)lemeDtary Erhication Code^ and 
introduction ot hygiene (Le. tli« la' 
physiology as applied to bealtJi) na s 
■ science in the list of the subjeota ot 
Science and Art Department is am 
iiotjible step. In 1 83S Dr. Combo was 
pointed oneof the physiciansext 
to the Queen in Scotland, and about 
same time he published his po]>ular Jf< 
nil liiaord^rg of liigettion, which ra| 
passed through nine editions. Ilia 
work, in IStO, was entitlixl A Ti 
(Ae J'lii/sjolm/ical and Moral ifa 
of Infanry, which is full of iiit«r4!i(ting 
practically important matter. He di 

Comening, Joliaaa Amos {h. Ni 
Moravia, 1591, (/. 1071), one of the 
illustrious wlucational reforwem, was th* 
son of a uiiller who was a member of ti» 
Moravian Brethren, of wliich rdigiool 
body Comenius became a histiop. Hit' 
parents died while he was a child, and fat 
was ieftr to the care of guardians. tA 
school he learnt 'reading, writing, th* 
catechism, and thn smallest beginning* of 
arithmetic' Ue was sixteen l>eforv hn hfr 
Ran the study of Lnttn, He woa not ant- 
bitious, but earniietly religious, and it waf 
his religion which supplied theivlucratiotml 
motive. At sixteen he was s^^iit to a IaUd 
school, and at twenty be was stmiying a( 
the college of Her'liorn. Probably lM.-oaaM 
he began to study latin late he waa able tO 
criticise the defective method of teaching. 
His account of schools is unfortunately 
still far too true where he says, ' they are 
the terror of boys and the slaughterhouaa* 
of minds — places when? a hatred of ittein- 
ture and honkK is contracted.' Hut he 
gave a life of untiring ncnl to develop a 
i;yst«m of eilucation that should at iMtt 
have some resemblance to tho meaning of 
the word. Ue took up the work which 
had becm commenced by Ratieh (q.r.^, 
and began by simplifying the T^itin graia- 
mar. \l<- ii*aa onlained to the pasto: 

coMEsrras, johastj amos 


I 1616, &nd in 1C18 was appoiiit«d to 
W of lite largest cliurcli«s of Uie Mom- 
UI8 at Fnlnek. Here be hud cLa,i'ge 
ft school u wc!l, ftDd here too he mar- 
But in 1621 Piilnek nns taken hy 
SptuiiutU, nni) Comrnius loKt every- 
1^ incliuling hi* lil>nLiy nnd niiinti- 
cipta. In 1622 he lost hiN wifi- and only 
■Qa, ftnd fur aonio ynun, owing to tlie 
Mnietiou aitd jivrai^uutiuit of tliK Thirty 
tu^ War, be vas iv wauderer. It was 
hitet witn«aiiig much of the misery au<l 
Itrais of Uiis ««lamitou§ period that he 
rviMd a pUa for the reDovation of schools 
IS m«Btu to raitoro nJigioo. He fled to 
tofauid, sntUi-H in fA'ann, and bocatne a 
Kchcrinthr Morarianfiymniuiiiiin there. 
fe wrnfit hiK GmU liidnHif to iint forth 
is nietltod ; tlicn ho brought out Janua 
mg usuw n, which uontAitiMl 1^.000 words 
i 1,000 sent«iM)ea. This reniarknble IkhiIc 
as puUisbed in mauy languages, ami de- 
iTvea notice side by side with the bent of 
Kent methods, with which it agre*?s in 
rinciplc Hot not only did Comenius 
boar to aid tho student in acquirin); 
atia, be aliwi tumed his attontioii to 
ienoi!. Baqpri's Advinrr-mnit of Lmrti- 
ty hni) nts«d gnM hopes in Cotnenius. 
[o wiEhnH to gftthpr a coinpjeto statement 
[all that wax known into one work. This 
s cslW PattMophia. Oomtmius ^nsited 
Itf land willi a viitw to founding n college 
t try hia Kbeme of Panxophic inntmotion, 
ndn-tbe sanction of PurliiLmcnt ; but tho 
iMMllad U11W16 did ooL iidtuit of itsi being 
unedoQt. In August, lC4ti, he left Tyiii- 
CQ for Sweden, where he had lon^- inter- 
iewB with John Hkyte aud OxeiiBtleni. 
Wy ur^ed that he should devole himself 
I iMoefit schools and make the study of 
ttlJB t»aeT. Thus in various places he 
rwkfxJ h«rd for six years, and iiis works 
'ttr jiubiistifxl at Lesiia, where he had 
■Bilml them. Afti^r this he T'esided at 
Wk, «her« he wroU; many nioi'e books, 
ichiding hi* famous Orfiin I'ietuii, and 
Rnded a seminary, wbioh hn called Ia- 
ani, where only Latin was allowfrd to be 
nketi. This was Ilia Fansophtcsumiimry. 
Wnm Pilsk he returned once rnori! In 
"Va, but there, owiujf,'tothuout1>mik of 
'^•gaintuet all his property, inuludiug 
MTaloaUe unuiuscript^ Upon itii; in- 
'ilatiou of bis friend De Geer, htr went 
1» Amstenlaai at Uie a^e of sixty-tliree, 
ud then acatn devoted hiuiKelf to the 
Unon of writing. Here he continued to 

reside, and was supported partly by teach- 
ing and by the private Ubunility of 
his frieuda. He had married a second 
timei, and was tlie father of live childreu. 
He dedicated his works to the city of 
Amsterdam in gratitude for its hospi- 
tality. A mere list of his works is far too 
long to insert here, and we can only give 
a sketch of his educational systi>in. Ita 
gentniil aim is stated thus : Man is thn 
most excellent of animals ; his goal is bo- 
youd this life, for this life is only a pro- 
paration for eternity, in which preparation 
there are three steps — he should know 
all things, he should have power over aJl 
things aud over himself, he should refer 
himself and all things to Uod. Here at 
least wc have a distinguishing mark of 
ComeniuE oa onmpared with so many edu- 
cational reformers — his system arose from 
rt'ligion, not in rebfiUion against it. H« 
elaborates much on the question : How 
are we to learn ' surely, easily, solidly ' t 
From a mass of minute answers to these 
(lueatioriB we note two principles which 
are steadily gaiiung ground, vis, that a 
language should be learnt mtt froin a 
grammar, but from suitable authors, and 
that one language should be learnt at 
onco. It would require a volume to give 
hissystomindetaij. Hefretiupntly inaistod 
that the hours of tuition should be few, 
with many intervals, ajid that there should 
be two half holiilays weekly, a fortnight 
at Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost, and 
a whoir month at the harvest time. The 
reader is simply sta^ered at the work 
acuouiplished by Comenius. 

The Orbig Pictiia (the Worid Illus- 
trated) is the most famous of oil the 
writinjjs of Oomenius, aud contains the 
fullest illustrations of the applications of 
his principles. It was ileaigned to be sup- 
plementary to his earlier primers and tmxt- 
Ixioks, of which the best known are the 
V<:giihii.!nm, the Jamii, and the Atrium. 
Professor S. S. I^urie, in his excellent 
Li/n of Comnniui'^ which forms one of tlie 
volumes of the Education Library, edited 
by Sir Philip Magnus, and published by 
Eegan Paul, Trench, and Co., says tliat 
tho Orhig I'ietua ' may be best described 
as n. series of rude engravings of sensible 
objects, iiccompanied by a descri])tion of 
them in sliort atid easy sentences. For ex- 
ample, we have the picture of a ship with 
its sails piirtly neb, and a iiumlwr attached 
to ixxdi part of tlie ship wW\i cott«*>^n<^ 


toAnaintwriu the leason, Urns: thenum1>er | even when the «up<?rfirfnl ptrtK hav' 
2 is (-■iiKTUvi-d ciu tbe wls.ancl in die Im^oh 
wf have tliU §enWnce. 'The ship has (2) 
•ivila.' The title of the book wm. ' Tkr. 
World of Hf.txmbh Thingt drnvta ; thnt 
is, the nomenclntim of all fvuulnmpiitnl 
tJiingB in the world and nctione in life re- 
duced to ooulnr demon xtrntinn, bo that it 
may be a lump to thu Trgtibuhim and 
Jnnaa ot lungoagea.' The work went 
through a, great nuuilwr of editions, and 
bnt-aiue the most popular school-book in 
Europe. It was illustrated bj Mii^hael 
Endter of Nuremlwrg, to whom Comenius 
gratafnlly actcBowlodi^ his indebtedness, 
ComeniuK was the hend of the realistic 
school of iviucntional rfformfirs who laid 
the fmindAtions of the science of educa- 
tional met.hrKl. 

Coinmntticable Biteniet in School. — 
In mldition to the infectious speL-itic dis- 
en.Hi>H (f.r.), there urn curtuin disease.^ 
whioh are fi-e<]Uently produced by I'Oiitact 
Vtetween children, The moat imporliint 
of these is Seob\^» or Itch. Tliis shews 
itself nB n pimply rush, most frequently 
Been Imtwepn tlie roots of the fin){crs and 
»t the Ixmd* of joints, espeeinlly nt the 
wrist. It is extremely irriuble, and in 
more aggravnted forms grently ii?sembles 
ecn^na, with whieh it is often confused, 
and tiiu) the infection spreads before the 
true character of the diaense is det^oted. 
it i* due to the rapid mu I ti plication of u 
Uiinul« insect (the acarim ncalnni) not un- 
like a theese-uiite, tJie female of which 
forms minute burrows in the epidermis, 
An<l lays numerous e^fis, which hutch in 
About fourteen days. It is very cont.'igious, 
espoeijiliy when its true character is not 

rwe'ipiispd. Any child suffering from a 

rnidi which rnuse^ bim to scrnleh his skin 

fn-Hjuentlyihoidd hn excluded from school. 

The proper tri'atnii'nt is tfl Imtbc the skin, 

uninjt soft Kiiiip freely, nnd then rub in sul- 
phur oiiitmi'nt night jind morning, Itebum 

to Bclioo! ih<iuld not be (illnwcd without a 

medicul certifiejitJ! and until tbo clothe-S 

have been linked or wnsbed in l>oiling 

water. Bi-niprorm iscnused by the growth 

of a minute fungus on Uie skin. It entises 

round patches mtKed ut the mrtrgin, whpre 

tho growth of the jianuiile is moitt active. 

On the scalp it also camieit lai^e round 

patchcfl, on which the li.iir is usuulty not 

entirely goiw, butshtirt and stumpy. Here 

tlio fungtu oxtends down to the' roots of 

til« luura, and obstinately remains thera, 

cured. Such children are freqm-nlly 

lowed to return t« kcIkkjI. It is a 

mistake to suppoise that ringworiu la ne 

sarily curefl when the laijr be^ns ( 

on the diseise*! plu*M'B. If on 

minut'; examination no short stumpy ha 

(protruding alwut J inch) can l^e 

tlien tlie case may be regarded in i 

Ascurfy condition of the head is eon 

left after ringworm of the sealp, and 

comlition generally indicates tlut the i 

worm is not properly cured, but i« 

slightly infectious. Unless ringworm I 

cai'efuily and aysteranticjilly treated, ; 

child may require to he exoluded 

school for six months or even lo 

Ringworm is often spreiid in schools I 

exchanging hats and caps, or by bra* 

nnd towels, or by actual contact. 

dreasers oecasioually pass it on, as do < 

drpu's battel's by trying numerous cap 

different children. Chronic opht 

characterised by soreness and n«dn««*l 

the eyelids, is contagions, and occaaion 

spreads in twarding schools. It seldom I 

cui'B, however, except in paroehial Ncfa 

and the conditions more particularly 1 

ing to it are badly ventilated dormit 

insufficient food, nnd general unhj 

conditions, along with the prom tMtuooSI 

of towels. Trish children seem l«he 1 

ticularly prone to suffer from it, 

/in/i</. is characterised by scabs on 

head. A similar nab may occur «i ' 

face, It often spreoda by oonUet 

other children, and such children 

therefore be excluded from school. 

preceding diseases are eomrauntcat«(l ' 

actual contact. Chorea and //y«(«r»<i( 

oi-casioitally spread in schools by in 

tion and sympathy. Every teacher sh 

be able to recognise the jnrky twitchinxK 

shuffling of feet, contortions of faw, and 

twitching of eyelids which eharact«nM 

chorea (St. Vitus's iJance), and children 

suflTering from it ret|Utre prolongiHi reat 

from school-work. Other children are apt 

to imitate the movements, and ihus U) 

imitative chorej* may lie pni(luc«d. Uy»- 

teiia only oeciirs in girls' scboola. Il mxf 

simulate a simple fnint or an ejMleptic fit ; 

but there is not the extremt- pallor of hiet 

anfl lips which chjtracte rises a fsint ; nW 

nitually the absolute unconsciousness and 

absence of flinching which characterise tto 

epileptic patient. The hysterical girl geno- 

rally Irioa to attncl attention and aym- 


aly unconHciouK 
jrilitptio patiitnt, 
be firmly tn^iitrai, and not aJ- 
I attract too muvli alWiitioit. 
blMaintahipb— Thu iiupurtauce of 
UMI8 as A fnctor in the Dieutal and 
fcTclopmpnt of the child hoA been 
iiy the best writers on edueti- 
ckr, who ilcalx with the subject 
I in Miction 6K and followingof his 
on EdtKiaiion, fvtumx tn it in 
146. Aucording to hitii, company is 
t«r tone to work upon the pupil 
1 that can be done bv the Hducittor. 
ncatlv^ valu^ of couipiiiiioiiB u Hlrik- 
ihutntted in the spedul ditlii-ullies 
neaont thMOsolves to the parent in 
Ij boEDV tmining of a solitary child. 
laenoc of nompnnions is seen first 
lotinx intollcNiliinl drvclopniont. A 
mind^ ik iitiinulut«d to oh^crvn and 
flc by tbi! inov<!tn«nta of othrrK' 
L^aj', bv tU iiL'tion of mind on 
U itA as8O0i&tio(i of u numlier of 
frla LD ooiioerted orderly .iftion, 
t«s in a strildiig luanner t)ie Btimu- 
iffect of onipaoioiLship on the in- 
and on the active powers (hm 
[Od bha moral side the henetits 
linon manifest. It is by freely 
pto contact with other willa that 
tint rmlises the conditions that 
hedUtinctioniofrightand wrong, 
lividiial con only nuilinn hi* moral 
J)^ mCttDH of xodiil rolntions, and 
m firvt (■xperionci'd by thn child in 
Sne with other childrttn. Com;uLn- 
works powerfully through th« im- 
if Inoitalioii (which tee). This in 
t«d in the effect of a siiigla cnni- 
Wld friend lu modifying tlie taste, 
■do, and couree of the thoughts of 
Kand it is seen still more pluiuly 
Boence of numbers in asaimiliitniK 
Uona, t*otiments,and rules of nctiou 
f to thoMi of Che set or community 
di h« ix » mpinhcr. The influence 
panionx an this larger scale is b. 
ipt fuHture of school life, serving 
■otiatv it from tho life of the borne, 
{■fring tobenficciolly taken iotoac* 
lAoanpariHoiiaf thoiulvantngrj>of 
laebool training. Tim '*ympi).thy 
-*,' as it is culled, is a forc<; which 
lus tu reckon with in all 
learner is as much, ut lcu«t, 
tlie prerailiiig feeling of the 
U to tli6 personal inHnenoe of 

thn t/mchiT ; consc<iuently, where the for- 
mer in hriKtiln to the iiittiT, discipline be- 
comes initK)8.sil)lo. On the other liand, the 
pmsenoe in ii class of a. cheerful alertness, 
of a spirit of industry, and o! a feeling of 
respect for authority, is ihe most valuable 
auxiliary which the preceptor can secure. 
The freer and more varied action of com- 
panionship is seen in the playground, where 
it may shew it^lf, as 7'ont Ilroinn't .SVAooi 
Ufci/t and Other stories of school life well 
illustrate, as a moral influence of «, singu- 
lai'ly deep and Inating kind. Such being 
the importance of com pan ionahip, the edu- 
cator should make it one chief part of 
his business to select, more particularly in 
the early years before the child's character 
is farmed, pure and right-minded compan- 
ions!. And the thoughtful schoolmnsl^r 
will tu:tyk in every way to enlist the intlu- 
imci! of nuruliers on Ins side by judiciously 
acting u|mn, instructing, and correcting 
the pruvjiiling beliefs and Beiitimenta of 
bis community. (.SVp article ' Unigang' in 
Schniid's Eiicyclopiidir.) 

Competitive Examinations. See Ex 


Composition, S-" I'^ssays, 

Comte, Isidore Auguste Uarie Fran- 
5oisXavier (t. 179S, d. 1857), the Positive 
philosopher, was educated at the Ecol9 
Polytechni(|ue, and at first embraced the 
socialist tenets of 8t, Simon, He subtie- 
quently abandoned these for the philo- 
sophy now associated with bis name. The 
Hchemn of education whicli he therein ex- 
pounded is as striking as it is original and 
peculiar. He was diasatislied with tli« I 
then prevailing syatemB. No education, 
be considered, would he- satisfactory unless 
itinculciitjid a thorough knowledge of each 
science. Let us, he cried, have a new class 
of students, suitably prepared, whoso busi- 
ness it slioiild be to take the respective 
sciences as tliey are, detennitie the spirit of 
each, ascertain their relations and mutual 
connection, and reduce their reapectivo 
prineiplestothesmn.llestnumber of general 
principles in accordance with the funda- 
mental rules of the Positive method («« 
his I'hUomphif. I'luntin'), At the sjime 
time let other students bi- prepared for 
tboirspeciftl pursuit by ftii education which 
recognises the whole scope of the Positii-fl 
science, .so ns to protit by the labours of 
the students of gcmeraliltcs, and so as to 
correct reciprocally, under tljal guidance, 
the results obtuiiwd \>j K^\. ^VktV «. 


reform would strmigth<n] the intpllertual 
(uuctioTis, regenerate education, itdviince 
th« BcicnccM by cnnibinin^' tliein, nnd re- 
organiwtooiety. Heinle, Com t« contj!iided, 
the only logica,!, as well iis the only liie- 
toriail, way cif «lu<!tttiug youth effeutuaJly 
wus to teu^li tlieui thu scii^ni-'M aui'Ordiii;^ 
to tiin order promulg^t^ iu hk liieraruliy 
of tile scieucea — matJiematica, tkstroiiouy, 
p'lysies, chemistry, biology, and aoeiology 
On such principles nn education would 
have a powerful gymnastic ettotrt upon the 
tnind. A good education would include 
knowledge of the general priuciples at 
leiisit of eiich of theite ; uiid as each science 
trains to a special way of tliinbiiig, the 
porfcotly triiiued miud wus thiit whicSi lia<i 
be«u eiefcised in all tlieise Bt/ient^ea. -No 
btudent could kuow a science without a 
competent knowledge of the autcrioi' sci' 
enees on which it depended. Physical 
philoHopliors could not understand pliytios 
wittioiit at least n geiiend knowledge of 
iiBtronoiiiy ; nor theniiats eliemistry with- 
out jihyaica and ustmnomy ; nor, aliove 
all, the atudeut of aociiij philosophy Boido- 
iufiy without & geiieml knowledge of all 
Uie anterior sciences. As such conditions 
were never at the present day fulHlled 
tliere could he no rational scietitittc edu- 
cation. Hence the imperfection of even 
tlie most important scientific educiitiou. If 
the fact was so in regai'd to scientific edu- 
cation, it was no lesBstrikingly so ill regard 
to general education. Our intellectual sys- 
tem could not he renovated until the sci- 
ences were studied in their proper order. 
Even the highest understandings were apt 
to associate thi-ir ideas according to the 
ortler in which their i<leus had lieen re- 
ceived, and it wuB only an intidlei^ here 
and there, in any age, which in its utmost 
vigoui' could, like Bacon, Deacartes, and 
Leibnitz, make a clearance in the tieid of 
knowledge so as to reconstruct from the 
foundation their system of ideas. 

Conception.— This term, as the ety- 
molo(!y Ku^rjiiM (.-flfi and cijno, to take 
togcthi-r), dcscrilics the act by which we 
gather up in a single mental representa- 
tion n niiintxT of likn objects which ar« 
thcrirby into a class, as nnimal. 
metnl. Thin in cflcctfd by comparing eon- 
cn^B individunU one with another, and 
WTixing the quality or qualities which they 
ponH-aa in common. Thr rvitult nf the net 
of ooiiaeption, which is necctnvrily c-tn- 
bodied ill u fptaeml numcs i* known um a 

concept. The eajentaal procna in i 
tion is alistraction. Tliis correct ■ 
of conception (vii. the symbolic 
Mentation of u r/m^rat etagt) must be i 
fully distinguished from another niMnii 
often altaciied to the word in edncntio 
writings, viz. the mental reoltiation 
some co'rterf:tf object or incident, e.g. 
Temple .^t J orusolein, through tbeinediui 
of verbal description. This last operatia 
is best described as an act of 
tive imagination (jub CoSBTRtTCTIOJf 
Imagination). (Sm Uamillon's 
(in Afetn/ihi/sice, voL i. p. 212; Baynfl 
E«aay on Analyt. of Loijical Form*, 
^ 6;' and Sully's tfaHdiooAq/"/'* '' 
chaps, xii. liii) 

Condillac, Etienne Bonset, Abb6 del 
Condillac, was >>orii at tirenoblo 171Ii,aildJ 
died ]7t>0. As a philosopher, be is 
tjnguished by his advoocy of tiie sy 
of Locke, though he differed widely I 
him. Locke held that there vere 
sources of ideas, sensation and 
Condillac reduced all to one source, : 
tion. His third book, A Trtatitr tm 
Snuatt-Uint. ia considered his chief 
He became so celebrated that he wn* : 
pointed tutor to the Prince of Pornm, I 
it was here that he published his Co 
of SlitdUn, which he divides into the : 
of writing, reasoning, thinking, fotlnrw 
by a general liistory of men and l^mpiTet■ 
As a writer he was lucid, and Mr. Lew«« 
gives him chief praise, because ' be helped 
to withdraw men from the cant«iiipUticin 
of a metaphysical entity.' He thus toofc 
an important step towards acientlSo, ob' 
jective research. 

Condorcet, Uarqais de (b. 1743, d.m 
prison I794J. — He was educated in tho 
college of Xavarre, and distinguished him- 
self in mathematics. In 170& he published 
his first work On liU^jral Vnlmlatiorutf 
which met witji great favour in the Aaulejn^ 
of Sciences. This wasfollowrJ by otlMT 
works, which secured for him the liooour 
of being chosen member of thii AoMlemy 
in 1769. Though not in the first rank « 
mathematicians, hislabours on 'differential 
equations' have earned bim on hiMorical 
position- He npplie<l philosophy to tlie 
amelinratinn of social institutions, and his 
main doctrini- was the perfectibility ot 
man, botJi in his individual and social ca- 
pacity. ' Acconling to him the hoitiiui 
frame and intellect, by the aid of time and 
education, would iiitaUtblj attain to per- 

Ho drftw up A report on public 
iiiKtractton, mtitliil A I'lan/or a Ccuti- 
fedJoM, vliich Ih! ]l^^acnt«(l to th« Oon- 
mrtion »t ibeir rw]ue«it, und in which lin 

Bfl (ortli Hfiluc lofty view* IVffudllig thi' 

Bind. A Sk^h uj Uie Proi/iytg a/ iJm 
Huanai* Afind is perhaps bin cliivi wurk- 
&• nev»r wwrifid iu promotiijg reforms, 
•ad bo KAcriliccd his life in his effort to 
AmimI ft mpulilic upon a philosophic basis, 
tor lie was pnMcribod lutn Uironiiist when 
RobcBpiaTD wiw in power, and, hnviitg 
tMfi UTOWu into prison, ho took poiiton, 
Md waa foand d«iul tlio nioming aftnr 
Ue incaroeratiou. 

Conduct ix tii« majiner in which a 
pEnon guid«a or regulates his actions. It 
Rhrs not to single actious. but to the 
general mode of tKting. As such, it is the 
utemnl outoonc of and index to the per< 
■on'i fixed diipoMtionii nni) rlmriMtor. {See 
Cbibactka.) A> a unifni-iti moHo of lie- 
faavinXon which otht-ra can count, conduct 
iianetubocliiut^utuf l)i« principle of Uiihit 
((.v.). Good couduct m Dmt wliii^h, ob- 
i«cti?ely oonadered, confunns tu the m- 
^mretucnu of duty or ili« moral law ; and, 
ibljitctively considered, iudicates a good 
~ dispodtioo or a tendency to net 
itly. From merely ri^ht conduct which 
>6ec the claims of duty some moralists 
iguish v-irtaous, or, hett«r, meriCori- 
m condoct, which goes lieyond this, as 
vhco n child uponlancously denies him* 
•df aoDMt gnttificntion in order to benefit 
noUwr. Good conduct in the orgnnised 
nnlt of repvatiNJ niid hnhitual etl'ort. A 
(bild aoquin* conduct in the measure in 
rtich he «[6rt« thlMH^ cHbrtA. Good con- 
duct is tkiu at tyiux the fruit of mural ciia- 
ncter, and the uieana by which this grows 
uA improTes. The sphere of conduct in- 
dndnthewboleof the child's life, Ko far as 
lliiccan be brought under the control of the 
vilL Thos, industf}' iu study, ordertinesii, 
wd pro p r i e ty of deportment fall within 
the prorinco, m well as the ^aver morul 
Wtten of bono«ty, veracity, ic. But the 
■hntor in <sUinMting any branch of eon- 
d<ct must liiirefulty examine into die 
UMimt of eflort involved as well as into 
tfc« quality of thi! motive jit. work. lie 
■AwU remiinibcr, ton, thnt the ]ierfect 
trpeef conduct a the rcJiiilt of free self- 
fudanoe, and Ih! on his guard jigaintt 
"waloiug » mere out.ward conformity 
to rale tfaat b proanptod by the desire of 



gaining, or the foar of losing, eomrthing, 
eg. ' conduct markB,' (Sor articles iJirrV 
and ViKTiii.) 

CongregatioilfOxford) has liecn greatly 
uonfuBctl in its mwining by an Act of 
Parliament in 1854, Before then the busi- 
ness of tlie Uuiveraity was tratisactt-d by 
two diatiiict assemblies, the Houses of 
CongregJition and of (.'on vocation. The 
ancient House of Congregation, which con- 
sists of all thp persons who in ani^ent 
times were apec-ially charged with the rdu- 
ciition and diEcipline of the L'nivcmity, 
luiH now nothing to do with legislation, 
arul its business is conllned almost exclu- 
sively to t!ie granting of degrees. The 
Act of 1864 created the ' Oongregatiou of 
the University of Oxford.' Ituonsistsof the 
Chancellor of the University and several 
otJier officials, together with 'all thnsemem- 
hers of Convocation who re-side within one 
mile and a half of Cnrfax for twenty weeks 
during the year ending the 1st of Septem- 
ber.' The Imsiness of this new congrega- 
tion is chieQy legislative. \Vln-n tlieHebdo- 
niadiil Council hiis fntmeil any new statute, 
it must lirst be promulgated, after due 
notice, here, and then, after three entire 
tliiys, it is to be proposeil hei-e for ttcccpt- 
aiice or rejection. A stutute a]>proved by 
Coiigregdljoii is to be submitted to Con- 
vocation, after au interval of seven entire 
days, for final adoption or rejection. At 
Cambridge the meetings of the Senate in 
the Senate House are stykd Congrega- 
tions. They arc held for the purpose of 
legislation, exaniinntion, or the conferring 
of degrees. The mpmbers of the Seniito 
are the chancellor, vice-chancellor, doctors 
of the various faculties, maators of arts, 
law, and surgery, utid btichelora of di- 
vinity, whose names are on the University 

Conscience Clause. See Codb. 

Coneeqnenoes (BiBcipUne of).— This 
phrase reftra lo tlie jiroposal of liousseau, 
■■evived and developed by Mr. Herbert 
Spencer, tliat children's wrongdoing, in- 
stead of being visited by punishment (in 
its commonly understood sense), should l>c 
left IiO be corrected by an eTpericnce of its 
natural consequences. These would in- 
clude not only the proper physical result 
of careless, imprudent actions- e.g. play- 
ing with tire, leaving toj-s or liiioks in 
disorder^but also the natural social con- 
Mi'<|ui-ncps, such as thi^ loss of friendship, 
tru»t, Ac. The full and conaistaiA owrrj- 


tax i^ut of Uiis idea would olearly be tin* 
prossible. The c)Lild's i^iorauL'e of l!i« 
eflei-'U of lis action rvDders a number of 
prohibitions npccssdry for its pbynicnil 
niaintvriniicr njid well-being. Not only ko, 
it miLV I)" rmnnnahiy mnintAiiteit t.bnt these 
Mi-c:ii!l<K]nntiim.l [>eiinltica could never tuke 
thd jiliuH! of [luniKliinoiit pmiwr — thiLl is, 
intli(!ti»iis attached by an uutdoritj todis- 
ol>edi<TnL'v to its comimiitdH— as a means of 
moral developmeut. It may, however, bo 
readily (^needed that in many ca^es a ciilld 
ia be^t left to tlie <li»i.''ipline of consequences, 
e.g. by being allowed to indulge within 
certain limits its givedy propeMitiea. And 
whciri thi; wlncittjir has to impose prohibi- 
tionu, the principk- of nntunii coiiseijutinces 
nifty lie inAdo ate of by sele<Tting audi forms 
of punishment as will Im seen by tlie 
oulprit to bn niiturJilly <«uiiected witJi 
tlie wrong-doiiiK. (>Vc Rounseiio'a IHmite, 
book ii. ; Herbert S^eucer's Mducatiim, 
cbap. iii. ; Bain's Educaii'm aa a Sde-nce, 
chap. iii. ; Uuisson's Dletiunnairs df Pida- 
goffu>, art. 'Oiwissance.') 

Constructive Pacolty.— By this term 
is meiint the mind's pnwer of combining 
the element* supplied by its experience iu 
new fonns. Tliu process of construction 
is thufi not, strictly Bpenking. one of mental 
Oliginntion, but mei'ely of recasting and 
rcnrmnging nidterials derived from the 
impressions of th(^ past. It implies the 
retention niid the reprnduetion of these 
impmxHions nct^ording to th« Laws of 
Asaociation. Bcvond this it involves the 
action of tlie will in controlling the suc- 
oeitaioii of ideas due to the play of associa- 
tion, the due selection of what is littitd, 
and the rejection of what is unlltletl to 
tek« a place in the desired product. The 
term refers in common ducourse to all 
forms of practical contrivance and device, 
whether Knbaerving the fnd of beauty or 
of utility. Thiii!, we speak of the con- 
stmctivo power of nn archil-ect, a me- 
chanicnl inventor, and so forth. These 
prneticnl operntiuTis, however, are only 
particular man if cstntinnK of ii power which 
jscxcroiied much more widely. Through- 
out th« nauuisition of knowledge by the 
procMwna of verbal inHtrut^tion, us well us 
in the indej)endeiit discovery of new facts 
and truths, th» eomliining of old matJ^riub 
into ii«w forms is illudtnitefl. The child 
liaa to construot a new mtintjil picture 
every time lie realisiw a description of an 
uukuowii place, object, or (tvent. The 

training of the conMructivn fnculty thu» 
enters into all intplli'ctuat cdumtion. tha 
cultivation of the imn^iiatioii by thtt Fine 
Arts {*•>■ IvtAfii nation), und, lastiy, into 
nil practical exnrcaMOB, audi aa tliose of the 
voice in li-nming to Speak and bo sing, of 
the humU in kindorgarteu employnMOllk 
drawing, writing, io., grmnRstic tnovs- 
mpnte,andsofDrttu iS«eliMn,il'nlaliind 
Moral Sciene», bk. i. chap. i<r. ; and Sally, 
Teaelicr'ti HniuUiook, chap, si.). 

Comiimption uid Sobool-vcH'k.— 

Consumption is one of the moKt fatal 
diseases in this country. In 1684, in Enn- 
land and Wale.s, out of a tottti of 530,828 
deaths, 49,»35 were caused by consump- 
tion, und 20,08.^ by other tubercular 
and scrofulous diseases, which are pro- 
duced by siuiilar causes lo those indac- 
ing consumption. Thua, 13 per C4nt 
of the total mortality of this coantry 
was aacrtl)able to consumptive disvuM. 
Of the total C9,40t> deaths from consnmih 
tive diseases, 12,7415 oocurrwl undi-r tlie 
age of twenty years, and it is evidrat, 
therefore, that the question of tlie infiu- 
ence of school life, on the tendency to 
consumption is one of great importance. 
Consumption is a very herrdilart/ diMnee, 
and where the bereditiiry tuint is lunrked, 
school work should be modilicd and the 
pupil's health guarded by genen>us diet 
and ahundnQt outdoor esercise. A damp 
goil has be^n demonstrated to be a poww- 
ful factor in causing consumption- It has 
been repeatedly demonstrated that when 
a neighlKHirhood is freely drained, thus 
robbing its subsoil of moisture, the mar- 
talityfrom conEumptionsteadUydecpeaseL 
In Nalisbury the deaths from phthisis fell 
49 per cent., in Ely 47 per cent., in Kugby 
43 per cent., and in Banbury 41 per cent, 
after free drainage. It is ovideoti thorn- 
fore, tliat schools should be erected on a 
dry soil, and all precautions taken a^nst 
damp floors and walls. Ov^'crmodiivf hu 
avery important influence in cauning con- 
sumption. Dogsin ill- ventilated knuuils, 
horses or monkeys under similar condl- 
tinns, not uncommonly die from consuiBp- 
tion, and the same rules apply to chiLclreo. 
The influence of lack of fresh air na a 
cause of consurnption is indiciittid liy the 
fact that of <J,000 cases admitted into the 
Brompton Hospital for consumption two- 
thirds had indoor occupations, und a ma- 
jority of these were milliners, sempatnaaet^ 
and tailors. Formerly the d«aUt-rat« Uon 

.ion in tlio army whs 1 1 '9 {KT 
1,000 itoldivrs ; now, with iniprovrd vvn- 
tiUtion and draiiu^ie of hiimwkx, it i* 
only 2-ft per 1,000. Cliildn!ii urn raiJiHTJ- 
lily enaeeptibl^ to ttie diuiKnni rMultliiff 
from ilDfnir« air. And even if unuKuinj- 
lion is not directly (>ro(Iuced in tlii« way, 
it is fkvogred by the geiiM'ul debility and 
iinlai<B cAQwd by chronic exposure t<i foul 

H hns bc*n rewtntly sutwl that con- 
■iia|itioD IN dno to & minute nrgnniHin 
|Uii! biz^/lut tuhfriTulon*), and t!mt cnii- 
uunptiuD VLVxy lie unught hy limithing thu 
Inatli oC connunptivi! [lutiviita, juKt as 
teailet (evn- or nicasl^ii inuy Im ouught 
■nder siniilar dreumslauces. If this be 
tlie caM, then tlie datif^ere of bcIiouI life 
m which cliildren are con^-epiliu:! closuly 
logBtliBr in ft viti«l«d air ara itideliiiitely 
iaenmtA. But, without accepting this 
view in itc ontira^, the importAnco of 
fn«h nit in conowtinn with school lifo 
(Miiiot Iw cic«ggcmt«d. 

Tht direiTt indociicc of Kolionl-work in 
podudii^ conimmpUon liiis pM-lmjis Imen 
tnjQ[«nt«d. Tlic tollntiTiil det'ipimic^y of 
food, exercise, and &eab air iLre prulmbty 
there*] ckumb of conaumptiuu rather ihiui 
~ mental work iii hcIiooI life. In 187:2 
UauachusettK Soord of Health iii- 
i{BVod by of a nuinlfar of pliy- 
wiuu and teachers whether in Uielr 
cipmenoe eonamuption is ever brou;;lit 
oa by ov«isstudy. Of 101 replies U6 
••re in the athmiativo. There can be no 
dwbt that the strain involved in working 
tw an oXAmination sometimes leads to 
wrffrtof hy^i«nic laws, and following on 
lie irxnmi nation a broakdown may occur; 
^ (here is no mtxon to think that study 
bilaclf conduces to phthisis. It shniild 
WremiantiiTwl tJiat childn-n with a tulier- 
(^kr U-ndrncy an; ofttrn unusunlly brij|,-ht 
intallect, and require holding Uivk 

titan atiroulutiug in tliuir studii^s. 
CoBtradictoriness.^By this tenn is 
*«witadiHpoiiti(iti to ^li^pu^e iinU cuntrJi- 
4a oUten' aaaercionti, not in the inlen'Hts 
(i tralh. btit from a mere luve of opposi- 
~ It corresponds in the iutelleclunl 
with self'vill and obstinacy in the 
KfpOD. It is not a vie* proper 
!Aildh(iod, for children are disposed to 
tMept tbe statements of those wlio are 
■Ue to cotDmand tlieir respect. The pr«- 
ytt» of this hnit is thus a pretty clear 
' "fa tioa of a lack of authority on die 


part of the teacher, and of a defnctivo 
mode of instmction. Clever diildnm, who 
are invit4<d and i>n<iouni(r('t! to j(ive tlmir 
opinion on various niutti-rs, and to diacuss 
ijumtions with thirir preceptora, are very 
Jipt toiievelo]) IhiK uiiauiiable tjuality. It 
is no eaxy matter to exercise the Ju(l;;nient 
of tlie child ill independent reflection and 
decision, without at the same time en- 
couraging a loye of dispute. Tiie only 
true corrective to contrariictorinrss, lovo 
of wrangling, and what Ix>ck« palls opi- 
nionatry, is a gpnuinn lovi- of truth iUell,! 
which leaves no place for any form of solf- 
co-nsciousness, and so excludes all desire 
for self-assertion. {See Locke's TluiugtUa 
on Education, sect. 9S.) 

Coatnist- Two tliingsare said to con- 
trast one with another when they show a 
marked and striking degrceof unlikcness. 
Thus, we s[*ak of a contrast between a 
loud and a soft not*!, a warm and a cold 
colour. Since all knowledge bcj.'jns by 
discriminating objects or aceinjidiiTtrences, 
and since the child noti-s broa<l difler- 
ciices Iwfore he iletecls the lesser degrees 
of uidikeuess, early cognition is occupied 
to a large extent witli the relation of con- 
trast. For this rtuBOn the teacher idiould 
make the amplest use of the princi|>le of 
contrast. Tlius, in t^xe raising the seuses 
and the observing faculty, contrasting 
colours, forms, d;c., sliouM be set in juxta- 
position : and in communicating any new 
idea to the child's mind, as that of pa- 
triotism, ite meaning sliouhl be brought 
out by cnntrasting it with its opposite. 
Contrast has an important Ifaring no 
only upon the operations of the intellect, 
but on the feelings. The emotional effect 
of aiiythingpathotic.suhlime, it c, is greatly 
enhanced by setting it in its projier oon- 
trnat. Hence the large part played by 
contrast in liteniture anil the fine arts 
generally. Owinj; to thja emotional effect 
of contrast, impressions ai'e apt to attach 
thpniselvea to and afterwards to I'ecall 
eoritr-.LSting inipressiotin ; and this is par- 
ticularly the case with ideas tliut are rela- 
tive one to another, such as briifht. dark, 
high, low, rich, poor, ke. So fretpiently 
does one impression or thought suggest a 
couti'asting idea, that some psychologists 
botli in ancient and modern times recog- 
nise contrast as one of the fundamental 
Laws of Association (7.1'.). It has, bow- 
ever, been clearly shown that this is not 
noce88ary(cf.anicleDiaCRl»\H*.TW>»V "^Sw 


Bun's Jit«jUal itiid Mornl Seienee, bb. ii. 
oli«p. lit. »ect. 10, nnd .Sullj-'a T«aeK^a' 
liaiuViook, chap, ii.) 

Conversational Method.— A mode of 
iimtniotiun l>y iikuiib of wliich rhc lessons 
eonHtftt of a. fainili.-ir (iiiicimrM' l>y lli« 
toochc'r, iiiti.'rH])(.-rbe(l with ({uestinuH mid 
remarks by tli^ pupik. Tin? k-eaons thus 
toke the form of a eouvcrtuitioii, which 
nnders them cupocially adA[j(«d to young 
children, lu by it the extent of their kiiow- 
k-dge is nsciTtnini^, and diHiculties nre 
ex|]IuiniHl as enooiiateivd. It also poa- 
Besses ttit! advantage of exciting and 
iiiaiutmiuiig tlin iiit«nst of the youthful 
Bohol&ra, which by other mctbotlB would 
be leaa easily sustuiiiei). 

ConTOOation at Oiford Univeraity 
conciste of nil masters of urta and all doc- 
tors of the three superior faculties who 
Lave their naities upon the iKXjks of liouie 
college or hall. Hy this hodyfivery formal 
net of the Univcnity, and its businrsa an 
u corjioniti? Ixnly, i-xonpt what relates to 
gr»iitj[|g ordinary dr-grccs, is done and 
eonctudud. Honor.'iry degrees are given 
by couseut of Convofiitioii, oa also special 
dagTM*, either by decree or diploma. 
StatntM do not become binding till they 
have the assout of ttiis ujiEeittbly. Here, 
also, nearly all elections to offices in the 
gift of the University take pbice. 

Cookery. li«e Domestic Economt. 
Cooper, Peter (6. 17i)l),— A wealthy 
Arnirican philanthropist, who, notwith' 
Rtiiniling his lack of early education, rose 
to aftlu<-nce by hiH industry, and devoted 
liutisi^lf to tile wlvanci^nieiit of the ocluca- 
tiUH of the working claiueH. He woe the 
founder of the 'Coofwr I'nionfor the pro- 
motion of Science sjid Art,' an institution 
admirably organised, uontaining a very 
targe and valuable library. A tcclimcal 
school for both sexes is also uasociated 
witli tho union, and studies iii all bmnclics 
of knowledge are carried on, and certifi- 
oftt<», which rank high, are granted to 
thoKc whow (jualifi cations deserve such 

Copying in a wihool offence too well 
known to nncd description. It is most 
«>ft«n conimitlfMl in itrithmntic, but it may 
b<; committed in dictation, parking, ana- 
lyxia of uuitcnccH, grammar exercises, or 
ill ikcl any work wherx-in correct answers 
ore idiMiticiiL Tlic evil crHi-ctii of copying 
nre twofold. 1. Tho trachpr is ininleil as 
to tlie altiuiunentaof hiK pupilt, and thinks 

the proGciaiKy of Ute brigfat«st the jj 
licioncy of the cUua. He tlterefors pw 
on to th« noxt ataf^ of a subject bd 
the children who rM|uire most of hin 
tcntion are really 6t to follow him, I 
the further he proceeds the mori! hopcl 
becomes any attempt on their part toM 
up. 2. Thus they fiiil to jictjuirB kai 
ledge, and fail also to noiiuire a hatd 
self-reliance. Copying is a inark of J 
tone and had discipliiui. ItindicatMl 
thii children do not scruple to reap n 
tlipy have not miwn, and that the toMJ 
eitlier cannot we or cannot prevent { 
honest work. The remedy consist*, j 
marily, in raising the tone and imprafl 
the discipline. Copiers ah onid be nwH 
understand that they at once comB^ 
moi-al offence and retard their own t 
gress ; hut the teof her, while lie do«j 
that he can to cultivate his pupils' aj 
of honour {q-^'-), should watch loem '% 
lantly. Then there are certain mechaa 
means of rendering copying difficuU 
impossible. Such arei 1. Seating! 
children so far apart that do 0U« ca4 
his neighixiur'B work. 2. Letting thvl 
sttind in a seuiicircle, each child with 
hack to one neighbour and his face t« 
other. This arrangement ia onJr poMJ 
when exercises are done on mtwq 
Giving different work to alternato p4 
4. Giving different work to «Mjh |A 
This is best done by means of ' t«utl cb 
Many such cards, dealing with nou^ 
subjects of instruction, are now tnJ 
market. Their use is e8|)ecial!y c&lcal 
to teach self-reliance, and they give | 
tical form to the dictum of an experia 
inspector (Mr. Fearon), who says that' 
only way to stop copying in a school | 
make it impossible.' 

Cornell. Ezra (b. 1807 at Weotda 
Co., New York State, rf. 1 874).— Origh 
engaged in business in the cotton 1 
at Ithaca, he rose to a position of { 
afilueucei He was one of the fin 
realise the importance of the dw-trio 
graph, and aided il-a intrcluction 
America. Cornell devoted hi« wcaU 
educational purposes, founding a m 
at Ithaca at the cost of 100,000 da 
Ke also founded a unii'ersily, whid 
eluded a school of agrtoulture, laj 
tones, and museum. Iiistructiou o( \ 
kind is prt'vided for persons of both I 
whethei' wliito or coloured. Tlie ua 
sity recoivocf its charLer in 1865, and 


in IMS vitb 35 professors a.nd 
ot -lOCI atadeitts. In I87i! },'irls at Ui« 
t *d «4^tMi) were kdmitted to th? same 
Jam w young mm, % building being 
Uy provided for their accomm oHnt I on . 
Corponl PunilhfflCBt it but Reldom 
Ifmirad in vr-tl-mnnucd schooU. Frw 
i/araoritirs, how<'vi>T, deny iU ooeasinniil 
adTwlnlity. It ufauuld, )uiwi>v(>r, aJwiij-s 
VtMrcutfsl after doe delibtirutioD luiil a 
eouiiivrable iii(«n-al of time from the 
monl ddlinquency for which it ia deemed 
_teeHnry. Boxing tie ears or UIowb on 
bead of any description are ioadris- 
, and even dangerous. So lilcirwise are 
I on tie front of the chost or nbrlo- 
ncn. The b«t «ttn for corpoml piinish- 
vmnt is th« i^gion of «ivit, luid n 
Brxihifi c>n« rfioold hi? uxi^d, not u. hnrd, 
lipA rod. It >hi>uM atwayn bi- unite ulcur 
lo tie ddinqurnt thut t\w puiii-iliitienl la 
I rindictive (itn interval of «n hour or 
_ I impmiuw *i»i*), lind corporal puiiish- 
■ntt shoold be nmrved for extreme moral 
Siii.iuul not nedfbrbreachee of discipline. 
I Hdlfed tcadiers, especially in higher class 
^haoll, Are gratdually learning to maiD- 
discipUiM vitbout any recourse to 
puniahment. Where corpoml 
pniifaiDeiit seems almolutely rer{uii-od, it 
Kftgood plan to hold over the infliction 
rfthPcba^isement during the continnnnce 
<£ good bebavioar, having it understood 
lliat if tbe good bnhiiriour cnntinu<'» for a 
pvta l«ogth of timit, thn sentonut* to oor- 
)Hnl punishment will lupso. {Stx Dis- 


Courage Imx been reooKoi^ '" ancient 
ud modem times as one of the leading 
nrtnatL Ariatotle. a.^reeably to his general 
•Uncel coavcption, reganls courage as n 
■Man betveej) two extremes, excess and 
Mciei^ ol fear — that is, cownrdice v. 
iMlhantiiiesa, He also diBtingiiiEh<^a trun 
coange, which includes n srnse of danger 
ud a reiolve to fnc« it. from it^ spu- 
■■■■ni tonOM, U tin coolnpss shown by one 
'Hmhb axperiODOo has taught thr grouiitl- 
b^Mw ot f«*r. To courn);:p, which iin- 
pliet a. rondiiMiM to fnce danger, is closely 
■Hied endurAno- or fortitudi- in btuiring 
vhtt U painful. Thi! mnnd viilu<! of 
nvnge dcpnnds vi-ry much on the (luality 
■ftkenotivrUiat lien Miind it. Thu«, a, 
^•boshrtWK cflntwiipt for danger merely 
to Mm plaudits of looken-on illustrates 
*W admirable funu nf courage than one 
*bo lidcs peril to uve anotier's life. Tbe 

foHteriag of a spirit of hmvery and en- 
durance in children, who are niitumlly din- 
posed to lie timid, is an imporUmt pnrt of 
mornl tmining. This begins with tlie cul- 
tivation of physical courage, i.e. n rcNwli- 
nrss to fiftce and endure bcMlity pxin. Kext 
to this comes the higher task of develop- 
ing moral coumge, or resolution in meet- 
ing other forms of sufl'orinE, part.icuhirly 
ridicule and contempt. Children should 
be carefully taught lo discriminate genuine 
from spurious courage, mid not to con- 
found a manly readiness to fuce dan^r 
where occasion requires with a foolish ret'k- 
lessne-JK (cf. art.icln KeAK). (Sm Mrs. Bry- 
ant's Etliif.iUinnid End*, p. 71 tl aeq.; 
Locke on ' Cowardice and Courage,' 
Thowjhht on Ediinalion, wict. 115; and 
Schuiid's E iity elapiidu, article ' Muth,'} 
Coar»e of Inttructian. .Hm- Iintkuc- 

TIO!t (CoORSK of). 

Cotuin, Victor {b. at Paris 1792, d. 
lt^67), was tlie son of a watchmaker. He 
studied with great success in tie oollego 
Chnrlemagno. When only twenty-two 
years old he was appointed to the chair of 
Modem Philosophy. He gathered some 
enthusiastic students round him. but he 
stopped his lectures liecauae his views 
were not in favour with the goFemmeut. 
Cousin wua cftptivutotl by the philosophy of 
Locke and CondiUnc. He also transUtcd 
the whole ot Pluto and part of Aristotle, 
but it is as an educationist tliat he ren- 
dered the highest service. In 1831 he 
presented an address to the Minister of 
Public Education, which formed the prelude 
to the liew liiw of 1S33. on elementary 
instruction in France. He helped to pre- 
pare this Inw with M, (.Juizot.andiilthough 
they 'lid not enact that education should 
be compulsory and free, yet in an eloquent 
passage Cousin asserted the right of all to 
eilucation. In IS31 he viait^^d Germany 
to study the Gennnn system of education. 
In his Ra/tpoTt »ur V Etat He I' instriiHion 
piibliqiie daiw[Urg Pat/s dfl I'Alh- 
iiirt^TW, he cnlis Prussia ' the land of 
Bfliools and biirracks.' 

Cramming.— This term was introduc(s) 
into the educational vocabulary about tim 
time of the establishment of the system of 
open competition for appointments in thn 
public service, when the demand uiituiully 
arose for tutors to undertake the prepara- 
tion of candidates for the various examina- 
tions which that system instituted. Owiiig 
to a belief which became curcent l\wX tX\\a 




prvpnrstion frrqncmtljr cnnnitfid of nipiflljr 
crowding the mind with Biip^rttciftl or 
tni^rt^Iy miifttnonicul knowWgRof fanta And 
priiicijik-a, Tutlwr llinn tmitiing it to n 
thoniujjli mUHlpry uiid aocurutn genemli- 
Bulloii uiid aimlj'BiH, tutom ciiiiie In hv 
called crammers, and tlieir process craiu- 
miu)^. The term, however, is frequently 
luisnpplied to the close applicAtioo or con- 
centration to the work of preparation, in 
which npidity and thorniighntms »n? com- 
biii4-d. ft KhoiiM Im oonfinod to the over- 
loading of tho memory with knowlpilge 
nci]iiirTMl for aji objuctivt! or niateriiiHstif 
purpuiM!, Hill) nut for ila own aake and 
imrpoHeti of culture and mRiital di?velop- 
meiiL. Craojiuiii;; would t'eaae to exist 
uudera proper system of exiiuiiiiation, for 
a ijood examiner can always put questions 
to test whether the candidate's training 
has been conducted on the forcing princi- 
ple, or on that of natnml healthy growth, 
Crumnjing IK not confined to those pngnged 
in prr^piirntion for publii- examinations ; it 
ia common in kpIiooIh whcrt! tlic practice of 
committing lessons to memory and stuffing 
the mind witli Ul-digested facts is atili 

Creches. — Institutions of French ori- 
gin, wliPrH infants from litteeu days old to 
tliree years are taken care of during the 
daytime while their mothers who are ob- 
tigiid to be at work are absent from home. 
The first crfiche was opened by Madame 
Marbeuu of Paris (1844). Crtehes are 
niiw in use not only in Fnvnce, but also in 
Italy, Belgium, Holland, and England. 
The children are cntniHted to the care of 
properly trained nurses, wlio wash, nurse, 
feed, and amuae them, instniding tliRm 
nliio, if th«y Im^ old enough, on the kinder. 
gurtjm »y stein. 

Crias Cross Row, or Christ CrosR Row. — 
A di'.iijt'l'ition formerly applied to the first 
line or row of the ulph.'ibet arranged in 
the old lioni books or primers. These 
bookl consisted of only a single page, nnd 
the letters were printed commencing with 
» + A, a, h, e, ie., a, e, i, o, u. A. B, C, 
Ac The llrst line comTueiicing with H 
eroM waa called the Christ Cross Kow, or, 
nore shortly, tire Cross Kow. 

Cruelty to Animali. — By this phmse 
we understAnd the appcamnee not onlj'of 
iudiffereiice t« lh<> fcrlings of animals, but 
of a positive pleasure in ill-uiting thnm, 
which is a common character intio of chil- 
drtqt. How far the pni«tic«ri of pulling 

flies to pieces, tormenting CAts, in., in\ 
a delight in inflicting pain Is a 
dispute. Dr. Bain rcgtuxl--' thin fivlinj 
the essential element in kII cnidty, i 
us a primary instinct of the human 
It may be oont<!iidp<l, however, that m^ 
of children's ajipurent cruelty U (Jie i 
come of u more geiier^U love of wan 
destiniction anil of delight in exerdl 
power. Locke thinks thAtchildrvo'st 
ing delight in indicting pain is naDe< 
than a foreign and intiwiuccd disporiti^ 
Certain it is, that before custom blunta^ 
edge of their feelings children are i 
keenly seiisitive to forms oi ill-tmitii 
of animals which have the winctiaiij 
convention. Where a child is dis 
be cruel, care must be taken to uulti* 
kindlier feelings and to exercise Uie ii 
ginatioD in a vivid realisation of tlie i 
fering produced. Sympathy with the i 
mal world may be dflvolopwl to M>me«xt 
by encouraging children U> tCTid and i 
I'iate with the familiar pet n&imftls, an id 
tliat entered into Froebcl's pl«n ot a I 
dergarten. It must bn remcinberpd, hd 
ever, that a fondness for pet animals, wh 
are as a rule attractive and likrabhv is 1 
guarantee for a wide disinterest*^ kind' 
neas towards the aninml cmilion. Thil 
last presupposes that the natuml anti[*- 
thies to what is ugly and rwpulsive in 
animals l>e brought under control (oompu* 
article Sympatmv), (.SV Locke, TAougliU 
on Education, sect. 116; Bain, Edueatie* 
fu" Seiffhf-e, p. 72 ; Miss Edgwortli, Pr^o- 
lical EditratUm, chap, k.) 

Culture. — The word 'culture' in Hf 
most gpnerjl sense denotes sometimes the 
process by which human forethought tem- 
pers nnd amelioriites the dH'ccte of the 
wild state, sometimes the result of that 
process. Thus, the won! may \tr applied 
to the tillage of the soil or thr training 
nf plants. In relation to man, culture 
denotes rather the result of tl«> pmcrM 
of amelioration ; a school-lioy or ttcliool- 
girl cannot properly be called ■ eulturvd,' 
though he or she may be called * well «dti- 
CAted': for culture connoteaacertain ripe- 
ness of judgment and feeling, and &tl<!grM 
of development in each of the three di- 
rections of the int^llmt, the rmotioiu, and 
the will. It manifests itself in a oertjuii 
aptn*«s of behaviour, a oapacity tar »yni- 
pathy, a sense when to speak and when to 
be silent. Culturo in cnncnmed with an 
ideal of humanity, and no attrilnites 



Vlrmj to tli« complete mnn cnn hn cx- 
dndea frMo iu scopoi Itut ihiH i^omplcti-.- 
Bfss cannot be at.CAinnd rarly in liEfi. 
Kajit finely dcKcrilirs L)i« liirtli of elm- 
ncKT ^ k Mpiritual revolDlitiii which 
ra^ly takes puMi belore thu uf;e d[ thirlv, 
tnd ix not DfUin i-iMtijjlt-te before forty. 
Tie Um Mark Pullison umd to say that 
auA men do itut leant to'/iV« till they are 
fgrty. Edacatiofi— the discipline of the 
Khool-nxw), tha pla.j-gro\ind, the homo— 
My be aftid to prepare the way for cul- 
tnre ; tlte attAiiiment of it, in the Joint 
Wfk of school and lifn, though gifted 
fcnous may soamtimtiii b(tc<>tii(! nulturiHl 
•iitioat inach early di»-ipline, by virtue 
of a natoral endowinutit or benidibiry iu- 

the inflncnceawliich most directly oon- 
IlibaW to cultura may be summed np 
■odor th« words aoience and tirt. Dut 
brtcMince is Dot meant merely the t>cieni?e 
tt Mture, Dor by art merely line art, 
SrieiH* is of^nised knowledge, and evury 
b(dy of metJiodical doctrine that 
hf ny of observation and chuuification, 
nd Usuea in the discorwry of law, is il 
KJUnn SoieDCo embmcm m.-i.n um well as 
Mtne — speech, history, politio/ilwonomy, 
Md so on, as well as physinH, chrmistry, 
■mI botany. In England the wiinl scionvf , 
bo the word culture, is often und^rstiiod 
Ins more limited sennr, but without justili- 
•ble grounds ; the mtMiW! of the word may 
bod U> conftsn (iducutiiiiULl iKnues. In 
Gvrtnftny no o«« would think of exclud- 
ing from WutenteAa/i tlio scieuee of an- 
tiquity — Ali«rthutn*triMK'tijich'i fi ~^ which 
Woif and his gmwesaors liave laboured so 
(tHTjnntically lo create during the present 

Ritory. It is indeed quite unscientiJic 
Oppoete one subject to another as scien- 
ic or unscientific ; the distinctinn is not 
tttv«««i lubjecls, bat belwoen methods of 
Initins tliem, and every subjeot admits 
•( a u-ieutilk treatment. Art, on the 
•iJWr hand, is genei'ally rrrognisi-d ns 
oduding literary art — the prcidm^ts of 
liiustare which nim at Hiti>fyiiig the 
«»s« for besuty and rtyln. 

Both the Attitude of luTience and llio 
•Uiliiile of art sre <y)nstitucnts of cidture. 
Pnlil thedesirvto ci>nij>n-hp.nd in iKim, the 
■nind rvroainx in a i.'ondition of minority. 
iMclkrttial manhnudisnotrtucliMl till the 
lUMesnf knowlnijjc gnlhiTud throusb lliB 
Jfn of receptive itody — the pi*riod of 
*nnnt*CG)ihip — take shape under the in- 

flijimce of some oentrnl idea or dominant 
purjioKe. From that tiini- onward the Ufa 
of tht- student b€M--onieK Bcit'ntilii- - u life of 
discovery, in whit'b conviction (knowlcdiiro, 
Jiriirrjiii)) takt'S the place of opinioik 
(£o£a), and indiscriminate reading; gives 
way to deduite problems awaiting a db- 
tinite answer. The birth of science has a 
dose connection with the birth of cba-, 
ractor. Itut the scientific apprehension 
of things is not in itself HiifiiciRnt for cul- 
turi!. The method of scicncp is e-ssentially 
nbstraot. Science deals with nsjiects of 
tilings, ajid consciously limits its view in 
order to give a more complete account of 
their several pluues. It tuialyscs and 
elassiljes, and so introduces order into our 
conceptions, arranging phenomena in llie 
simplest way. Uutthe mind does not find 
satisfaction If occupied exclusively in tliia 
process. The universe is not to l>e com- 
pletely apprehended by the metliod of 
dissection. \\'hat Schiller snys of truth 
generally is especially true of literature : 

DW^\ j(iif>ini.-et]«iivliur] rio4M<(niFN<.'rjpnundSlaiic><n, 
AhcT mil G«iiiEc4:ritI arhr^itcsldiL niittfiTi luiiilurL'li. 

('To cat«h thee they take the lield with 
nets and poles : But thou, like a spirit, 
passest through the midst of tbeJU.'j A 
sense of beauty or of humour is one thing, 
and ini]uiry into the rationale of the beau- 
tiful or the humorous is [juite anothi^r. 
A man may be an authority on thn 
ifomeric (piestion without having known 
Homer ; he may have swept the field of 
phenomena to diacovcra law of chemistry 
or liotany withotit apprehending Naturo 
as Wordsworth or Turner apprehended 
her. To the scientific eyfl the heavens 
dec:lare tlie glory of Kepler and Newton ; 
but no amount of scirnci* will t«teh what 
it is to 'live by admiration,' ns Words- 
worth thought we should live ; no amount 
of psychology will create or enable a. man 
to undei'Htftnd a Hamlet. 

From this point of view it is possible 
to attempt some answer to the question 
08 to the rival claims of general culture 
and specialism. There is something fas- 
cinating al>out the idea of ' all-round cul- 
ture.' ' Im engen Kreis verengert sich der 
Sinn ' (' In a narrow fiphere the mind be- 
comes narrowed '), said (loethe, 'Culture 
means the compensation of bias,' said 
Emerson. Dr. Miirtineau (i^IIh nsthat whea 
a young" man he compelled himself to 
devot« his best energies to subjects for 
which he had no aptitude, leaving ^b<m 



for which Ite ba^ ft gift to takn civra of 
thniDHvlvea. But to A(t«mpt to dcvc.lop 
oncaelf equally in atl ilirectioiiii h to ru 
tiounoe the chance of being a iiiasUir hi 
«af subject. And spf^cinlisni has a claim 
upon the intellectual life too ; tiiei^ is 
BODiethiBg in thn conccntratioo of one's 
best energiM upon a limited fidd, vhether 
of Bciancfl or n.rt, whicrh givrs foro!- and 
origimtlity to thc! mind. A bias in at Icwst 
a promitmnt jiurt of oni'self ; nor dom it 
feDm that the true self is bent dovolnpnd 
by «iciiti»!oUy denying a special bmit. Ad- 
A'uifin compares education to the polishing 
of u block of marble, by which the iidierent 
iHwuties of its veins cvro brought to view. 
It is an opposite doctrine which com- 

Enres education to the grafting of a tr«« ; 
ut Archbishop Whatdy, who uses this 
ineUphor, insislfi on the pnixinco of tame 
aftinity betwfien tho stock and tho graft. 
The definition of cducution (pven by J. 
Paul Riohter, as ' th? pnx*«s of (unaiici- 
pating tho ideal tn)i.iih<>od which is latent 
in every child,' still better reeoj?iiises thi! 
clftim* of the luitural endowments Aud 
thprn IK nothing inconsistent with this 
dootriiie iu maintaining that every man 
ahould cultivate the attitude of ncienoe 
and thn attitude of art lie may find ex- 
orciNn for both energies in a comparatively 
iimit.od lit'ld— even in a single author, 
(in*t;, Ijatiu, or modem, or a single de- 
partinRUt iif nature ; he niay In- acientific 
and artistic without uprrjiding himself 
impartially over the wboln field of Itnow- 
ItKlae. At the tamv tiinn it ia desimble 
to uy ns wide a bn«is of positivo know- 
Icd;[e as is conxtHtRnt with cuucenlmtion 
and mental n^poiR. And it is a main 
duty of tho unicnoe of teaching to dotar- 
mine what am the subjects best suited to 
prepare the way for culture. Mr. Matthew 
Arnold, whoso duSnition of culture as 
' the knowlmlge of the best that has been 
thought and said in the world ' is so well 
known, is ntroiij; in hi« insistence on 
literatum lui tlie best school of ' swex^tness 
and light,' The advocatf^* of phyirfcal 
sciencit lay emphasis on thn importance 
of direct contact with nature— the- forma- 
tive powBr of the lalwratory. Whutflver 
be tim nubject-mattcr of atuily, it should 
he the aim of the tenchor to entouragi- in- 
dnpendnnt effort. Culture Aovs not reanlt 
from tlie attempt merely to appropriate 
other men's Ihoughta as r«oorded in books. 

I pcricnce of things — anexp«rienc«iii 
tlie penKinal activity of tiw student i 
]>rimc factor. 

CpmuUtive Voting. See Liw f 

Cnriosity in a name for the iova 
ktiowiedgo, showing itoelf in an 
form as a drsin? to gain the same, 
implies mon^ or h-ss dintinntJy a 
nfss of iglionLuoHiiliiiut 9«ilijrict,afi 
of discnntcnl^ mid n bt;lief in aaoortai 
knowledge, Curiwiily is the natural and 
proper incentive to the act of att«ation, 
and the concentratioit of the thottghts oa 
a subject. Hence it is the first buiinea 
of the teacher to arouse curiosity with 
respect to tlie particular subject and potnti 
which he is about to set forth. Ouricaity 
is commonly recognised as a leading cior 
mcteristic of the childish mind. The new- 
ness of its surroundings and thn conscions- 
ness of ignorance nutuniUy favour a deiin 
for information. An<l in truth the child 
when unchecked is a pertinacious quM- 
tioner. It has been seriously nuuntninoi 
by Dr. Bain that much of this qtiestjoniu 
is not the outcome of genuine curiosity al 
all, but is a dinplny of egotism, s delubt 
in giving trouble, Ac It is probable, how- 
ever, tliiit injustice is here done to tht 
childish mind, and that, as Locke anJ 
others maintain, the development of the 
childisli iutelligence is often retanlMl by 
discouraging the spirit of inquiry. At 
the Eame time it must be admitted tint 
chililish curiosity dilTers in some niat«tW 
respects from the more matur* prodnet 
which we call scientific curiority. It b 
fitful and fugitive, and inadeoaate to suv 
ta,in a prolonged effort of concentration, 
and it wants tlin definiteness of diracdoD 
which chamcterises the inquiaitintness of 
a trained scientiKc mind. Curiosdty mmt 
be distinguished from a blank feauogoC 
wonder at what is new and strange, anid 
which, though it may lead on to a dcctra 
for knowledge, ia ant to berome a aolB- 
cient satisfaction In itself. Curiosity with 
respect to any subject is favoured by any 
fonn of interest in that subject. (Sm Ix- 
TERBST,) Lastly, it may be observed thai 
curiosity may be trained in cerUin drtinite 
lines, and so aasume the form of a habit. 
Thus the progressive study of any subject, 
as niLtural science or history, w-n-ra by 
successive luitiahctions of curioatty to ge- 
nerate furthi-r curto«ity. and so it ts true 

but rather from a grwlual widening ex- [ iu a sense tlut the more we learn the men 

I vft beooins with respevt to wbat 

lauknown. (See Locku's Tluni-jhta 

dueation, a«U 118 aad (oilowius; 

it Bdtteatiott a* Sett-nce, p. 90; .Sully's 

r'f Handbook, p. 400: and article 

CarrictUniiL &'i(ftlKSTKUCTiuN,Oouit«i! 

Csrrature of Spine. Mpfciiilly that 
bat known on ' Inti-.nil uurvaturi!,' or 
'fiwring out of the iJiouIdcr,' » uot in- 
mqumt during SL-hool life, nion? m])ec-ially 
ii fiirU.-ibout lift<H;ti yuan oltl or upwaril^ 
In A ^ight de;;ri.'e iiwjualily of tlie two 
ribtdden ut nlinual luiivcraal, owiiiij to iLe 
r^t Mm being more used than th(> left. 
h»raoreDwr)EMl degree it requires special 
nonastics to strengtlien the woak niiiHclF'S 
t tlw bkck and should^rg, ttnd in oxtt'eme 
totoK spinal support may be nccoswiry. 
Dsiks And teats improperlj conatrutituil or 
inmogad aro lately rwiponKilit^ in start- 
CBrimtara of the spinr:. If thir desk is 
Im high, tho Mt xhouldwr is unduly ruiaed 
oricr to liupport tho arm ou the dt-sk. 
tboi a littttml twiKt of the «piiie is 
Ifloed. If this desk ia ivo low, the scholar 
Va beiid too tow ovi-r btu work, and 
be benMiiKH n>u ml- shouldered, while 
itMlni^iuiiiapt to be produced. {See 
OBT.) If tlie doak in llat, or too far 
front of ttie ae»t, enunped poaitions are 
1ac«d, tending to produce deformity. 
ita improperly arraiiReJ have a umilnr 
'. If without a back-rest, or with 
JMpn^rl J adapted back-rest, tho pupil 
(RCfanped and his sbouhicrs rounded. 
Cnter,e«)rsH{^ 1769, d. mS2).waB 

thu iton of a half-pay ofGcer in a Swin 
re;{irai>nt in tho Frcnfh service. He 19- 
cpivi-d his early education from his niothcr, 
who woa a most acfomplishpd woman. 
He studied at Tubingen and Stuttgart. 
There he be^^aii to devote his attention to 
natural history. At the a;,'e of tweiity-ona 
he wa« appointed tutor t« the son of Count 
d'H^ricy in Normandy. The houae wua 
by t.he soa, and Cuvier studied marine ani- 
mals and i<if,in\n, and made rcsGarchns into 
the anatomy of mollusea in particular. 
Fniin Uiis may date his comparative anft- 
(oiuy and tho distinctioti ho achieved in 
Bcit*iice. In 1800 ho was appointed Pro 
feasor of Natural Philosophy in tlie Col 
lejije de France, and at the same time ho 
lectured on comparative anatomy in tha 
Jardindes Plantes. Af ter receiviug many 
honours from Napoleon, ho was charged 
in 1809 with the organisation of the new 
academies. He organised those of Pied- 
mont, Genoa, and Tuscanv, and brought 
to bear upon his work the experience ho 
had goineil in fonn^r years when he wa« 
ajipointed by Napoleon to establish tho 
public schools supported by the tiovem- 
ment. In ISll he was sent to Holland 
on a similar ermnd, and he paid gri'.nt 
attention to elpmentary instruction. His 
principle waa that instruction would lead 
to civilisation, and civilisation to morolity. 
He said. 'Give schoola before politital 
rights.' In 181^ he went to Rome to or- 
ganise the universities there, and by his 
tolerance ha won the highest praise. He 
publisheti many volumes, and gave a great 
impetus to tlie study of science. He was 
rewarded with many honours by the iState. 


Oology (Greek 8<i«nAov, a fin- 
art of communicating idi-ns by 
, amAn by tho fingers wliich by an 
biguiioiis arrangement can be made to 
hpIVHUt tfae variouR lett«rs of the ulpha- 
m. This method ui aomotimeK called the 
^i^i and domb alphabt^t, buuuuie used 
tftkao thus afflictttd. Tho alphabet is 
Imbed iin|^ or doubli; with reference to 
bcnploymentof on<M>r two bands. {See 
toucaTios Of Dkap Mctks.) 

Dame SchoolL-So called from tlie 
snnMtancn of their being conducted by 
^'Mra, nuutUy in countiy places when 

superior education was not available, and 
confined to the humbler classes of chil- 
dren, usually of tender years. Shenstoue 
in his Schoolmi-atrett has looked upon tho 
Dame's School with a ponfir eye tUtd im- 
mortalised it. 

DaDOing is the art of expressing inward 
feeling by move.meiils of the body and 
limbs, and has been well defined ns tho 
' poetry of motion.' Like music, its natu- 
ral accompaniment, it has bei-n cultivntett 
by ail nations, iu all uges. Amongst the 
ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, aa 
also amongst the e&rlj C\if\alvn.i:i&,&«.ivcu>^ 



was associated with religion, tind vuprftc;- 
tiw<l at publio worahip as well ns nt public 
(estii-ities, Tho O reeks elevai«ii ilnncing 
to a 6nn art, Arirtotle ranhe*) it with poe- 
try, and it wtw ftn rsBpntinl Kiihject in the 
eduontional code of ihe Spiirtana, nil Lifcce- 
diemotiinns having herti compolUid to *x- 
crciKe their children in dancing aftrr they 
bad attained the age of five. The SjiartuD 
youth were also tnktDed in the public place 
to practise the Pyrrhic dance, a luilitniy 
exercise, illustrative of the onslaught upon 
an enemy. The love of dancing hy fight- 
ing men of modem times, notably by British 
saiiorB, seems to be a survival of the ancient 
relationship between danci- and war. Nel 
son declared that all that it Wttsneeeasttry 
to teach a sailor wa« to dance ntid Bpevik 
French, ' the rest,' he said, ' would come 
by instinct.' Locke attochpd gmut viUue 
to dancing, and strongly recommended it 
us nKceswary to the completeiieas of the 
education of a genlleman. * Dancing,' 
he say3, ' being that which gives qmc/id 
motions all llio Life, and above all things 
Manliness, and a becoming Confidenctr to 
voung Children, T think it cannot he 
learneid ton early, after they are once of 
nn Age and Streiigth capable of it. But 
you must be sure to have a good Master, 
that knows, and can teach, what Li graceful 
and becoming and what gives a Freedom 
andEaainesstnall the Motions of the Body. 
One that tenches not this is worse than 
none at nil : Natural Unfashionableness 
being much better than apish, affectw! 
Postures ; and I think it much more pass- 
able, to put off tlio Hat and make a Leg 
lilce an honest Country Geiitlenian, than 
like an ill -fashioned Dancing Master. For 
as for the Jigging Part, and the Figures of 
Dances, I count that little or nothing, 
fartll«r than as it tends to perfect grw^ul 

Darlin^n Train in g College. See 
Bkitikii axp FoiiKinN SnioiiL Society. 

Dnrwiniim. S'-e Evolution. 

Day SchooU, —These are schools estab- 
lished for ihp education of the young 
without severing them from the influence 
(rf thft honi<t. For hnyn undnr fourteen 
yt»n of age and for girls gRnerally it can- 
not well be dotibtnd that thny are better 
tiian boai'ding nchonli. Nothing can adr- 
qDAtoly tttikn thi) place of tiie gentU and 
•nnobfing inRuonctts of a w«ll-ordered and 
hkppy home ; and no one ih so well fitted 
or Ml likely to •xerciM that oonitant wym- 


pathy and watcfafulncM, that patient pn* 
soniil care, which are so important in thv 
education of younger ehildron, na * eooi 
mother. But in tat«r school life — *t uut 
in that of boys — th(' biilnnce of «diruitagB 
is rather in favour of the bnar*ling adiow. 
During this peri<Kl the acquisition «f kno*' 
ledge rapidly grows in importance, whCRM 
before training was everything ; ami it 
must be always extremely diiEcuU inu 
ordinary home to make proper provision 
for an entirely satisfactory child life it 
this stage, and for the acquisition of kiw- 
tedge being carried on in an orderly 
manner nndisturlied by other influencM- 
\\'hile if the children arc kept entirely 
apart, tlie benefits of the home Itfe sr* 
lost. Again, one of the moot raluabh I 
parts of the training in tlie Ial«r scbod 1 
life is that which calls into pl«y « IteUlIf 
of oneuc«s with one's fellowa, of foraiBg ' 
a part of a gre&t whole ; a sense of having 
responsibilities and hopes and fears in com- 
mon with others, of working with Otbtfl i 
for a common good, of suffenng with otfaot I 
for a common ill. Exp«rieoc« has skan 
that it is impossible to ^ve this trainidl 
effectively when the interests of the schou 
life are divided with, and often overt«- 
lanced by, those of the home. I^istly.tlA 
value of school games in tca«lung bort 
management, self-restraint, and manlinMi 
cannot be overlooked ; and it isextremo); 
difficult, if not impossible, to maintwn 
these in continuous and healthy vigonr 
when boys must regulate tJieir tnov«iniMitl 
by the re<jutrements of home, and miut 
perforce spend much of their span! tinM 
ill going to and returning from scfaooL 
The development of nprit df. corpt- — or! 
pride in working for and sliaring in m cat- 
porat* reputation— and the exercise rf 
school fjames are not at present constdereil 
essential parts of tli<- sound education of 
girls ('}.v.) : while undi>ubte<lly in tlwir 
case a more intimate knowledge of do* 
mestic life is of the highest importauM- 
Hence the above arguments — except ik9 
first— cannot be said to apply to thent witfc 
any great force. 

IJeaf Untes. ^m Edccatiox of I>B*f 

Declamation. — The oral recitation of 
set speeches, Ac. committed to memoTjr 
and deiivered with due regntvl to th« 
author's genius dnd the cultivation of tbo 
student's oratorial powers. Deciamatien 
is especially advantageous in securing (ha 


abit of cnfnlnng in public with confi- 

lence and numey, tlw eultum nnd nr^ci^g' 

■UT bninin}; of (be vuive, and a Kuporior 

Itflt of campoHitiuu. For dDclumabiaa to 

lencceaKfu) tbi< pupil tjioidd no ftudy thn 

fkc*HMU> «Dt«r pereoiially into the ideus, 

muttous, ukI reasoiiin)' of ilie ttuUior. 

Be should also practise carefully the va- 

nmi f^tar«8 to be employed to give the 

nqiusite eoiphtisis a.Dd force to his decla- 

mtioD. and leitm to ovcrcomenll nervous* 

tm and any eccentricity of manner which 

Bi^t ch»ra4:teni!e him as peculiar or lu- 

ditroD!. (tiff Elocdtios.) 

DvdnctiOD ii> that form of rwruotiing in 
>Ueti we pOM frniR a gemtiul prlndpte to 
iMic p«rt)ca1ftr Application of thi- an-tne, 
Uvlien we ar^e Uiat air hiu wniglit l>e- 
noar all matrriiil KUbstaimes liavi: weight. 
Il U thu» the couvt-rse prouesa of inJuction 
l>^ch jw*). Dfduclive reasoning is re- 
liable to the logiciil form known tts the 
^Seginn, which cousists of three pro]ioai- 
twu^ (be major and minor premiss, and 
An eoacliuion. Deduction is best exeni- 
fSSei Ut the deductive sciencea, of which 
UtiMMtUcs is the most perfect type. It 
"^hiTit with induction in what is knowu 
ttthe * deductive method " in many branches 
of phy^onl iiivealifjation. (A'w Bain'a 
Smmt and IkUUkI, bk. ii. sect^ 3G ; 
TFhnrdl'a Philai. Induct. Sdenous, bk. i. 
dm. 6; Mill's Logic, bk. ii. chaps. I, 3, 
ud 4, also bk. iii chap 1 1 ; and Jevous' 
Anuntory Lti*ont in Loffir, Icwion xxx.) 
ftrtnitiftTl.— A" tho i-tymology sug- 
n(i {dt-Jinio, to mark out Iimit:i), i>e- 
BnitMa neuu iu Ic^c the explanation of 
ateno, 'so as to afpanit-: it from every- 
thing else, aa a boundary Beparales fields' 
(Whaiely). Xo speak t^ttlniically, u de- 
Gnttion aiias nt deU^rminiiig the fxlention 
wdraota^on of n class uitTui?, i.e. tlie in- 
^lUnals included in the class, by setting 
twth tlie essential (|ualities of the ', 
M the intention ft c<)niiotatioii of the 
■iwiMBe. Thus the term 'uieLiJ' would 
^ dtfined hy naming all the qualities 
Hich we ccnsider to be essential to tlie 
<)>» DKt4ds. DefinitioTt thus answers 
fiWy ciowly to what vn: commoidy under- 
"nd by tho-esplanntinn of terms. It 
*iM bo ii>ot«d that ditKiiition always pro- 
•M* by uuUynng thi- ([ualities connoted 
Wa amiatf, and not by iusbiuciiig any 
iMoben of the ohuu denoted. Thus, for 
tta|de, fa) Mir tii»t a vehicle ia a wagon, 
'<Wt, and so fortli, is not, strictly speak- 

ing, to define the tenn. A special variety 
of definition has been devised by logti-iaus, 
under the name ' detinltion by genus and 
ditferonce.' According to this method 
we deline a class term by first naming « 
higher class or genua, and thnn adding the 
iguulities which distinguish the particular 
class we nredealingwi til from other Bpecica 
of tlie same genus. In this way wo may 
define man as a rational animal, volcano 
as a mountain from which fire issues, and 
so forth. It is to be observed that some 
terms are incapable of definition. Thus it 
is evident that names of the lughest cliisses, 
as object or thing, cannot Ije detined by 
reference to a higher class ; and that terms 
which describe simple and unanalysable 
impressions, such as ' lihio ' and " sweet,' are 
not susceptible of any form of definition, 
and can only be 'explained ' by a refer- 
ejiee to the actual eiperienoe itself. (Sm 
Mill's Logic, bk. L cliap. 8; Bain's Logic, 
pt. iL Induction, bk. iv. chap. 1 ; and 
Jevons' Elemenltary Lexaonn in Logic, 
lesson xti.) 

Degrading. — When an undergraduate 
ia permiLlt^ to go down for a number ot 
terms before he completes Ills period of 
residence, he is said to have degraded. 

Degrees are either honorary or ar« 
conferred after examination. Asageueral 
rule, they ai^ confined to the Bachelor, the 
Master, or the Doctor's degree- These 
degrees are usually bestowed by univcr- 
Btties specially chartered tor the purpose; 
but in some countries high ofHcial person- 
ages — the Archbishop of Canterbury, for 
instance, in England — have the power to 
bestow them. The regular mode of ob- 
taining a degree is by spending a certain 
amount of time in a university, and by 
showing proficiency in the branch of know- 
ledge in which the candidate seeks to 
gmriuate. Nearly all universities possess 
four great faculties, namely, those of theo. 
logy, medicine, law, and arts. In soiuo 
—e.g. the University of London— the fa- 
culty of theology is omitted, and tliose of 
sciexice and music are introduced. In 
the greater number of Britisli universities 
the faculty of science has been adopted as 
an integral part of the university ; but the 
faculty of music remains as a survival of 
an older growth, when there were, b5 in, a large nTinihrr ot subsidiary &i- 
cullies entitling thow who (jualified in 
them to a. certificaUi of merit Similar 
certificates are often cowfcTved \i^ (»i\v«^qa 


wfiieh do nottern nn »nt-€^rftl portion of 
u university, but which am chnrterod to 
carry out some special object, Tlioru »re, 
for inatftnco, twenty mi^dicn.! coqiomtiona 
in tho United Kingdoni entitlL-d to issue 
licences to prxctisc. To n. physioian, how- 
ever, n university Uegroe is pnietiLiilly in- 
(lispeusable, but to Uw aur^oii the fellow- 
ship of hi« college is nearly a^ good a, 
((uaJificatioD as any mark of distinctioD a 
university could hPsMw. Of degrees, pro- 
perly so ealled, thpru are two great divi- 
sioDS ; those which are conferred as the 
reward of personal study and examination, 
and those bestowed for other reasons. As 
regards the former, they may be divided 
into two cl/iiiaes. namely, piias luid honour 
degrees. In Oxford and in Canibridge 
tliu student may either undergo a mere 
qualifying examination in arts or in medi- 
cine —it is somewhat difTei'eut as regards 
thoology and law — or he may enter for 
honours. The actual degreo conferred is 
the same in both cases, but the educational 
value of the two things is widely dilTcrent. 
When the Bachelor's degree has once beco 
obtained, the supmor gnidea follow as a 
matter of course, subject to the jmyment 
of fees, and to the perfomiancft of certain 
exercises which are always more or leas 
fonuah Thus a Cambridge B.A. may, by 
taking up two or tlirec papers in the law 
tripos, become first of all a Master, and 
then a Doctor of Laws, or else he may 
elect to b(!i:omn a. Master of Arts, in which 
cose he will have notlilng to do except 
to pay a certain amount of money and to 
pnvent himself before the lice-cliancellor. 
II he prefers to take upmedieineor surgery, 
he is exempt from all preliminary exami- 
nations in gene/al knowledge ; and should 
he decide upon seeking a degree in theo- 
logy, he has nothing further to do except 
to take his Mnat^r of Arts degree, and to 
perform one or two exercises before the 
theological professors. 

The Itnrhelor of Arts degree, which as 
ft rule rc'quires three years for its attain- 
ment, is the keystoneof theentire system. 
The deaigoation of a Bachelor was intro- 
duced by Pope Oregory IX. into the Uni- 
rersity of Paris {thirteenth century), and 
denoted a student who had passed cer- 
tain preliminary examinations but was 
not yet tjualifipd for admission to the rank 
of IMaster, Doctor, 4c. To obtain a B. A. 
degree at Oxford candidates must coin- 
|4et« twp|T<! t«rms of residence and pass 

the following tlirm~exnmtnfttimur: 
sponsions or 'smalls' before the ni««tcn 
of the schools. 2. The first public exaniiw- 
tion or ' moderations ' before tJie masters 
of the schools. 3. The s«;ond public ex- 
amination before the public examiuen, 
Ciindidates for honours have subjects in 
addition to tliose required for a pass de- 
gree. For the B.A. degree at Cambridge 
nine terms of residence are necessary, in- 
stead of twelve as at Oxford. At botfa 
uniFeraitics, however, th« time usually re- 
quired to keep the terma U the tame, a 
little under three years. For a pass Cam- 
bridge degree the following exaininatioiu 
are required : I. The previous examtna- 
tton, or ' little-go.' 2. The general ex- 
amination. 3. A special examination in 
theology, moral science, law and roodem 
history, natural science, mechaniain and 
applied science, music, or modern lan- 
guages. For an honours degree c&udi- 
dates have an 'additional examination' 
as well as the previous examination, bat 
omit the general and the special. Afl4r 
the ' additional ' they have no other es- 
amination until thoy take the tripos at 
the end of the third year, A BadwIoT of 
Arts proceeds to the M.A. de^rc« at tlw 
end of three years without ^rtber ex- 

Difterent regulations for grnduatjon 
obtain in the ottier universiti^ and ns it 
is beyond the scope of this work to detail 
them we must refer the render to the 
respective university calendars. In Lon- 
don, for instance, a matriculation exajnina- 
tion open to candidates who haveaUainod 
the age of sixteen is the first test required 
of students intending to proceed to de- 
grees in the various Acuities. Then for 
the Bachelor's degree two examinations 
(first B,A.. second B.A. ; first B.S&, 
second B.Sc,, itc.). at intervals of not less 
than a year each, hare to be passed. FoC 
the full degree in arts, and also in science, 
the successful candidate must prove that 
he is a specialist in one of the subjects ID 
which the degree may be taken. The Lon- 
don University examinations, being opes 
to all comers without distinction of creod 
or sex, and to private students, as wdl as 
to those who have bad the advantikgo of 
a collegiate training, are more scrcre thui 
those of oilier universities, and cooa^ 
quently have a high acadeniios] Tahte, 
considered merely as tests of ability and 
attainments. It is a p«ouliarity of 

aoottiih nniveniUes that the Bachelor's 
fcffBu in the taeiilty of ttrts, though not 
is the Otber fucullitrx, hus brrn nKolished, 
uui cAadid&ves i>nK-i!i-d to ttip M.A. de- 
itgnb by poaatn^ (eil)i«r nupnrately nt 
btervkls in the cumtuluia, or nil tajpalinr 
tlthn close of it) tliree exiiiiiiiiixtiDn*, vi/. 
■* in claSHcs, one in oiatheiiintiL-H, and 
•oe in philosophy. Aii M.A- c^rti/i^ale ia 
{iTcn in cAch dfjpnrtmont, and tlie holder 
i( all thriKi eI^rtilicatca can obtalu the 
^ipIdiMbyptYSL'nting himself at the public 
cCRBiooial of graduation. Uoth in the 
AlMnoan and cork; of the liritish and 
Celorual iuuv«rsiti«i canili<latj;a for the 
fan degne in Eoienon (D.Ho.) have the 
draice of a coiuddenble numlnir of eiih- 
Jtets, iododing such eminently practical 
onca as engiii«eriDK, public hi'ulth, &•:, 
Speaal examinationa for teufhers are now 
>ba)i«ld in London and other universitice, 
tod diplcnnns granted to successful can- 
didate. With regard to honorary degrees, 
arc bctitow(?<l either aa a. reward 

writings and investigatioDS in a par- 
lioilar branch of lenming, or they may be 
Jegree* granted aii nMniimn as a matter 
of TOurt«y to those holding analogoua 
ink in fldier nniventitics : or. last of all, 
ftey may l» purely honorary titles, mean- 
ing nothing except that they are an ex- 
fnaioaof thn dcKtrK of n given university 
1o do boDOur to certain individuals. 

Women, are now admitted to degrees 

RLmulon, St. Andri^ws, Durliam, and 
Victoria Pniversity, and in the Royal 
ivewily, Ireland. In every other uni- 
*w»ity special examirmtions aru provided 
ftir tbem, and in Cambridge they are al- 
l*"*! to take the aatiie papers and to he 
dund in the aame examinations with 
Mb candidates for degrees. 

Belphin Cluiica.— An edition of the 
Wck and Koman authors, pnijuired in 
Ibe r«ign of Louis XIV. by thirty-ninn 
Viincnt KehoUrs of France, und^r the 
JNM editorship of Uossuet and Huet, 
tatan to the t)a«phin (Lat. Dtl/j/iiimg). 
biglmh nditionx of some of llie authors in 
^ tKriexvrtm published. The SL-holar- 

apoftboeditom of the«e once celebrated 
BDtw in now out of date. 
Ae Morgkn. Auguttiu.— One of the 
piatest mathrmatioai teachers of Eng- 
land in the iiinptmnith century. 'The son 
du officer of tht! British army, De Mor- 
RKi waa born in the East Indies lt^06, 
(Med B« fourth wrangler at Cambridge, 

1827, and (with an interval of five ycftn 
1831-36) tilled the chair of Mathematics 
in University College, London, from 1831 
to a few years before his death in 1871. 
He was not only e. very successful teacher, 
many of his pujiila taking the highest 
honours at London and Cuinbridge, but 
he was the profoundest niatliemaliciuii of 
his diiy as an original investigator. Hia 
ElemenU of Arithmetie (1830), Al'jvbra 
(IS3{i), TriijonoinflTy and Do^ihle Alg^.bra 
(ltl37 Ac), Esmy on l'robabUitie» (1S38), 
and D^Fretitial and Integral Caicuhu 
differed from ordinary manuals by teach- 
ing principles instead of rule^, and by 
the comprehensive grasp they display of 
the whole tieJd of pure nwthematiual sci- 
ence. De Morgan'smanualsdonotappeiir 
to have been published since his death, but 
hia method has largely moulded the more 
popular text- books of his pupils and sue- 
ceaBora, like Itouth, Todhunter, Womiell, 
and others. De Morgan also wrote a work 
on Formal Logic, in connection with which 
he became involved in asomewhat acrimo- 
nious controversy with Sir William llnm- 
ilton of Edinburgh on the question of the 
Quantification of the Predicate. De Mor- 
gan's history of Arithvutical Booh J'toti 
tJie Invention of Prinlinii down to the tjme 
when he wrote is a work showing much 
research and curious learning:. 

Denzel, Bemhard Gottlieb {I. alStutt- 
gart 1773, (^. at Essliiigen 1838). — German 
schoolmaster and theologian ; one of the 
iirat to introduce into Germany itia I'esta- 
loziian method (q.v.). While vicar of a 
parish in Switzerland he wet with Pesta- 
loani, and, embracing his method, put it 
into [iractice at Pleidelsheim. lu responae 
to a petition directed against the new sys- 
tem introduced by Deiizel, the King of 
Wurttend)erg gave him the advantage of 
his support, with the result that Den^el's 
name became distinguish od, so that when 
the normal school atEsslingen was founded 
(1811) he was appointed director, a post 
wbich he held till his death. Denzel took 
part in various educational movements, 
and organised in 1S18 the normal school 
at Idstein. Dieslerweg (9-"-) dedicated 
(1 f<38) the first volume of the second edi- 
tion of his Vrfgwi^fv to Denxel. Among 
his various works the most importiint is 
EinlfUuny in (tir Brzifhv.ngit- und UiUer- 
richUlfhv fiir V'>lksechulliJirr<r. 

De Qnincey, Thomas {b. at Greenliuys 
I78S,rf,at Edinburgh iSS^^-KftieA-aakVA 


in tha grammar school, Mmiuhestwr, and 
afterwBrda at Worcester College, Oxford, 
wlticli he left without taking his degree, 
though it is wc^ll known that he wiia uim 
of the best scholnrs then Bt the university. 
Aft«r leaving Oxford, he took up his abode 
at Ambleside, npiir Wordsworth and the 
rort of the ' lAkprs.' He was fond of soli- 
tude and an immense n>a[ler, mid. sc-cirig 
that his falhc^r hiul left him a fnir patri- 
mony, he I'ould indulge his tastrn. Itut 
many (»uaes diininishiMl his fortune, and 
be waa forced to sHek some remunemtive 
employment Fortunately he took to lite- 
rature. De Quincey is widely known as 
the author of 2'lie C<n\ffgsioiui '•/ an Eitg- 
tith Ofiium-Saltr, though this is not his 
best work. He is noticed here for his 
celebrated Lettfrt lo a Youug Man wfiost 
tditrnfion lini brfii nfr/tfctfd. Theae IW- 
tnnt nppi^nrod fii^t in the London Mtiffa- 
alnr, mid wi-re never finished. They are 
ritthf^r difl'iisR, hut full of gems. It in not 
that thi-y prrsent a systom that we name 
theiu, but til any one who luisspd prolonged 
contact with literature early in life, ajid 
who wishes to know how to enrich his 
mind, they are both valuable and interest- 
ing, (They are to be found in the 13th 
vol. of De Quiiicey's Works as pulilislied 
by Black, Ediid>urgh.) 

Descartes, Eene (6. at La Have 1596, 
d. at Stockholm 1(j50), has enjoyed the 
highest fameasthefather of modern philo- 
•ophy. His celebiuted dictum, Coyho, rryo 
mim^ has not stood the test of subtle criti. 
cinm, and he has been laughed at by many 
for his ingenious rensons why the seat of 
the soul should be that part of the brain 
called the pmeiil glnnd ; but his position as 
the forttinost thinker of his century cannot 
be assailed. H« exerted immense influence 
upon education by his introduction of the 
metliod of Imld, free enquiry, which liegins 
by takiiiB, in the best sense of the word, a, 
sceptical attitude. Though he did not 
give the world a treatise on any particulnr 
method of nilucation, his philcisopiiicn I sys- 
tem provided in many wnysgreat principles 
that arc absolutely necessary for mentid 
dflVclopmcTit, His attack upon the old 
rfginw of claKKical studies was se»'i!re, 
hut undoubtedly just ; for the luentul 
tjnining that consisted in mechanical ac- 
curacy and servile obedience to set rules 
was not worthy of the name. In his 
DiaeoHTM dt la SlHhode, Descartea asserts 
the equality of soula or minds, and their 

anivenuil aptitude to comprehood «r ' 
, di-ntand, and profeesM to ahtw th»k.i 
i[ti-i]u:ility that eKistn iH da« to educ 
I Here niaiiy people will recoEnise ao i 
gerated stat«m«<nt; but his bold advi 
for equality of educKtion»I privilege, 
clum for each intelligence lo think 
itaelf, and his demunci that in our studit 
we must respect the liberty of the indir" 
dual, are principles that we are slowlj 
learning to recognise and put in pri» 
tjcc. Descartes is credited with the honosrj 
of first enforcing with emphasis that j 
order of study which leads from the knos 
to the unknown (7.P.), or from thn easy I 
the difficult, is the only simple and natonl' 
metliod, Tlie life of Descnrte* was d* 
quered. He received his i-ducatioa si s 
Jesuit college. He entered the anuj of 
the Prince of Orange, and fought with 
bravery at Prague, Hi'20, WhiUt in pf 
rison he studied matlieuiatics and wrol'S 
treatise on music. He left military lit* 
for travel. In 1629'he settledat Amswr- 
dam and studied most aasiduously. tli> 
philoso|>hy provoked enemiea, and he r»- 
plied witli great warmth, till &t last, U 
escape a religious persecution, he fled ta 
Christina, Queen of Sweden, and seittW 
at Stockholm, where b« was tutor to liui 
queen. There he ended his days and w« 
buried, though aiterwarda hia remains wew 
conveyed to Parb. 

Deska. See Pcrnitdbe. 

Development comprehends the series 
of changes through which every living 
thing passes in the course of its life-histoi^i 
and the order of which is, in ita nwui 
features, determined by the Bpedcs of which 
it is a member. The movement* of deve- 
lopment, as the word and the rclat<>d term 
evolution suggest, are rogardi-d aa spring- 
ing out of certain latent tendencie-s inh«- 
rent in the oi^nism itself. Devrlopmcnt 
thus contmsts with all serie.3 of changi^ 
mechanically impresded upon a body by on 
extemiil force, a£, for example, th« forma- 
tion of a statue. Yet while the result of 
the interna! activity of the organism itael^ 
it presupposes an environment with whicJi 
the organism continually interacts. Thai 
the due development of a plant dependi 
upon the presence of nourishment, beftt, 
light, Ac, which are necessary to the exer- 
cise of its proper functions. We may thus 
distinguisli in all development two bcton ; 
(1 ) an internal, consisting of the forcee 4ad 
tendencies reaiding in the organism ; ftnd 

tor, DENIS 


(S)«i«xtemal, TO. ft suiuUe duviromuecii 

toactnpon aod call forth reuctions from 

4t ornaism. Dev«lopmeiit is distiii- 

nuliM from mfire groirth or iucreaee iii 

M& by th« chamct^ristit; of ad\aiiciiig 

Mtntttintion amlcomplexityof strucliurc, 

Ikoa the dovflopmcnt of a brain weans 

pra{p«sinunlikt'n(t«nf partA,nni:I in corn- 

fkxiVf of urniiigi'wii'iit bctwtM-n part mid 

Jul. MuiUil dtvpl(>[im(Tnt, liktt pliyxiciil, 

atlunctonaed \iy iiicrticuw in diilincUicss 

«f parte aod oomplexily of structure. In 

<iT)i«r words, kiiowli-iigu pas^i-s fruiQ tlii^ 

ngae to the definite stage, and from simple 

to complex forms. Again, luental deve- 

lapmcnt, like phyacal, may be viewed as 

In piroduct oE i&t«nu.l and external forces 

Muig and rractJng on« upon another. 

Kmnal nKintnl dfivolopini^nt prenapposes 

Ihe gtnn at thn nonnal humnu faculties 

tt Ua oataet. Muri!Ov«r, thi^ rapidity of 

tte p»oe< *« of dc!veIopni«iit, itK HnrFition, 

Bid, IsitUv, Oie aptMjuil linc'S which it fol- 

lofi^we delermiiieii by the iniuitw powers 

udiUsposiliousof the individuiLl. AtUie 

■oe time Cho action of surrounding's is 

nwaebtikl condition to the realisatiuu of 

ftHt original cApacities. Under this en- 

finniMtit we must include not only phy- 

Ml objeete fitted to 8tiiauia,te the senses 

Uiil fomish elementary impressions to the 

Rind, but alM human beings or society, 

tk precence of which is necessary to that 

Itgber tntoUectnal and moral development 

•mi distingaishc« man from the lower 

ulnMliL The drvninpment of a human 

bttng u A wholn in th(^ sum of itH physical 

nd its mental dcviOopmnntx, which are 

illttIllat'^ly conncctiid, and powf'rfuUy renct 

DM on the other. The cflt-ct of physipnl 

dtri^topmpnt on mental is snen in the fuct 

tkat at i-vi-Ty iita|;i> Uie biltnr in liiiiiti^d 

fcj tiiB dearth of Etructurtil oouiplexity 

IMCtwd by tie bra,in, by tlie well-known 

ctnuMfniMicea of the physical L-himj^L-s which 

take pln«n at the a^e of puberty, .tc. Ou 

lie other h&nd, a too rapid development 

<( brain and mental faculty tends to re- 

ttn), and in extreme cases even to arrest, 

&e general movement of physical growth. 

Writers on edacation have attempted to 

nmrk off differ<*nt periods of human deve- 

iinimrat,wiinfnncT, childhood, youth, &c., 

vhich period* aru dctcrminod partly by 

phydcftl, though mainly by mental changes 

fcf.articUi Evonmoy). (.?n« II. Spencer's 

/*HiK^p£e« 1^ I'tythoiayyt vol. i. imrts iil. 

iw.; %a\iy't Handbook of Ptychology,ch6.'p. 

V, ami Appe:idix A; W, H. Payne'* Con- 
trii/uiionn to Sc, of Ed., chap, iv,; Sohmid'fl 
ErMfrlopiuiit, art. ' Entwicklung '; and 
Buisson's Dk-tujnnair^ dn PAlayogie, art, 
' Evolution de j'lndividu.') 

Diary. Set Loi-book. 

Dictation. — This is a method employed 
for teaching to spell. The teacher reads 
ntoud, and the pupil writes down what he 
hears read. For a language phonetically 
perfect — in which every sepiirate Bound lit 
represented by a. 6ino[le letter, and ovpry 
letter has but a single sound — tlie plan 
would bo a wholly satisfactory one, pro- 
vided that tlie reading were audible and 
perfectly clear. For the writing of Eng- 
lish, however, we have to trust more to 
the memory than to the ear. The memory 
of the eye — of how the word looks when 
written — is a specially valuable aid. We 
should be curefid to appeal to this memory 
when dictating; and we may beat do thin 
by requiring the pupil to read silently two 
or three times the part of the page about 
to be dictated, bo that he may Imvo the 
'look' of the words fresh in his mind; and 
when in (UfReulty may be exerciseil in re- 
calling Ao«' ?^ wordhiokedoatAie page just 
reatL In the same way to write out what 
has just been learnt by heart is a good 

Diderot, Denis (h. at Lan(;res 1713, 
d, at Paris 1"S4), was the son of a master 
cutler, and was intended for the law, but 
he abandoned tliis for literature and phi- 
losophy. In literature he u,iidertook any 
work that came in his way, from making 
catalogues to writing stories. He wrote 
Letu-Ts oil (An Jilind in 1 749, for which 
he received some months' irapriBonment. 
Ho was joint editor of the Univi-raal 
MfdKal Dicliojuiry ; then he formed tlio 
project of a general Cycloptedia, of which 
lie wrote a great part, and in the editor- 
ship of which he was assisted by D'Alem- 
Ijert. Healsowroto other works, including 
I^ Nnveu df, ifiiir^du, which was trans- 
lated by Goethe. Catherine of Russuti 
hearing of his intention to sell his library, 
bought it at its full value, and sottlcd a 
pension upon him as her librarian. This 
was about 1775, and it is owing to this 
step that he comes liefore us as an educa- 
tionist, for Catherine requested him to give 
her a plan of a university for Russia. He 
lirst claimed that cducaLion was for all : 
' £roffl the highest olficial to the lowest 
peasant each man ought to leam reading 




vnliiofi. and aritliHielie.' He placed teforo 
tb^ Rus»iau8, as their model, the Byslem of 
education then well orf;ftiiised iu Germany. 
Catherine ortTired some gehools to be este.- 
btigjied. ill ncenrdnncfl with this advico. 
Diderot iniiist*>d that, attendance should be 
eompulsorj, and tn enforce this by Inw he 
WHS satisliiHi thrtt education should be free. 
Ho insiKted thnt all children wciru to be 
regarded as "foundutinn Hcholars' of the 
State, and wem to he kept at school at 
the expense of the Slate. Not oiJy books, 
but abo food waa to be furmshed for them. 
In aketchini; a course of higher education, 
Diderot followed, to a lar^ extent, the 
method of the Cniversity of Paris, which 
recognised fourfacultiesi but of course the 
fiiculty of theology and the faculty of law 
both underwent considerable changes, and 
were put in the tmckground. Like so 
many of the Frrnch reformers in educa- 
tion, he turned from the old method, and 
made thn c<'ntre of true education to be 
not tliissical liinguages, but science. Out 
of eight oliiasea or diviEiona under tlie 
faculty of arts, he devoted the first five 
classes mainly to science. His inHight into 
tlis theory and practice of education was 
very conaderahle. He lived in St, Petera- 
bu^, greatly cluirmed by the larish favour 
of the empress. On his return to Paris, 
she took sumptuous lodgings for him, but 
he only enjoyed them twelve days. His 
last utterance was, ' The first stop towards 
philosophy is incredulity.' 

Dietterweg, Friedrieh Adolph Wil- 
helm (l>. 1790, <i. I8(j(i). — An eminent 
German writer and pedagogue. After a 
distitiguislicd univereity career, ha became 
sncceesively teachi^rat Worms gymniisiiim 
and Frankfort model schools, and director 
of a primary normal school at Mors (1820- 
32), and was afterwards appointed (1832- 
47) director of the normal school at 
Berlin, Diesterwcg was a voluminous 
writer, his first work, published 1820, 
being on education in general, and scho- 
lastic oduoation in particular, followed 
by HVji/wigflr zur BilHuvg fUr dmilmht 
Lekrvr (1>134), Sn'r^ff' sur LUstciuj d*r 
Lfhentfmgr. drr J^ivilisation (IS36-38, 
4th ed,), L'hrhurh t/rr Tnaihematitehen 
Ofo^nphi'. titid pop^iliirtit //imTrifltkuntie 
(IMO), Padai/oiji^rhrj, Jakrhueh (1851- 
6ft), /'liiiagoiriK/irji WoIIkh und SoUen 
(1S66, 2nd nd., IM'S); DientenPfg, tmin 
Ltbrn und nfiiiir. Sehri/Un (1867); JHet- 
ttrweg* SdhHhtitTUiiungtn, out mjinn 

Scht-yieH getamtusU {I87S), head 
works. He also was in his earlie 
n contributor to the Rheitntehi 
Diest«rweg was an ardent eduoatioo 
troversiAlist, and engaged in the 
respecting the mTiU of the 
system {ij. v.), which he opposed. He i 
controverted the use of clawcal I 
in normal education. He foUowed in ' 
path of PestaloEni (?.».) and 
{q.v.), and was an anient Apostle of 
natural method as opposed to mechn 
instruction, and an eam^'st ndrocate ' 
the development of the natural facultie 
Hia principles were embraced by a 
number of masters whom he imbued vil| 
hb own spirit and enthuBiasm. 

Diet— Children's food should begeo 
rous and abundant. Xot only have the 
to keep in repair the tissues of Uie 
and supply force for carrying on the fu 
tions of the body, but also to build up u« 
tissues in the process of growth. In addi- 
tion, their bodies expose more surface ill 
proportion to their size ihanadults, and they 
therefore require a proportionately larger 
amount of food to compensate for lost of 
heat. If the food supply isscunty.growtii 
will be stunted, or some of the organs of 
the body will suffer, A half-starved brain 
cannot do as much work as one well-nour- 
ished, and is also more prone to disease. 
Food and work are closely related. The 
more brain-work a child does the men 
food he rcfjuircs. This is just an true a» 
in the analogous case of muscular cxi^rcisn. 
According to X>e Chnumont a child wciih- 
ing 100 lbs. (i.e. about fifteen years old) 
requires about 3 m&. of albuminate or ni- 
trogenous food, 2,|j ots. of fat, 12 oxs. of 
carbohydrates (stJircbandsugar),andal««il 
j OK. of mineral matter, per diem. In work- 
ing out any given dietary, it id convenient 
to remember that bread contains about 8 
per cent, albuminates (and £0 per oenL 
starch), meat 15 per cent albuminateB, 
cheese over 30 per cent, and peas and 
beans, generally 23 per cent Nearly all 
cluldren't dietaries err in deficiency of bt, 
though they contain abundance of starcli 
and sugar. This deficiency may be made 
up by dripping, butter, and suet pudding* 
in addition to the fat of meat. Miik form* 
an important part of children's dirtariei. 
Alcoholic drinks should never be given 
except under medical responsibility. The 
water supplied at school should be pure 
wid above suspicion. Itshouldbederiv 




town, eitli«r diret^tly from tli« wuter- 

or from a cui*ru septintU- (rom thai 

lying irat«r'<:lo8eu ftud bavinj; its 

•pipe disclutr]giDg in the open air. 

h cMintry plncK shnllow wells are always 

nvrce of danger. If n filt«r is uwd it 

bp frrqiifntly clransed, or it may 

Aoro hnrm tlmn gond. 

Dinter, Oastav Friedrioh (6. at 

BmuL, t^mxatiy, ITIiO, (^. iit K[niigBl«rg 

tt31^ — A diatinauished Oerninn jhhIii- 

ppie. After stuUyiny tlie(>Io;t,'y at Ijniyi- 

ag he becuue a clerKyroan at Kitsuher, 

176*. Bein); deairous to beuouie ac- 

fiHDt«d with foreign countries, he took 

with him mm« poor youths wliom he de- 

Bitd to tnin for the same profession as 

his own. Dintor, who weu an ardent ad- 

tgoitA of tho catechetical method (q-v.), 

ame into distinguished notice by the suc- 

hts pupilK (>))tn.iii(^d ns tmch^rs, and 

he was in consei^ui'm^ appointed dirtitrtor 

ol the prinuuy normal scliuol nt Dn^sdrn 

[1*97). CompeUfNl by iUm-ss to n-sigii 

us post, he reeanied his clericul life, Itut 

tteanrj was appointed (lf<IG) by the 

framan Government schuo! inspector 

Ukd member of the Consistory at KunigH- 

btrn, in which capacity he was charged 

witJi the inspection of liie bcIuxiIb of the 

prarince. Dinter, who was ilu ui-dtiiit ad- 

aiirer of th« priuciples of Basedow (q.v.) 

and Pes (aloEei(y.r.),exertcdhis influence to 

introduce these into primary schools. He 

vas a voluminous writer, his works com- 

priaug soiDO forty-two vohiuies, the more 

wnons betng Dif. vort'igHfk»tcn Itf^gtln 

drr KaUvliMc (1800). /)t< jyrsiiglkbtten 

tdmrthifffvit (ISOIj), and Diiiie-r'g Li-ben, 

MM ihm mUmI lieMfhrirlirn (IKL'l)). 

Diplonu ((tr. (li-Ktnua, anything foldnd 
|ordoubl«i) was orit;inally applied to ofii- 
oal documi^nta written on folded wax 
tablets, and auli&e(|uently whh the nitnte 
nvea to royal cbartera and Static papers, 
Pmnoe diplomacy, fhe Bcieiiett of goveni- 
bent documents). Acfideiiiically llir word 
bosnl to tifinify the cL'rlitical^s granted 
by uniremties and colleges aa oviden™ 
thftt tfaoae upon whom they are coisforred 
have gntdaM«d in some faculty, or as n 
Giteaoe to practise certain callings. A 
tNdwr's diploma is granted by Um Uni- 
vwnty of London. 

DucipUoe in its wider sense means 
tb* whole ayatetn of instruction to which 
Uu learner or dudpk is subjected, and 

in thuK utmost interchangeable with tho 
ti^niis 'training' and 'education,' In it« 
narriiwer sense disuipline refers to tho 
inaint^rnancn of authority. Tlie systAm 
of school goveriiineiit. with its definite 
ruleti, it« puuiKhnieiits, and its rewards, is 
a condition of systematic teaching, artd 
so may be viewed as subserving the «Dd 
of intellectual instruction. At the unv 
time it is evident that niithority and coin- 
nrn-nd work through t;he agency of tho 
child's will. In this way discipline comet 
to h.ive a special connection with the bx- 
ercise and formation of the will — in other 
words, with what wc mark off .^s moral 
education. The imposition of commands, 
by exerciBing the child in self-restraint 
and by inducing a haVjit of obedience, is 
the gi'eat means by which the eai'ly train- 
ing of the will is effected, and the founda- 
tions of moral habit and good clitiract<'r 
estjiblishcd. The merits of any system of 
discipline must Iw tested by the uieiisurn 
in which it attains its ends, intellectual 
auti moral. The genpral conditions of an 
eH'ective discipline are such as follow : 
(ii) the ndes laid down to be intelligible 
and to be uniformly enforced, {b) the rulcfl 
to l«i as few as possible compatible with 
the securing of the necessury objects, 
(r) tho avoidance of everything like ca- 
]>riciouBness and unfairness in the appli- 
cation of the rules to individual cases, 
(i^) the recommendation of the rules laid 
down by first call iug forth the child'sfe«l- 
ini^s of respect for and confidence in hia 
ruler, and afterwards, as he advances in 
years, gradually enlisting his intelligent 
approval and support. Aji important part 
of the tJieory of discipline concerns itself 
with the subject of punishments and re- 
war Js(j.r,)([)iENrE, Moral 
Education, Punishment, and Rkwardr). 
On the nature and conditions of early 
government and discipline see Locke on 
EiiufiUion, sects. .32 and following ; Bain's 
Efiiicnli'in oi it .Srimr.i; pp. 100-112; 
Sully's Hnndhonk nf Pnyrhology, pp. 471- 
477 ; and Fitch's Lixtvi/fM on Ttaching, 
lect. iv. 

Discipline of CouHeqaencei. See Cos- 


Discrimination. — By an act of dis- 

criniinalion we mean the distinguishing 
of one impression or object from another 
so Eia to discern tlie exact points of differ. 
ence between them. Thus a child discrinii- 
oatea one musiciU note fiom B.n(A\\eT,>^ 



hope to make a .lattsfocUny dint 
of time nmongat the vanoiu Bubje 
schi>ol curriculum, it b i]uite i-lear ( 
must tirst estalrliBli tlieedui'utiuual 

ellipon from the circle, nnd so forth. The 

tonsf! of dilt'ttreiKMt noiiKtitiitPS ono of tJie 

fundiuneiitul (.'oiistiliinnts of inlcllect, side 

by side with assimilation, or tl>e sense of 

Kunilarity. It niuv be auid tbnt. n child's of those Bulijecta— bottias iosi 

first step Uiwariia kiiowlwigt is the das- trs-initig the facuUies, and as the 

oerumeuC of the uiiiikeuRSS of one sense- 

impresuon to others. Tims it t-omca to 

know its mother's face anU voice by re- 

m&rfcing th«ir pooulinrity, i.«. their points 

of iiitonnatioH which ia reklly DS 
Until this is done, the tUDOUnt of 
which ia given to this or that suhjpct i 
maiiiiy depend ou whim or Saacy, and 

of dissimilarity to other objects of siglit amount and kind of demand which 

ftntl hearing. And throughout the progress 
of knowledge discrimination ent«rs as an 
essentiid eknimt, determining the degree 
of detiii iter less and exnctness of all our 
ideas, our judgnients, &c. A complete act 
of conscious itisoriiitinntion presuppoees 
that the objects or ideas to be distin- 
guished are brought simullaneously before 
the mind. Thus a child learns to discrimi- 
nate one letter from another by loolting 
at the two wde by side or in juxtaposition. 
This orimplpt«l act of discriminatioii is 
the outcome of comparison, and implies 
that the attention is closely fixed ou the 
two objects in their relation one to another. 
The power of diBcrimination is in a manner 
opposed to the other fundamental int«l- 
lectual endowment, tliat of assimilation. 
Where we are strongly impressed by some 
similarity between things we find it hard 
to discover dilTerence, and mre tvrgd. Al- 
though a Tague sense of dilierence mani- 
fests itself in the earliest perceptinns of 
the cluld, the finer acts of discrimination 
are reached with difficulty, and only as 
the result of careful pnictic*. This ia seen 

public make for it. For instance, at . 
narrow, and Itnghy the imiin dcinandl 
for Latin and Greek ; and so out of 
fifty hours a week of work in and ou 
Gchool, the highest classes at tiitae sch 
devote about thirty to classics^ as 
some six hours to mathematics — while) 
the inilitAiy and engtneennj; nde at 
ton, classics get only twelve hours 
mathematics eleven hours. Id 
Gymnfmiuma and Fi-encJi Lyd^ til»i 
tribution of time, as far as regards da 
and mathematics, is very much the 
as at Eton and Harrow ; whde in i 
ffymtta^um it is much tJie aoiiM! aa 
just given for Clifton. (See JourtMU] 
Erincalion, Sept. 188!.) Teachers in 
glish schools are rapidly coming to 
conclusion that tho very unsatjsfact 
results obtained ia Dicxlern foreign 
guages, though in part due to a mis 
method and poor teadiing, are mainly i 
to the smallness of the time tUlotted ' 
them. Probably five hours a week 
eluding preparation) is the kiut tJiati 
be safely given to either French or Ge 
Wliatever be tlie total amount ol 
given to a. subject, short lessons at 

in the way in which children first lump 
together under the same name different 

Kpecies of animals. The sense of siniilurity intervals will almost invariably be 
luire ON'erpowers the sense of difference, to be productive of better rtsults 
The opposition between the two is seen long lessoi;8 far apart— especially in 
further in the fact that one may greatly ; case of younger pupils. LangoBgcs, 
pri'pondfouteover the other in a particular ! their severe tax on the memory, and 
individual. The trainingof thechild indis- ' general lack of interest for children, 
crimination constitutes the main part of always be found to require uioni timo 
the education of the senses. Andtlirough- mathematics, which appeals morr! to 
out tbewholcwork of instruction it should 
be one ruling aim of the teacher to de- 
velop the power of discriminating objects 
and ideim rnudily and occnrately (cf. article 

SfS Bain's EdutMtion a* a Science, 
p. 16 and following ; Sully's lIuTuIhook of 
Ptyckology, pp. 17, 120, and following, 
also )). 403. 

DiMbedteBce. Se« Obediesce. 

SisthbntiOD of Time. — Before we can 

reasoning powers, and more reuiiily gi* 

the learner the power of applying wbtt 
he has learned to the doing of something 
which be cares about. While affain, »C»- 
ence, with the interest and curiosity wliicb 
it eicites, and the involuntary work wflucb 
it thereby ciiuses to be done, uiay witi 
safety, in its earlier stages, be sUowm) em 
less time than mathematics. Speaking 
generally, it is usually found wise bo se- 
cure two lessons at least'on eadi aabn ' 


eek->aod with Hislorj, EngUsli 
.tare, and tteograiphy probably two 
will be siways found sufficient. For 
ic foar IcMons is the minitnuiu 
tiu WW of bdginnors ; while dr&wiiig, 
and raoding should each have 
■bort loMonMdnj-in the period during 
tbey an; taught. Whi^n dniwing 
iCM Art, it will rt»]uiri' longer Kpnci>s 
lice, twice a wcuk, inxtoad of thi> 
daily exervise. (Beodtlcii the ' Tinii; 
lUea 'of our public sohools in Uia Journal 
Sditattiot* already referred to, inuoli 
ful iufoni^ttou will be found in Mr. 
Bird's Hvjhff Education in Ger- 
mv fnd England.) 
]>iTenioiu. Sm Rbciie&tiox. 
Domertic Ecoaomy.or thwart of house- 
old iii.*na^inrnt, is now titught to girls 
Iftmecilic Ktibjriit in public elementAiy 
baot^ and nlxo in nuLiiy privutu schools. 
lahry, which niuj' \>r. rtt^iidvA ns onn of 
■ nuMit imporlAot branuhtis of this sub- 
et,it practjcullv tiLughltogirUiu the lost 
Mrof their atteiidiLui.-e ul the elemenbuy 
hools. Gnuits liave been offered by tlie 
ev«nunenl iu the hope of uiakiuK i-'ook- 
U R jwit <rf the ordinary course of iii- 
veetion. Lessons in it, if properly ^neu, 
ill be found lo be not only of practiciil 
K^but to have great effect in awikkenini; 
le iDtfirest of children, who, Aca^idinK to 
» Code, are not only required to be pre- 
■at at a lecture or demonstration in 
Mikeiy, bat to be efficiently taught ' with 
leir own hands.' The cookery grnnt to 
diools is conditional on the supply of 
roper nppnmtusand ut«nsi)s for tho pur- 
OM of pnicticAlly illu.^trikting thi^ art. 

Dob. — The nnni<^ ;ippiieit to resident 
liifeiiiiiiii ■ml nthfr n^i-fTs of thu collt^gcs 
t tho Cni*(irMti<!S of Oxford mid Cuiii< 

Sormitoriei (School) sliould never be 
md during tht' duy for study or otlicr 
vrpewe ; but thu windows eliould \ia 
apt widely open during tbe whole d;iy, 
)peti bedrooms are preferred to sepiimte 
vUclet bj UiOM having large expfcrJC'Ut'e 
I tke moral manageiueut of boys in large 
Efceids ; with the fonuer a uore complete 
Dpcrriaion, and therefore a /itreater free- 
loin from vicioos habits, caji be ensured, 
n4 ia addition freer through ventilation 
Icbtaitied. Inasmuch as the pupil spends 
nrij one-third of his time in the bed- 
n«, its atmosphere should be made as 
on aa poauble by free venl^tion and 

tborough cleuidiuess iu all the artunf^- 
nient& Even with the best venliUliun, a 
pure atmosphere cannot be secifcvd unless 
asufhcieut cubic space is allowed for each 
pupil. At least one thousand five hun- 
dred cubic feet of fresh air »re roqulrtid by 
piich pupil per hour ; and if the uir is 
nhiing^Ki niorc tbnn three or four times 
iin hour, violent draughts are pi-oduc«d. 
HptiCR it ia necpasary thut three hundred 
and suventy-fivc to live hundred culiio 
feet of space should be aJlowed for cuuh 
scholar in the bedn>oiu, «n<l preferably tho 
latter amount. This is when the veoti- 
Utiiig arrangements are pei'fect, as they 
seldom are. Children, liice their elders, 
win close up any aperture from which an 
unplcjisivnt dniught proccrds. Dr. Dukes, 
the physician to Kugby School, urges tliat 
taking a Hcliool-bed ikt tliree by six f^et, 
the superficial area of the liedroom should 
Ije six by twelve feet per pupil, and the 
room twelve feet high. This gives eight 
hundred and sixty-fouroubicft^t per head, 
whicli, allowing for the air displafed by tho 
furniture and tlieboy himself, leaves about 
eight hundred cubic feet per head. Tlie 
poor health and pasty appearance of chib 
di'en in boarding-schools ai'e much oftener 
due lu crowded bedrooms than to delicient 
food or overwork. An essential point iu 
the arrangement of dormitories is tliat each 
pupil should have his own towel and brush 
nnd comb. 

SraiiiE^ce Arran^meots of a School 
should be of the most perfect character, 
n» children more quickly suffer from sani- 
tary defects than nduits, LafaloHea 
should be periodically inspected, to pre- 
vent obstruction by soap, ifec. The waste- 
pipes should not run directly into the 
drain, but open over the seal of an inter- 
ception gully-trap in the yard. Urinah 
should preferably have cliuia or glazed 
earthenware surfaces, as these hardly allow 
any sediment. Slate, sloiie, and cement 
slabs are not so good, as the rougher sur- 
face allows some deposit, and they can bo 
writtt^n on. The water- Bushing arrange- 
ments should be such thut tlie children 
cauuot tamper with them. An automatic 
tlusb-tauk wliich empties its contents down 
the urinals at intervals is perhaps best ; 
or, failing this, frequent washing by a re- 
sponsible attendant. Five places should 
be furnished for every hundred scholars. 
The waste pipe from the urinal should 
pass into a ventilated trap, and n,*Jt 4\- 


roctly into tfie 3r»TnI Vh»eis should 
n«vor bn plncvd in the biuieioent under 
thn ichool ; but always ia a separate 
builiiiug, which may be pnrtiatly connecteil 
with Uie stiiool by a fovereil auhway. 
The walls of Ihi- closi^t iilinuld be of tiles 
or some other material which i-untiot be 
written on ; and all i-loaets should Ih; fre- 
quently inspected. There shuulcl bi; snpa- 
ratc provision for teachers and sL-holars, 
and for the two sexes. The proper al- 
lowance iji one seat for every fifteen girla 
or twoiity-live boys (Bub), The comnaoQ 
privy is inostobjnctioDnblefroQiasanilAry 
standpoiul. Wlierii it is in use its dangers 
may be minimised by diminishinj; the she 
of the cesspit below the seat niid raising 
it above the ground-level. This necussi- 
tates fretjuent emptying. A further im- 
provement is to throw oaliea or dry loiiniy 
soil over the contents eutili day, thus 
partially converting the privy into ao 
earth-closet, In towns water -floBets are 
preferable. The form known as the paii- 
closet is always bad, sintple valvelesa clo- 
eelB lieing inostsuitabb for children's use. 
They should be made with an automatic 
flushing arrange men t, worked by opening 
the door or rising from the seat. The 
water-supply to the closet should be abun- 
dant, and from a cistern separate from 
that supplying drinking water. In order 
to obtain a good tlush of water the cistern 
should be at least three or four feet nl>ove 
the closet, and the internal diameter of 
the flushing pipe at least 1^ inch. In- 
stead of isolated water-closets Cumhkr or 
trovgk-eiomU may be employed, each hav- 
ing a number of aeats and a water-tight 
trough below, the contents of which are 
only removed periodically by removing a 
plug and flushing with water. Such a 
plan requires more superintendence and 
is more troublesome than isolated closets 
nutomuticnlly flushed ; but there is less 
apparatus to get out of order. The noil- 
pipr should lie carried outside the school 
throughout its whole course, and should 
be prolongii! upwards above the eaves as 
n ventilating shaft. The rirain-pi]>e carry- 
ing (iway waste water and the contents of 
the soil-pipe should be made of iroD or 
eaKhenworo pipes with watertight joints. 
It should be separated from the main-s^wer 
by a syphon-trap, which isvcntilatied, tlius 
allowing fresh air to sweep from this end 
of the drain to the apper end of the soil- 
pipe above tbe eaves. A manhole or dis- 

connecting dia]BEerwtI& an air-tight i 
cover should le«d down to the inter 
ayphon-trap, so oa to allow of 
of the drain. CentpooU are 
retjuired to receive the sewage whcr 
general system of sewerage oiitt» 
this cose they should be so construct 
to be watertight, should be sm.ill ia 
and periodically emptied. Thry ibd 
also be remote from thoplaygroundjOirf 
any part to which the children have i 
Earth-elosots are very valuable in oc 
districts. It is found tliat 1^ poundj 
dry loamy earth completely deodorjsw ] 
closet each time it is used ; and 
scattered by an automatic 
when tbe seat is risen from. 
Drawing is a mode of 
solid forma by lines upon surfiices. 
drawing, as a result of artistic loboor,) 
either a purpose outside of the art, i 
as anatomical or mechanical drawings! 
plans, or it is executed for its own 
such OS landscapes and fruit pieces, 
the former case their purpose is pr' 
pally one of material usefulness; in 
second they are executed with ao 
deavonr after a beautiful external fo 
and are thus a represeutatiou of the id 
But those of the first do not exclude I 
beautiful, for every object can bo I 
fully represented. Material forms 
either natural or artificial, and eitlier| 
metrical or irregular. There are va 
species of drawing: (a) linear drai 
which gives only an outline of tJie oh 
andalia<led drawing; (£) geometrical <' 
ing, representing objects in their 
relative proportions as to magnitude, I 
perspective drawing, rcpresenling ob|( 
as they appear to the eye ; M free i 
ing and sketching ; and {a) copyiii 
drawing from another drawing, drai 
from nature, or of real objects, and imiji- 
native drawing, or drnwintf of thiup 
conceived by oneself, of which the two 
former are of things as tlii-y ore direcdj 
seen, and the third is imlirectly htati 
upon the vision of real things. In *11 
drawing, the fye, the hand, and the sewe 
of beauty are employed, as are olao, U> 
drowing from memory, the faculty ei con- 
ception and, in drawing from iiuaginstiA 
the faculty of imagination. Hence tl» 
truth of Haroisch'a remark. ' tlie cult)*** 
tion of the ^cutties of repreaentation aad 
form gives us a feeling (or beauty, ff*^ 
form, and cymmetij.' EIement»ryar>* 

iwmff of tines, angles, aiid geo- 
l1 figures) is now reg&nled as an 
~ bnuich of priinnry ^uJucatiou, and 
ist*)^htin aU schools; while in 
ly itml nnvy, nnti in many profes- 
traili'ii, the uliilit}' rendily and 
:ly to delineato common fr>rms, 
,Kketch-mnpi,andsG«n«ry. isrrganW 
important und & vu!ual>l<! aiH^om- 
it, luslTuclion ill dnvwiiig should 
exerciaea iii unil<-rBtundijig, i.u. 
in itself, and the beimtiful in fonn, 
Ml oonstitut« eullure of the eye u,iid of 
~ sense of beauty, and exeroiaea in re- 
ting vhat lies imotecliatdl; before 
stadent, as in copying And drawing 
natarp^ and nrhat has some time ago 
before him, ns in dmwing from 
nory and imagination ; nnrl thi-so con- 
tate the education of the hand in the 
nice of tlie eye, and th« culture of the 
cnwry, thi^ imafiiniLlion, and th(> sf.nsti nf 
ty. Both I'leiuentary dniwing and 
:icd drawing must lie practiEcd on the 
iniylejairicandujit fahsr — elementary 
as a necessary substruetitre for 
drawing, and applied drawing 
the fonns of the woild around oa, 
,t comprehending and representing 
neither Ibe formal nor tlii- uuLtt^riul 
of drawing will be reached, arn 
,t always not plane figures, but solid- 
inas. In this respect drawing is the 
msiant practice of the an^ilysis of forma. 
he perceptive and the reproductive fa- 
llties. to u^e th<- l»nguiigo of philosophers, 
ne thns in constant demand and of uni- 
ersal application. Thp rye is taught to 
n all «^j<vtji more correctly, and the 
■ad is trainnd to do everything morn 
r»ci«''Iy. Thfir*? are various modes of 
erials Qtrd, such iuichn.Ik,bWk-lead pencil, 
(fu, or othw tinted drawings, which 
Ut-mentioned clasi are sunidt iin<>x i-atled which HDEiic indication 
\ eolouring is occaaionnlly introduced. 
-ink drawings, in the styl« of 
sre capiible of producing con- 
eSect ; and even oiori? elTeclive 
drawings, either in oluvlk, black-lead 
vA, or sepia, done on paper of a neutral 
int. with the bright lights pot on with 
Water-coloar drawing must not 
confMinded with drawing in its stricter 
Inse, sa we have been considering it, for 
it is a spectea of painting, although the 
ptoeeet employed is altogether different 

from that of oil-painting. Urawing, an 
a part of education, was first officially 
recognised in 1.^37, when the Stihool of 
Design in Somerset House was estaliUsbed, 
whicn after a niigration to Marlborough 
House flt^'*^!'"*-''*') was transferred to 
South Kensington, where it entered its 
new buildings in IHS3, under the designa- 
tion of the Niitioniil Art Training School 
(^.f.). Schools of art ('/.r.), in connection 
witli the SfitMice and Art Department of 
the Couuuitt*o of Council on Education, 
have also been Mt^biislied throughout the 
United Kingdom. 

Drill. Sm CALiSTHtxtcg and Atb- 


Bnke of York's School. See Educa- 
Tio!* (Army). 

Dull Scholars. — Boys and girlsof slug- 
ginh intellect t.w. to be found tn all schools, 
and the skill and patience of the teacher 
are much ex<ircispd in dealing with them. 
Tho BurcesH with which dullnnls are 
treated, however, la one of tho testa of a 
good teacher, and it is really more credit- 
able to bring out the latent intelligence 
of stupidity than to foster the growth of 
precocity. Dulness is frequently co-ex- 
istent with obstinacy, and then is much 
more difficult to deal with than when, as 
is often the case, it is aeeoupiinied by 
gentleness and a disposition to painstaking 
industry. It should bo remembered, how- 
ever, that there is no child so dull but 
that it has some faculty or characteristic 
capable of development, An ear for music, 
for instance, as Prof^sor liain has pointed 
out, is frequently characteristic of doll 
children, and even of children of weak 
intellect. An aptitude for mechanism, 
and an almost instinctive love of accuracy, 
are sometimes also characteristic of such 
children. In the treatment of dullards, 
Uierejore, the aim should be to unfold their 
natures, as Carlyle says, so that Uiey may 
be ailapted 'to work at what thing tliey 
have faculty for.' The law which Bichler 
baa laid down in Lfvaita should also be 
borne in mind by the teacher of dullards ; 
' Let it he a law. that since every faculty 
is holy, none must be weakened in itself, 
but only the opposing one aroused, by 
means of which it may be added harmo- 
niously to the whole,' Not a few men 
eminent in literature and science, Liebig, 
for instance, and Walter Scott, were back- 
ward boys at school, and regarded as dull. 
To lose patience with dull scholars, or tft 


•ntik to HtimoJate their slujtjtisdiiiMs by 
GulliiiK lh*'in duncM and Itliicklic-mlM, or by 
contru^tJiii; their perforiusnceN with the 
mote brilliant iieliiev«iinents of clever boys, 
is to afford evidmic^ that the t«acher him- 
self hns a fonsitlernble share of the stU' 
pidity he ron'lpmns, 

litilwich College. &t /Vllrvn, 
Dunce. ^This word, which signifies a or hlnckhiuul, is of dnuhtf ul ori^n. 
Some give it a Porsinn oritpn, and others 
hftVB so faT«x«rciBed their ingf^nuity as to 
regard the word as a ctirniption of Duns 
(DuriB Sfotua). Wpbnter, who disirredits 
this derivation, given the following ex- 
plaaation of it by Staiiihurst; 'The term 
Duus, from Scotus, so famous for his sub- 
till quiddities, is bo trivial and common in 
all schools, that whoso surpasseth others 
either in cavilling sophislrie orsubtill phi- 
Insophie is forthwith nii^knamed a Duns.' 
This be t<?llR US in the mnrgin is the mason 
' why RKhoolratin nre rnlletl Dunses ' (^c- 
Kcriplion nj Ireland, p. 2). The wonl, 
siiys Southcy {Omnianii, vol. i. p. 5), easily 
pussiil iiiU) a term of at'om, just as a 
blockhead is called Soluiiwn. a, bully If-^c- 
tar, aud as Afo/vs is the vulgar name of 
con tern Jit for a Jew. (Sef articles Dull 
BcBOLABS and Stttpiditt.) 

Dnpanloop, Felix Antoine Philippe 

{6. 1802 at Saint-Felis in Savoy, (/. J 878). 
— A distinguished French prelate, poli- 
tician, and educationist, and a member of 
the French Academy. Mgr. Dupanloup, 
who took a leading part in the controvert 
respecting public education, espoused the 

cause of the Church in relation to re^ 
instruction, and oppoi^ .M. Jules Sit 
in the National Asscmbiy, 1871, on . 
introduction of his prnjnnt for rende 
instruction compulsory, and wnn cli 
president of the commission hostile to | 
scheme. The principal eduMtinnal i 
of Mgr. Dupanloup arm lir. FE4u 

l(18SI, 9th ed., 1872); Dr la Hantt 
efition IntrllretuelU (1835); l,a 

^ Htidlf-uti- (1869, 3rd ed., 1872); 

I mir I'fdtuialian ilea Jtllet dans le 

. (18i!t), besides many smaller works. 

' Duty is tliat which we ought, or I 
under a moral obligation, to do. The I 
duty thus presupposes » moral law 
demands our obedience. VTithtbiss 
conception of duty ethical writers giv«] 
a scheme of particular duti<«, a» ths" 
Patey; (([jdutieatoothers, (A) toourxch 
(p) to God. It is Bvident that the i " 
can only reach so abstract a con 
that of duty slowly, a:id us the 
experience and reflection. The firat i 
idea of duty or obli^pition is a^uindi 
help of positive commands laid oowd i 
enforced by the parent or other per 
authority. Oughtiieas at first Eoeanai 
some one in authority bids me da 
with a community so with > child, 
sphere of duty is larj^ly detemiined ! 
custom. What the child is accustomed] 
do and to see others do, that tends to 1 
come a matter of duty or obligation, (d 
MoiEAL Sevsk) 

Dynamics. Sei: Putsics. 


Bar (CnltiTfttion of),— Tliis fomiRone 
chief brunch of the training of the senses. 
The ear, though it gives us much less 
direct knowlwlgo of external objectB than 
Eicht, or even than touch, claims special 
nt,tentiou from the e^lucator in the in- 
terests both of intellectual and of ledthetic 
education. There are two distinct modes 
of licnaibility belonging to the ear which 
it is important to distinguish. Theae cor- 
respond to the differences among musical 
■ouniU and sjnong non-musical sounds 
(•M AconsTics). llie most Msential «>le- 
ment in the first is acutenees in the dis- 
crimination of pitch. This varies in a 
remarlcable way ftmong indi%-idiiAle other- 

wise endowed with normal hetuing, 
determines in every case the dc^roe 
musical development possible. On I' 
sharpness of the discrimination of pitch) 
pends immediately the appreciation d I 
relations of melmly and harmony alS 
It is to be observed, however, llial 
who are wanting in this distinctive mil 
cal sensibility are capable of denvingl 
good deal of pleasure from music tlirou 
an appreciation of other features of 
art, more particularly rhyt.hro. The dis- 
crimination of non-musical quality is il' 
lustrated in the detection of most of the 
characteristic differanew among natural 
sounds, and also in the separation of 


n puttoUy simiUr Bouuds which make 
ungOAge. SpociAl eeiiaihility to dif- . 
among articulate souiitLa lies at 
t»aU of what vc call a good ear for 
The wnll- known fact that this 
lent dor* not vary nigulnrly with 
aconlMltty, and in oft«n found 
developed wht^tv tlm Intb^r existii 
in a rodiuientary Conn, poinbi to the 
lOo that tliey jvprcMttiit two dis- 1 
fnaetums of the OTK'in. Th« (.-ultivti- , 
«f tli« car comprehtntdn ^ncli of ihate . 
funotioua. The tratiuii^ of Uie itiuM- 
aeoae is encumberfid with a special j 
iiCculty arising out of the individual , 
itatioDs already referred to. It uiay, i 
iw«Ter, he safely said that if taken in 
th« Iarg» majority of children are 
•{wUe of acqoiriiig by proper exercise 

I birly acutr muidc&l aeiue. The other 
hiff branch of the oducatton of the enr 

the tmining of the iteiise to n lino 
iaerimination and aouurate idcntitica- 
of arliculai* sounds. Progress in 
be one of tlie mother loiiKue in laamiiifl 
nmd, recite, and so fortli, dfiwndB on 
> derelopmeait of tlie senw >ii ihiii di- 
Mtioii. More generally the cultivation 

II the eM- seeks to develop quickness and 
in hearing and taking in thi* 

nvda of others. Tbe attainment of Uiia 
•igect implies not only the improvement 
ctfthe sense in poiotef dlscj^i nation, but 
thi> acquisition of a habit of attention. 
ttalaew ID bearing in young persons is 

tabaUj mncb mora often the result of 
■BittantJon or absence of mind (ti^. Ab- 
nsT-llIfDRDXBU) than nf any defect in 
ikovnn of bmring itMilf. (.S'tc Gain's 
Mmbu and Moral Sfir-ncn, bk. i. chnp.ii. ) 
Solly's Tra(hBr'$ ffrmdbook, clinp. viL pp. 

Edinba^h ITniveru^. See lTtrivEK< 


Mliea tioa (la t ■ edaeatio) m the scieuci- 
Md art of huniAu developriit^nt, and dnnb 
•ith tbe iraJiiiiig of the boilily organs, tlie 
Wmb, and the intt'lWlual and pmotional 
foecn, with a view to aeeuriug tlie ha|>- 
lOMaof tbe individual, and the well-being 
l( the Bociecj or tbe state of wliidi he is a 
nit Education may be divided under 
t^ three beadiD|n: Puisical EncCATtON, 
IntLtECTCAL Eupcatios, and Moral 
(« Rcligiold) KnircATtos. Education 
«M be distin^tshed from iiurruccioji. 
*iich is simply the communication of 
huwledga for a specific purpose. Edu- 

cation ia subjective, instruction ohjiKttve, 
but the aims of both may be ideuticiil — 
as when the communication of knowledge 
involves the development of faculty. In 
the limitation of its meaning to the work 
of the Nchools education is synoiiymoua 
with Pnn^iioiiv (q.v.). (J>'m also yEsTllBTlC 
Oi'ltukk; Ci.n.-isKTAi. Cwtvits.; Copu; Is- 
Bi'dfuri'i."* ; ISTKLiJinxuAL Isstrihtiok ; 
ISBTKL'CTioN (CouBSE OF); Law (Educa- 
TioN.vL) ; and School MAXAfiRMBST.) 

Education (Army). — English army 
schools may be ranged in four classes : 

I. Schools for the professional instruc- 
tion of candidates for commissions: the 
Itoyal MilitaryCoilege and the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy. (1) The Royal Military Col- 
lege, SftnclhursI (ojiened at tlreat Marlow 
ISOL', removed toSiindhurst 1«12), affords 
a apecial military ediicatinn to candidates 
for commissions in the cavalry and in- 
fantry. Admission to the college as cadets 
is granted (a) to successful candidates at a 
conipetitive examination, (t) to graduates 
in arts of certain British uiiiversities, or 
students who have passed certain specified 
university examinations, (c) to one stu- 
dent annually of the University of Malta 
and of each of the chartered universities 
ill colonies not having a military college 
through which commissions in the array 
may beohUmied.and {(/)to Queen's caiteta, 
honoiary Queen's CAtlets, Indian cadets, 
and pages of honour, subject to a pre- 
scribed (|ualifyinK examination. The dates 
of entrance are Februaiy 10 and Septem- 
ber I in each year, and the number of 
vacancies varies according to the require- 
ments of the service, "riie limits of age 
are : by competition as Queen's cadets, as 
honorary Queen's cadets, as Indian cadets, 
orfts pages of honour, 17 to 20 ; as univer- 
sity students who have pasaed sppciGed ex- 
aminations, 17 to 21 ; as university gradu- 
ates, or as students of colonial unii'ersities, 
17 to 22. Competitors (not being uni- 
versity cfindidates) who desire to obtain 
uoiuniissions in West India regimenls may 
be admitted up to 24. The examiniition* 
are conducted in July and December by 
the Civil Service Commissi oners ; admis- 
sion fee, I/. The college is under the con- 
trol of a governor, who is assisted by an 
officer styled commandaiit and secretary. 
Thegovernor is assisted inlhearraugement 
of the studies tiy a board composed of the 
commandant and the professors or senior 
instructors of the diSereut br«iiu:tie&. Tttft 

wmxM of fnctractioR is one jear ; and thfl 
obtifc&tory subjeotA of study &re milit&Ty 
sd ministration, railitaty law, tha eletneiits 
of tactica, fnrtilj rail ion, military topo- 
graphy, and drill, rirfing, and gymnastics. 
CuicU on admission reiieivo finit »ppoint- 
HHinM nx siib-liuu tenants, uid on poising 
a mtinfortory elimination at the end of 
tho collngi! course become entitled to cora- 
iniiuionH in tlie army as second lieutenants, 
and may lie giiEetlod to ref['C"*nt* i" the 
order in wiiicli they pass. After a year 
with Ilia r«;;tmeiit, the o9ic«r is couflrmed 
in the army as lieutenants Commissions 
in tl)« army may also be gTODl«d to officers 
of the auxiliary forces on due recrim- 
meudiition of their genern.1 officer com- 
manding, and to gubnltrrcK of militin regi- 
menl« (artillery, ongineera, or infantry), os 
tho rrwalt of a competitive eximiination 
«)nductcfl('»)in literary subjects fAprilaiid 
October, ad mi Ksion fee, l/.)byUieCivi]8er- 
Ticc OommisKinners, a.n(l (i) in military sub- 
jects (March nnd September) under direc- 
tion of th(! Director- General of Military 
Education (aire under 32 on January 1 
prcfcdinK)- The numberof army com mis - 
Bions to be allotted to the successful com- 
prtiUira at eai-h of tho lialf-ycnrly com- 
petitive examinations ts seventy-five, (2) 
The Royal Military Academy. Woolwich, 
WM Mtablishod in 1741. Itaflbrds a pnp- 
paraitory educatjon to candidates for the 
Knyal Artillery and Royal Engineers— a.n 
«idumtion chiefly technical, and notcnrried 
in any iibligatory subject beyond the point 
usefnl t« botli forps alike. Admi^ion as 
cadtdit iei grunted to the aucccmful candi- 
dates 111 an open competitive examina- 
tion conducted by the Civil Service Com- 
missioners in Decembt-r and July eoch 
year. The limits of age are 16 to 18. 
The governor is a military man. selected 
with special reference to his qualifications 
for superintending both instruction and 
discipline : and he is assisted in the ar- 
mngeiiieot of tht- studies by an academy 
board, composed of the professorsorsenior 
instructors of the difFerent branches. The 
course of instruction occupies two years. 
The obligiit^irv subjeeta are : mathf^roalics. 
including r tliorough knowledge of plane 
trigonometry; practical mephanicB, with 
tli« applic-ation of mathcnuiticn to ma- 
chinwy; fortification. field and pcrmnncnt 
— such a cnurtie as is suitable tji cmlcts 
qualifying (or the artillery— and the re- 
quisite amount of geometrical drawing; 

artillery — such a coarse >a ia 
cadets qnaUfytng for the engineers 
tary drawing, with field sketci 
reconnaissance , military history ai 
gmpby; French or (rormaD (at tlw 
dent's choice) ; elementary cbonti«tr| 
physics ; drills and cxernses. In ad 
to the obligntory course, every ea 
idlowed. At his option, to take up o 
voluntary subjeciA — higher inatliea 
higher portions of fortification; any 
folloiring l»nguii:ges: German or El 
Italian, Rusaian, Spanish, or Hindi 
freehand, Ggure, and landscape dtt 
higher chemistry; Latin and OreeM 
struction in which languages is pH 
the chaplain). Commissions as lietl'~^ 
in tho Itoval Artillery or Royal Ei 
are conferred on such cadets as 
factorily the dnal eiarauuitions ^ 

II. Schools for the kdvanced n 
sional instruction of officers. (1) TU 
College, Furnborough Station, abot| 
miles from Sundhuret, was establish 
1858. It is open to officers of all n^ 
the serrice, and may consbt o( aixti 
dents (including, as 5Upemtim«t«rieu 
officers of the Indian Army and | 
Marines). Admission ia obtaii 
petitive examination in mathei 
tary history and geography, ft 
military topography, tactics, militaij 
French, German, and Hindustani; i 
candidate being required to quolil 
mathematics, languages (Fren^ or 
man, except for officers of the Indian! 
Corps, who may suVistitiite 
fortification (field and pei 
tary topography, and tactics. 
aminatiou for admission in Februarft 
place each year in the preceding i 
it is conducted by boards consisting,^ 
ever possible, of three field-officers. I 
one officer from aline battalion of tuft 
or regiment of cavalry, and twelve oB 
from the Royal Artillery and Roya] 
gineers, belong to the college at one i 
Each year twenty- four vncan eies areof 
for competition. Theyare fillrd osfoll 
three byoHicers of the Royal ArtilleiTI 
by officers of the Royal Engineers (wij 
additional vacancy per annum fori 
corps alternately, provided they nm u 
the twenty-four candidates highest Q 
list), and eighteen by officers of th 
maining anus of the service:. In 
to these the Comniaiider-in' 
nominate annually for entiunoo 

: tlie Indiaa! 
>te "HJdj 
LCtics. TW 



iH«)[e t-uro oiBc«n who hftve perforiui^d 
(oud aerv-ic« iii ibe field or hdd the h^v- 
MnUuFiit of Sidjutant with the re^ulnr 
'li)tc«A tnr & period of four yt^Ars ; and 
officers are required only to rpuch 
I qualifying etandArd in the nxnininn- 
No officer vrill l>c jutrmitlrd to 
for «dmi»ion whnsr ngn pxci^id* 
•.j-tcvra yrat% at tlin dati- tixitl for 
exam i nation. Thi; coiiiuiiiiidunt, in 
tg the d(?tail» of the course of til- 
ls luuiiiiUid by a bourd of pro- 
uilitary and civil. Tlie course 
lies two years, and llie aubieets are : 
aililary art and history, fortification and 
•rnlleiy, field fortiidcation, miiitiiiry ad- 
■intstrstinn and stalFdutieK, military topo- 
graphy, reconnainutnoc and othfT proctionl 
irid- vnrk, militnry law, modern Inn^iages, 
Btloml ttdeaeca, and riding. Aft^ Inur- 
ing thi- ooUego^ otticera am ordered to re- 
|ic«t IfaisnKtJvra nt Aidenlint on April 15, 
te be attu«hwl ut follows r Cuvulry offioera 
to inCuitrj for two uioutliB, artillery two 
nontlu; utUlery oifitera to oamlry for 
two months, iufaotry two months ; en- 
gineer officers to cavaliy for two months, 
artillery one month, infantry one raonth ; 
and in&jitry officers to cavalry for two 
nontba, artillery two months. During 
ttaae periods they are regularly att-achcd 
far duty to the several hrnnchrig of the 
ierric* iodicKted, are i-equirfd to perform 
tta ragiiiKintnl duties, and perform suuh 
KiviufN on thn MtAfT im will fnxiin.* their 
bang procticnlly oonvtirsiint witJi tliu vtiri- 
cot duticM of thoM! bmiio.him. (2) The De- 
parlaimt of Artillery StudJMt acta in iion- 
tJnisUiou of tJi« WiKilwic'li training of 
VtiUecj oRioeTa, and ijunlitieH specially for 
i^nintiDeuts that demand exceptional 
•cientific att^nments. (3) The School of 
Xilitafy Kaffine^riu;; at Chatham gives 
IMcial training' to officers of the Royal 
■^OMrsafler lestving Woolwich, in con- 
itowtion, surveying, tieid fortiQcation, 
Wtgrspby, Ac. (4) Oan-ison InRt.njct^rs 
tie ataff olScrrK. with tlir ran k of Krigado- 
kajar, appoinfrd to all thi' principal gar- 
IUm and militnry titatinnK nt honic ami 
■WdwI, to instmct olficrtra serving with 
tlwir rvgiBicDtM, and to nnable tliMti to 
fnlify to t]M^ special exAininntionH for 
Mnntioii. Tl)l>>lubjM!taan^: bautiaii, lidd 
fcrtjfatioai, niiltt«ry xkntcbitig mid ro- 
Umiaiiasnce, and taw. The course hmts 
'aring four moutlis, and (hose candidutfs 
"ho f«ts a auoceaaful examination at the 

«rid of it are certified aa qualified for pro- 

III. Schools of professional training j 
open to hotJi officers and men. (I) The 
School of Gunnery at Shoeburyneas pro- 
vides for officers and men of the artillery 
a thorough course of practical inntruction 
in gunnerv, liae of military machines, Ac; 
and it qunliliBs instructors to hrigade-a and 
liatti-ries. (2) The Sciiool of Musketryat 
Hytht! ruceives periodical contingents of 
uUiciM^ and men from all re^imenta in tlie 
aervioe for speyial tniining in the tlieory 
and practice of musketry, otEcei's and nou- 
couimissioned officers being qualitied to 
act as musketry-instruclora to their r«- 

IV, Miscellaneous. (1) The Army 
Medical School nt Netley, in connection 
with the givat military hospitid, receives 
candidates for appointments as surgeons 
for a probationary course, (li) The Mili- 
tary School of Music at Kneller Hall, 
Hounslow, wim establiiihed in 18/>7. It 
iiistructa uou-commiBsioned office ra and 
aoldiera (148) in music, and trains band- 
mtiatei-s and musicians for the various re- 
gitnents. The period of traudng is two 
years. (3) The lloyal Military ^Vsylum 
at Chelsea — also called the Duke of York'a 
School— and the Royal Hibernian Mili- 
tary School at Dublin, maintain and edu- 
cjit<i a limited numlwir of hnya, sons of 
soldiers, who are admitted between the 
nfffs of Sve and twelvn, and may rejnain 
till fourteen (and if of the band, till fifteen). 
The Royal Military Asylum is also a nor- 
mjil school for tiuiuinganny schoolmasters, 
admission being by competitive examiua 
tion,opBii to iion-ctminiiasioned officers and 
soldiers of the army who are of good cha- 
racter and are specially recommended, to 
civilian pupil- teachers, ami to certiticated 
schoolmaHters, (i) Army Schools (adult 
grown children, infant, and industrial) 
are established in every regiment and de- 
tachment, for non-com missioned officers 
and soldiers and their children. Raw ro 
emits are retiuircd to attend, and soldi<;ni 
are not eligible for promotion until thi-y 
h*ve obtained certiiicates of pinliciency. 
t'andidates for the post of army school- 
muster go through a prpspribed cours" of 
tniining at the Royal ftlilitjiry .Asylum, 
Chelsea. They enlist for gem-ral 
service for twelve yearn before appoint- 
ment. They rank ue iion-comndssioned 
officers next to sergeant major, and reowr* 



4*., rising to 7«.,ii Any. School mixtn'KM'N 
(thrnn i!liijoi(!«) recnivf 301. to 1 1 '. « jfJir. 

Educfttion Department. -Thi- Eiluaa- 
tion TJppiirtiiH-iil, Llie olfioes of wliich are 
«itii»t«l nt Whitehall, is uuder the toiitrol 
of tliL'CoiumitU'0 of Council uu EilucHtJoii, 
tliat is to 8ay, the Cooimittee of tlio Lords 
ofllie Privy Council. Prftctically, liowpvor, 
the Departnipnl. is controlled by tlic Vicc- 
Pre*ideiit of the Councii, who mny l>e re- 
bo IS without Cubitivt rtiiilc. Tlic I>»)>art- 
mcnt wan fomiMl in 1639 itnil in 1850 
vrtut nwonBtitutwl by ilii Order in Couucil 
toincluile'(aHiieEdui.'ution Establish merit 
of the Privy Council OtBce; (6) the Esta- 
bli&liineiilfortheEiico ura^m eiilofScJeQce 
Mid Art, pi'eviou&Iy under the direction of 
the Board of Trade, but now cnllrid the 
Department of Scimicc and Art. The !>p- 
partraont hft8 the cnntriil nf thii wholi- 
public clemi-ntiiry nluciitinn of tin' 
country, aihI of the ny^ttnu of tMihtiicut 
cducjition ocmtnwt«d witli Uio Scii-ute and 
Art DBpiirtiiient (</.v.). A report of the 
ri'.iiilta (if ilH tid 11 lints I ration is ouiiuAlly 
published. (.S'w-CoiiKaiid School BoAfiDS.) 

Education i Hi»vy).^N.'vval education 
Piay be coimiderpd under two hcndx: (1) 
tine educstion of the ollieers, and {2) the 
education of the mnn. 

(1) The officiTK lire M^lcctfd hy competi- 
tive exam iniit ion fmm IiuIk niiniit thirtiwn 
years of n^-,nomirijitivl iiy thi! l^^rdKof thc> 
Admiralty. I'hiNi^xuminntion ix otmduuti^ 
by the Civil Sttrvit^n CoimnigiKiontira, And 
embraces thn ordiuiiry KubtMjtii taught nt 
our gtwit public iMihoola. with tlm i-xception 
of Gnisk. TlicKOCL'^iisfulcHmiidutesHpeail 
two yiNirsas 'cadet*' on tlie 'BriUiuiiiu' at 
DuTtuioutli,iii which time theyobt^inafair 
linotvledjce of the elements of navi;;alion, 
nautiuil astronomy, sten-m and physics, 
besides continuing their former studies. — 
They pass the nest four yrnr* at. sPn tis 
' midshipmen i' and tlm instruction in con- 
tinued by a navnl instrui-tor. Their pro- 
gressintlwirrtuiiii'siii tf.vtcd byhalf-yi-arly 
ei&minntinn fHipcri U-'iit frt>iri Ifrttcnwich. 
Tli« valui- of tin! work donn in thrw four 
yesnde)H'nils very much upon the iiiU^nitt 
t^Mi by tlw captain of the- Khi|>, in wi.'ll us 
by the imval iniitniclor. Al the n;(e of 
iiin<<t«<)n they K" to the Naval Collej^o at 
(Jrr-Rnwicli. They are now 'acting; sub- 
liruti'iiantis' and six months are allowed 
tar pn!|uiration for the tlnal examLiia< 
tion fur luh ltent«iisnt. This examina- 

tion innbrnoea tt)g«bra, tri)^noineti7, 
nietry. mwhanicB, phy«cs. steam et 
Frendi, winds and vurrenls, uavi^tji 
nautical astronomy, n»ntic»l surveyi 
use of instruments, And astrononiic&l 
servations.— Most of the olGccrs 
in pASstnc, and ara Hividod into tl 
dsMM. uut tfaom who do not 
half thv totAl tnArkii ^ivcn 'fail to 
and thny coa»c to Ih-1orx to tlie 
Niivy. FnrtunAt4>ty, «uoh cnsui s«l 
oi-(-ur. Another half-year is devoted 
Portsmouth to U>q>edo practice, gunnery, 
and pilotage. Theeducatjoii of lii« );re*t«r 
part of the officers tlieit ends. But iIkm 
who have excelled in the above* men bonsd 
stuilies usually spend another sMsion ■! 
the Naval College, (.Jreenwich, aa 
and gunnery lieu tern an to, in nrqiiirinj 
knowledge of mom itdvancnl mntliMnsi 
RhcniJKtry, and physics. In 1866 ■ coo- 
mittne rr^portwl on the «(It)cntion ol Ukfll 
'rxrcutjve »(ficen,' and recommenilej 
tlmt tlu! ajre on entry aboutd )>e raised to 
(ourtuen years, beudee many alter»ticn 
in the oourse of instruction. 

(2) There are five traininc-shipa tot 
boys — *Bc>8cawen' at Portland. *OangB*' 
at Falmouth, ' Impregnable ' and * Liofl' 
at Devonporlv and ' St. Vincent ' at Ports- 
mouth. To these shipis boys above the 
age of fifteen nnd a half years ar« id- 
mitt*^ aftT passing a medical oxnminK- 
tion, and n simple examination in rmdinfb 
writing, and arithmetic ThHr <iduea- 
tioniil Httainnioiit* on lulmiuion vary my 
roucli, und ilw <Hlucation they mciura on 
board in similar to tliat given at Booid 
BcIiooIg. Periodical tixominationsitni ImU 
by tlie Insjitictor of Nnvnl School*. I> 
some of the Urge »w-gutn|; ships there are 
seamen scliouhiiiuileni ; but aa the boy* 
cease their compnlsory studies on bein{ 
rated as ordinary seatnen between the 
a(,'es of eighteen and twenty, these teachffl 
Iiave little to do. Tliere is also a nnmrT 
for the navy — the Ureeowicli Hospital 
School. Here nine hundrod mns of sea- 
men are rdncAtetl from thft ngw of eleven 
to liftr'cn and a half yrcn. At that u0, 
if phvsicully lit, thi-y mtiKt gn into UM 
UoynJ Navy. Ax their licliolniitic nttUD- 
ments are much higher than those of the 
other boys iiilmitte<i Ut the training ahlptr 
and ns they have already been trainiHl in 
aeaniansluji, Uieie buys graierally make 
tuust efficient sailors- 
Education of Boys. See BOTS. 




itinn of D««f Hotec—Thi^ (hIh- 
iof conKi-niUt] (Wf mutntorof tlinsu! 
bvE uoiiuireil ttiU iiiljriiiily ot'ii-'r 

maa of bis ey «« «i)d hin uihtr litvikliy 
flof Bense,ade«f mute i-liiltl bfouiniti 
iarwitb the obj(«U arouiid liim, with 
QftMr«,anil the purjioses wliiuli they 
llf watches tlie daily ocoupation 
t fripivU, aticl iniitAtes them hy in* 
m IlmiHra t.lml, an lliij child lenms 
PoriliR thi? objr>c1s ai-oiiiid him by 
iwt, ii kind of intiTiiOiirKf, nlthoiigh 
f be only Vfry limited, in rxtablixhi'd 
sen liim and liis Crtcndi. Tho child 
»n» to make um of hia iniiiiti! faculty 
prvsnns his aetiliuieiiU. 'tliv dt^vc- 
nt of the iiiberetit faculties of the 

EdobC lie aided by tiuiiiluK- Uih 
tion must be dravn to tlie objeutA 
id him, their purposes explnitied by 

and in tJiis iiin.iiner the iiitei-course 
id on by ccwtnro mftde ns in>>t['uctire 
Mthln. Th<- dirnf mutay child is ex- 
igly <)uii>k in di'scribtng objcrts by 
e nxttinii. In all nutrh iittcinpt.H )ip 
1 M ftided by hiii frii'iidn, who should 
iTOur to uudvnitHiKl, mid to iniKwitr 
Instruction piiued thux inny bi- 
a be ;caitird by tbi- usi" iif two kinds 
;a»: (hvieriptivi; and iinUcjitivc. Uu- 
na BigDB iiivolvL- an iMiL-ount, mnrc 
SOOnplete, of the ap).iearikiio[', <|liiiH- 
wd UM» of aa object, or tliK eirfuni- 
es of ao event, for the pur|Hise uf 
iption or explanation ; while iitdica- 
agiw, which are employed In couimuu 
nation, nro usually mere abbrevia- 
of Umm, involving a striking featui-e 
ipcraon, or object, orev«nt,asHn el»- 
i IS indicntral by its truuk. a flower 
I bv^mncR, or a town by a oollpctiou 
Vts. It in obrioux that in tliis latter 
dI aignii tlmn: in tcrrut mom for dia- 
aeeordins to tJwi nituatinn, cnparity, 
abitsol owervation of thi> individual, 
Jul laaoh may Ik- domt for its iin> 
meat by a projier H-lrction. The 
Mi of insiruL'tioti in bcIiooIk, moHt 
i<nly adoptMl iji Eu;;luiid, L'oiui.sts in 
Lng the pupil ihv rebitiou Ix-twcpn 
taimof objeL-Uaiid Lhe«bji-ci» thfin- 
^ tiie analysis of words into tin- Iril- 
4 tbo ftlpliabet, and tht? (wriicukr 
m belonging to each woi-d us itn di.t- 
n< si^. Next are explained ipnu-- 
rtnn and g^'naine names, and liiially 
ttmng, such asobject, being. 'Die 

old Id must b«! raoJo conviminnt with 
the <|uulilii!ti «xprc«Kive of bhi^ tu:i:id<:inta, 
vuriiilioiis, and modtticationi of objects, 
which are exprmsud by tlin adji-.ctivo, 
The lueiitiin^ of words cannot be i^lpurly 
understoiid, and the ideas tln> wortU ex- 
press. Thus, the lirst thing to be^in with 
is the explaiiulion of the names of extnrnnl 
object* best known to the pupil, preferring 
always those of few letters — such om box, 
pen, Hho>.', cap, hoop, ring ; anil Ihoii gradu- 
ally Inngnr and niorc difficult, wonis. Tli« 
Impil should he taught to copy the woi-ds 
liiii.iidf, and pr^rhupit to dmw the objects, 
HO that by dwelling upon tin: forms sufH- 
ciuntly, Uie forins may make an indeliblo 
iiupreasiou on his mind. Tlie pujdt should 
next he taught Uie use of the verl>, the 
pronoun, and the several purls of apii-ch, 
and the structui-e uf the set)t(.'ni:e genei-nlly. 
As«ooti as the pupil is miule familiar with 
the use of letters, and can spell woixU with 
Knmc degree of accuracy, it will be advan- 
tAgcous to instruct him in dnctyloloijy, or 
the manual alphalict as it is sometimes 
calli"d. This method of communication 18 
an iirt easily act|iiir('d and itrtaincd, or 
rt^coveri'd if lost, and it fundAhiis'a rtiody 
substitute for pen oi" [lencil. Thn C\t<3nt, 
however, to which the dcjit muto can com- 
municate will dejipnd entirely -upon tho 
alate of his education, or upon Lis know- 
ledf^e o( language. When projierly in- 
slructed ho will converse with the utmost 
i-Hpidity by this method ; habit enables 
him lo follow with the eye motions which 
looth(>rs would l>e too rapid for observation. 
He can reatUly catch at the meuninj; gf «• 
word or question before it is half s|h>11. 
It should l>e added tliat this method iH 
two*fokl — tho double handed alplialiet, 
where the letters are expressed by the 
<lispnsitions of tho tingcn of hotli bands, 
and the Kinglo- handed, in which the let- 
tfira are fonneil with thp fingers of one 
hand. It is supposed that the former was 
dei-ivwl from a linger alphnlH't which ap- 
peared in a work of Dalgurno; niid tha 
lattjT is said to have bei>n invt^ntcd in 
Spain, and appears to have bii-n published 
in a work by lionet, to which the Abbd 
dr I'Epi^e was mudi indebted in his valu- 
able treatise. Tim pupil mayulso be taught 
to coll imuiii cute hia thoughts by moving 
his lijis, and to understand wliat is Mioki-n 
by others by olwervini; the motions i>r their 
lips. This metho<L. although not attended 
with very great ditliculty, h, luboi-ioux aad 



tedious, and reqaires alwnysi putk-nf« and 

pprseveriiiice tf)eu8ure§ueeo«s. It in fully 
expounded in Dr. Joseph W&taon's Stun- 
dftrd work on the Inglrwtion of tke DimJ\ 
arul Dumb (London, IS09). Anotlier 
method in hyiiif«?iK of nrticulatioa. This 
tnpthod clftiniK somfi respfct for its Bfiti- 
oiiitv. Thp VfTiprahle iWe, e.g., in his 
Kcrlfmiutii-al Uistnry niPiitiona the case 
of II, iniin lieiiig so tiiuglit hy the Bishop of 
Hpxhiim in 6S5. Artit-uliition is tditeht 
bv pointiuf; out to tlie pupil ih(? power's of 
iht* vowHb and wuiftoiimits, and the posi- 
tion of the lips, t**th, ami toiigup, wtid by 
iiiatciiiK liit" f**' "'I'l I"" hund, or u silver 
inatruineiil, nil the pvrueptibie luovemeiita 
(ind vibrations of the throat nnd interior 
organs which are reijuisit* for their pro- 
nunciation. He is then I'equii'ed to ind- 
tat« this position, and to foive n ijuantity 
of ajr from the lungs suffiirienl to produce 
the sound, and is tjiught to rpad thp nrt.iou- 
Intions of otliprs, hy ohsprviiig the position 
of the organs and the i^unt<'nnnne. As 
such nttfirniici' ia not reguliitc-d hy the ear 
of the sp«ik«r, it is oftm too loud, mono- 
tonous, hjirsli, and diHcordant. It is on 
that a<'<"ounl BoiiietiineB difficolt for ii 
Btriitigp>r to undi.-rBlfind a spejiktr. TIip 
education of the deaf mntp usually begins 
nt the ngp of six or severL Diij bi^IiooIb, 
whnni prnctipnUi-, arp in many ways prf- 
fcriilili- to aayluiiia. In the lattei' there is 
n tendency to bring the deaf and dumb 
loo much, or exclusively together. Pro- 
ft'iuor Owen, in 1862, 'especially referred 
us a phyxiologist to the lamentable results ' 
of deaf mut« intemiarringes whioh are 
promoted by those asyluras; 'and strongly 
advocates a social Bystem of edunition. 

Education of Oirli.— 'The ideal pre- 
sented to a young girl,' says an aVile writpr 
(Mies Dnvies, Srcorulary Inxtruetinn of 
Girh, p, 1 .■>), ' is to b« amiable, inoffitnsivc, 
always rc-ady to give plwumre and lo be 
plcftsod.' Till? statJtnient may lie Hxa^e- 
rated, hut that tho feeling it describes will 
ever ceaHi to Ix- cxtnmiply prevalent can 
Ittrdly bp expectt^I. Parents are indif- 
fersnt to tho rdupation of their girls ; it 
leads to a Inu immediate and biugible 
pecnniary rcmilt, and there ia a ton);-eiita- 
Llished nnd in i-fl*n»le prejudice that girls 
are less oipablpof mental cultivation, and 
less in net-d of tl, than Iwys. Partly owing 
to that f"ct, and partly owing to the 
nnaMnns* of kchools and the inaptness of 
1«^»chcr« to tMioli, ihef are iJi the cducji- 

tion of girk u want of thoroughn' 
foundation, a want of «vBt<-in, a *loi! 
Iiw;s a:id showy HUi>erfifinlity, inatt^ 
to rudimeiila, undue time giv«ii % 
com pi ish meats, and thiMe not tau^ 
telligently or in any scientilic 
and want of organisation (cf. 
8i;kooh Irufuiry Commistiot* ; F< 
1«6T-6R, xxviii. pt. 1, pp. 516-70).] 
time devoted to subjects is badly 
buted. Needlework, e.g., oocu{>ii 
much time ; it is capable of being 
taught at home, ami the kind of it ' 
most prevails consists too much ot I 
naiuental character. Music, en^eciu 
pianoforte, ahouUI l»e ino<lifi«d in H| 
and made to include far more of tl| 
ments of thoroughbass. The JniH 
subject of bodily exercise seems to 
imperfectly attended to. Thoiigl 
doubtodly under the name of calisti 
(q.v.) it is duly encouraged in the 1 
schools, yet there is a great want ol 
tematic and well-directed physiRRJ « 
tion which often causes failun^ in 1 
and an impediment to successful i 
Much that has been said above as t 
education of boys (^.r.) applies r-(|uaj 
the education of girls. Tlie eesentij 
jiJUTity for learning is tlie samp, or ^ 
the same, in the two seies, Tliis j 
universal and undoubted belief Ihronl 
the United States, and it is alGrniedj 
generally and in respect to several q 
most crucial subjectis, by many of oul 
authorities. There are no donbt ] 
differences in degree in the sexes, wi 
the tendency to abstract principles inl 
contrasted with ttie great«r r«adint 
lay hold of facta in girls; itie gi 
quickness to acquire in th« latter,! 
the greater ret*ntivenes3 in the foi 
the greater eagerness of girls to leamj 
acuter susceptibility to praiso and (|| 
and their lesser inductive faculty. ' 
generally we may say thut the foundl 
the uiaiji and leading uleramts of ind 
tion, should lie the same to the two <{ 
and, further, that ample facilitieti a^ 
counigement^ far more than now ) 
should be given to women who iaj| 
able and willing to prosecute their sf 
to a hi;j her point. Up to the age of M 
girls hold their own in the ordliikn 
jects of instruction with boys, aiid 
now njenei-ally recommended that tfal 
cation of boys and girls should Ix* 
up to the tim« when the special vooa 



thcrc4(<c«Uvi* |iii{)ilKint4!iKl to pursue 
litate H ilivorf^Dce. Without siich 
,t)OD it in tnipoaiiililti for wnmnn 
fill thoM- new 0fH-iiin)|[s in life not 
pttnui.-(l by Ui«m will now ojiitn- 
4; up to llivifi. On Uiia »u)>jeut not niunh 
■u fet In? said with i:oDtid«uve. Even in 
JUaerK* it c&nuot be sud ta Iinie iuiuIk 
inch progress, and in this country it in 
en of as still uncertain, tentative, and 
w{ct.Contuiiirtiiiin /{tr/jorl. i.&'U). 
would hn Hit)i<^I( to trace [iredsely the 
int KtirringK in ]>iiblic opinion on liohalf 
«tj| of « bnttnr nnd cimiper form of 
Detraction for ^rli. Tin- institution 
if KinK" C«lle;"e and I'nivi-rsity (-V>llMe 
cbooU fur Louilon ixiya niniiliirly placnd, 
oabtlew, firvt BuxKc^tnl corrpsiionding 
luM for tJi#>ir itisten. la I;*'I8 Qiicvn's 
JoUeee, Hiriev Street, W., was foundrd, 
Bd in IM9 Bedford College. York Pliice, 
"DftniAn Sfjuare, W. ; and later CtuDdeii 
*orwn Schools «nd the ChelteDham Col- 
r^, both of Int* pnricb«l by considerable 
siilowincntB — the podowm^^nts of girW 
chooU thmiiKbnut Koglnnii nnd Wales 
ru only 3,3(J0/. in 1?67. 'I'lic enrlicst 
«bJic at«p wiis taken about ISIil, when 
^unbridgn Univnrrity openorl its localex- 
uuinntionx i^.''-) to giiT" under eighteen 
'tan. An rKnnipl<i ROon fnllo>t'ed by Ui- 
ati UnivcTKity. In ISfiT a Kupplpmcntal 
faut«r wa& nlituinnd by lyindon Univer- 
ity, wliidi it^ve jiownrs to that inititiition 
Ognst Bpeciol cxniniiiationx and ccrtiti- 
H« U> women stodenta, jjotli privilcgcK, 
tmtmt, Iwiujt kept nepitratt- in r.buuctvr 
id tune of year fixiui Uiosc jiro\'id<id for 
m male atiid«nt«. The iiRxt iiiun- was 
nag to CainWidf^. A aui:Lli but regu- 
irtf tii^UUBed ' Aiaociatiou for tJie Bx- 
naion of Female Bducatiou' was funned 
isn/ride lectures and examinations fur 
rualwTp seventeen ; in 1875 Newuhaiu 
an -waa ntAblished, and in ]i*80 tli« 
return Association and Newjiham Hall 
ut«d to form Newnham Colle(;e, ' The 
\f^' for Women," temporarily started 
Hitchin, and since located at Girton, a 
two miles from Caniliridgri, wb« 
ibtiilinl in l«6«. In IftTS a further 
>lnm'rntal rhiirliT enabled the lloi- 
itv of Ixmdoc, Ui grant nil its degrees, 
r m arts, Uw,iind modicinc, to wonien 
cU a* Rirn. SoincTville and l^uly 
HnlU wirrt! opened at Oxford in 
', and Holloway College, nonr Kgliam, 
, 1886. ODe of the ininiediute n-sidU of 

I tho Schools Inquiry Commission wag the 
l«tAblishing in 1871 of 'The National 
Union for irapioving the Education of 
W'oniMi'ftlie moving spirits of which wr** 
tim I'rincfss Lnuisn, Mrs. William Grey, 
and her *ister,HiKHhirrHf), to promote tho 
(uUtblisIiiiij of ^ood girls' schools through- 
out tho country, the liiKber educiition of 
Kirln, and the training of female teavhera. 
The 'Union' was eiioounged and supported 
by Bome of the city companies, ^e College 
of PreceiJlora, and othei- scholastic liodiea. 
In 1872 it floated 'The Girls' Public Day 
Schools (.bmpany, Limitai,' the first high 
school slnrtod under it Iwring the one at 
Ohelaett in ltf73. Many high schools have 
nncci be<m Attablisbod throughout the 
cou ntry, and tlic dividends of the company 
hiivi- neviT Imvoi undi-r five per rent. 

Education bf the Blind.— When the 
eyeiight is lost the other senses seem to 
gain a comjieiisatory development: thn 
tout'li becomeit extremely sensitive, and 
the lienring very acute, and the memory 
becomes remarkably retentive. These are 
the points to be kept specially in view in 
framing a scheme of instruction for tlie 
Mind. The first blind institution was 
founded at Memmingtm by Duke Welf Vi. 
iu 1178; tho second, in Paris, by Sl Louis, 
in l^GO. The modem institutions begin 
with M. llany's hmt'UiU dt-n jexin^g Ai)«u- 
i)li'» at Paris, founded in 178-1, and Dr. 
Johnston's House for t-hc Employment of 
thn Adult Ulind, opi^nod in Edinhurgh in 
17il3. The numlwTof institutions has in- 
creased grr'iitly in rewmt yiiirs. Tlieprin- 
cijutl trailcs for which thi- blind are trained 
are : the making of baskets, brushes, 
brooms, mattrciises, rugs, uints, itr., and 
till' caning of chairs; with knitting, sew- 
ing, and hair- plaiting, for women. Those 
with a special turn for music may lieoonie 
muBJcians, music- teachers, or pianoforte- 
tuners. In Great Britain, more is dono 
in worksliops; iu America, more attention 
is given to literary culture and muitic — 
the blbid being, as a rule, of a higher 
intellectual grade. Tho Worcester Col- 
lege fur Blind Sons of (ientlemen, founded 
in 1S6C, trains even for tl)e Universities. 
The Boyal Normal College and Academy, 
at t'pper Norwooil, was opeiie<l in 1S72, 
to afford a thorough gt-nerttl and musical 
education to the youthful blind of Viotli 
sese*, with a view to self- maintenance. 
It embraces three distinct dcpartmeiita : 
(1) general education, (2) t\ie &c\buce axA 




pntctjcp of miiMC, And (ft) pinnofortiv- 
tuning. Much bai bi-rn done for the 
Mind in ntuiMit ynirs t.v thn rx(*rti«ii« of 
tilt! Itritish and Fori'tgti lititid Asxocmtion, 
wbii'h wiMi '(orm*d fdr tliL- puiiios* of 
prmnoUnK tlie education uud <fiii ploy uie lit 
(if the bliiid, by ascertiiiiiiii;; wliiit lias 
Ireeii done iu these respeets in tJiis niid 
other countries. Ijy eiideavounng to supply 
deficiencies where these are found to exist, 
and by attempting to hring about prca-tcr 
harmony of m-tinn between the diflVront 
schiuilfi nni) inEtitntions.' 

I'uiSTixfi Pdft TiiK BLrsij. — I. TAr- 
Hommi Lrttrr, — M. Hniiy of Pjiris was tlie 
iirnt (in I7H1) to ctmccivc and i-xptuti? the 
by tiiuth. He adopt*?!! the Bcriiit oritalii- 
fomi of the roiiiaii icller. Aftfr creatiiij' 
u K^vut ti'niporary sensation the system 
fell jiilo iibeyaiico. Juinea Call, a printer 
and pulilishei' of Edinlturgh, set himself 
(in IS2G) to remerly the defects of liniiy's 
system, wiopting the common ftlphabet 
(modifird so ns to ho easily felt) n* the 
hnKis, with preference of thn lower-pnsc. 
forma, and pi'oviding fi)r fluf.nry of rpn<l- 
ing l>y Inrgi- and Ic^hle Irttirrii. In 1827 
Gall printz-d his Fimt Book in a triangular 
ninditirnl.ion of the comtoon alphabet, ''Th- 
homeil in high n-lipf ; and he followed up 
this with spvrniJ littlr voliitnca of Scrip- 
tural matt*-r. Ho printed in IH52, and 
publixhi'd in IH.HJ, his gniit work, Thotros- 
pel 6y St. John, which wns Uip first liook 
of the Bihle which hud i-vi-r bi^en prititmi 
for til* blind ill any ltttiKuaj;e. This vo- 
lume wan printed in a tyiw bo liirgi- njid 
le><;ible, that some of those whom Gall had 
taught ' were tfble at the public iiiciHiiigB 
toreadany passage put before them through 
six plies of silk between the book ajid their 
fingers.' The letters wei^ romaii capitals, 
with angalnr lines instwid of curves. Gall 
cndravoii red toinaketbtinlph.ilw-t approach 
an near as posKible to its uminl form with- 
out losing its tangibility, and he increased 
thr tangibility bv uniig scrmted types, 
the Irtter* lieing formed of dots instwd of 
lino* ; ho ntw) introduci-d initial capitsU 
an in ordinary urn-. Dr. Howe, of Boston, 
TIA, viniti-d flail, and on his rrtum to 
Amiricn cKtubliKhn] a printing pmu ; he 

?iubli)ilif<l thf Actn of thi- A|io«tlps in 
6M, and t.ho whole New TeBtumeut in 
lS3fi 42, He UKf.'d Gair-i angular moilifi- 
eatioii of th* ootiimon lUpliabet, but in 
much KmaUeruM. M«tuilim« SirO. Low- 

thrr had iiitroduorH Htt»y'» type into 1 
land (It'ft'i), and printnl com« 
of the Bibli! ; and Jacob 8iii<lcr, of Pb 
di-tphia, working without knnwicdsnj 
oilier nchievi'inenta in the Kinw fif^lif, H 
publishwl (1S.S1) the Gospel by St. 
unfurtuiiatrly in capitals. StfHnge toi 
John Alxton.treasurerof the Blind , 
iti Glasgow, printed, in 1S37, the 
by St. Mark in the v*iry type used (i 
known to him) by Jacob Snider. Ill l( 
Alston conipletod the New T««tj 
and in 1840 tho whole Bibk— tlifl 
complntji Biliic for the blind in my 1 
gunge. But his system AiirountcrM 
fatjil olijcction of insufficient legiliility;! 
hiid used the Koniiin capitals, and hi* I 
wiiK too small. Roman capitnU hail ' 
tried in Amcricii in IS34,afid in IJ'S". 
Fry, of Ijomion, hml gainird with t)iem I 
gold medal of llie Scottish Society of . 
for the best alphabet for the 1>! bid. 
proved modifications have been inde 
dentlysti^ested, inalmoslideuticajl 
by Mr. Welch, a pioneer of cducntioiii 
the blind of London, and by Mr. IJitl 
of l/holtiinhani. In 'Spmiany IIict* 1 
hpen various modifications of the KoMUA 
letter, the chief 1>eing the Stafbiituekr^ «C 
Stuttgart, which consists of Koman «*pe 
tnk formed by fin<r|y dotted tines, it. 
Arhiiranj L'ttm.—yiv. Lucas, of the Bris- 
tol Institution, invi-ntiul n Rt«nogmphiv 
sliortband, with arbitrary chamctcrii anil 
numerous con traction k ; printing St. John, 
in 1837, and the Acts of the AtHuihs i« 
1838. and cvpntually the wbol.- hihh' and 
Diany other works. Mr. Kn-rp, of Londoci, 
in dissent from Mr, Lucsa, developed * 
rixal phonetic shorthand : am), under tlM 
criticisui of ail iDtelligeiil blind man, ht 
replaced IiIb dotted curves by angW dl 
45", and his doited lines by liue« inirhiA 
a short stroke la substituted for tli« dot- 
thereby gaining a great superiority in ttrt 
quality of easy recognition. Frere aho 
invented the system of 'rvtiim lijiea;' that 
is, the lines in his booksare read from left 
to right and from right to Mt altemauly, 
thn liTtters thpiii«lvrs bi-iiig reversed in 
thp n-tiim (right to left) linrs. Dr. Hoon, 
of Brighton, adopts from Frrrr the rptnm 
line, but without rtivcrxing tho lett«n; 
and his iilphabct, while nrbittnry, yet ia 
liirgidy soggr'stivt! of the common iygn. 
He prints in larger aire than anyone t]»0, 
so that his books nrr bulky and expfiumv*; 
but tliey an! tar mora! po]>ulBr than anj 

and ftuw Hufj einbnico » widt) litA- 
mtuj*. I!l.TI«/>o(£.rtf<-r.— Thr «rai/fc 
Hynrm. iiivenlwl (1834) by 5L BruUl.-, u 
bUiul pu{>il of Iti*< ImtUut tif* jenne* Av^k- 
gU», in universal in FraiicE', bolli for writ- 
ing; »im1 for printing ; it is rauoli uai^d, for 
bMli purp'xfs, in Swiunrlanri ; and it is 
■rojiloiPiH as thf icrilUrt fJiarncWr in almost 
■l]coantri«is,i»<M'|it th(* Uninvl Kingdom. 
It cMuiists of the Rixty-twn Taricti«8 of 
tonn ohtAiiuiUc bj tlic nniimion of Oiin or 
morr of nx doU |>liKtt'<l in an oblong, of 
«)iich the wrtioiU sido t.i>iiUiinii tlirw, iind 
tlut homontal two dots, thus ; — a . Thf^iui 
hma* ooropriao uot only the iHlHrs of Die 
•Iphftbet, but alao many odier tugus. This 
■yst«tu has two powerful a^vanta;^ : 
it is easily wriCt«o (hm bolow), and it is 
lb> best fi kU hnoirn mpthode of writing 
ud printing iniuic for thi^ blind. Ad 
iBprovnl tysfim, by Mr. Wnjt,, of Now 
York, pmrards on thi- prini-iiiln tbtit tim 
bttRT« occttrring moit froi| in thrr 
Enylbh liinKUi^pi uhnuld \ik rc-jin-K'-nt^-d 
' Inr the f^wnit uoraber of dotii. und thiit 
tMl«tt«»>lioa)dl>«H08piu.'iH) that u lettiT 
Bompoaed of dim dot siiould uot, an ts Uic 
oue in the Fixmch eysWu, occupy tlje 
■ae room as ono with six dots, for tfiis 
pnpon the oblonf;, ciin^iHtiii;- of six dots, 
napoaiiig the rout'forni of tJie l(>tt«r, is 
plteed faomoii tally, iusu^all of vertically; 
lia great««t vertical depth of nny letter is 
tww dots instfnd of tliree, From these 
l*ochiU)gre results n giving of nbout one 
third in sp*c«; this invp!vr>s n. saving of 
^loat on*-tbinl in thcr ^rici^ of printtyi 
luoks; writing in rc<mii<rtnl mori' rapid; 
at tbv nxc eui now bo incn^isnd, owing to 
ibe diminution of tJi» vRrticiil U<iigtb of 
ilwlcttnr, it can iie mndt HuHk-irnt fur llif 
rfoUtat touch. Ten-wonl iiiid pirt-woiil 
agut have been introduced, which effect 
• fnrtJter saving of nearly one-tliirJ. while 
ihey do not iiitwrfcre in the least degree 
with com«t ftjieliiiif;. These ftdvantages 
make it well wM'lh while to consider 
whether the modification of the Braille 
syiit«iu ought not to be adoptc^l as tlin 
written lysteiu of all Kuglish-spcnking 

WnrrtKO for tub Blind. — I. Sy ihr. 
Blind to (h* fi/n«f.— Messrs. Miliir and 
HoBoLin, of the Kdinbiirgli Aiiyliim. in- 
vented the 'string siphftlict,' tJii- letters of 
which were rep iv8fnt«ibydiflrrfliJtkindiiof 
knots tied upon a cnrd, singly or combinrd. 
ti«U sapenwded this (Ifi38) by writing 


HtAm)>s. Xhoctampsarecubesirfwoodfitt^^d 
with pins in shapes forming letters; tho 
I>upi>r is laid on a soft surface, and Uie pin 
piiiiits art! ])rBssi;it through it, a raised 
letter l»etug thus produced on the other 
side. 1» At. Braille's system, 'a frame is 
used consisting of a grooved metal bod, 
coiits^Ding ten grooves to the inch; over 
this is Utted a guldo, whosi^ vf-rtical dia- 
mcter is |^ inch, whili> thn hori/nntrti dia- 
nnit^rr is -^^, This [H-rfomtcd guidn is 
lix«l into a light wondc-n fruuiP, like the 
fmnm of n idutc, which is ntUivhed to the 
grooved metal bed by liiiiges. Tlie paper 
is introduced between the frame and the 
gi'ooved bed. The instrument for writing 
is a blunt nwl, which carries a little c-ap 
or paper before it into the grooves of the 
bed, ther>-by producing a Borifts of little 
pits on the sidij'nuxt the writer. When 
tnken out and turned ov^r, little pmtu- 
lii;nincps are felt, corn-spondingto Uie pits 
()n thi> ottutrsidi'. The reading is perforniud 
from h'ft to right, consecjuently tlie writing 
IB from right to left; hut tliis reversal 
preseiiL-i tto pniutical diirioulty, as soon as 
the pupil liaa caught the idea that in reitd- 
ing ami writing alike he has to go forwards. 
The brass guide has a double row of open- 
ings, which enables the writer to write 
two lines ; when tliese are written he shifts 
his guide downwards, until two little pins, 
which project from the under surface nt 
its ends, drop int* the correqionding lioles 
n( the frame, when thi' writer writes two 
more lines, and this operation is repeated 
until hi? arrives at the liottom of the ])age. 
Thi- lirst ten letters, from 'ii' to 'j,' are 
fonni^d in the upper and middle grooves; 
the next ton, from 'k' to 't,' are formed 
by adding one lower dot behind to each 
letter of tlie first series; the third row, 
from'u' to'fii'is formeil from the first by 
abiding two lower dots to each letter ; the 
fourth row, from 'k' to 'w,' similarly, by 
adding one lower front dot, The first ten 
letters, when preceded by the prefix for 
num'icrs, stand for the nine nunibers and 
the cipher. The signs, written in 
the lower ami middle grooves, iiiKlead of 
tJ>e upper and middle, serve forpunctua^ 
ttnn. The seven last Icttersof each series 
stand for the seven musical note.i — the 
first serii's represpnt.iiig quavers, thi- aecund 
minims, tlie third semibrevra, the fourth 
crotchet*-. Kests, accidentnk, and i-very 
other sign used in music, can bi' itudily 
and clearly cxprcHcd, without baviwi^t*- 



vouRM! h) thi? stttir of fi VI! lima which fomm 
tlio biiai.i (if orilxiiiiry niusii-ul notiitiiiii. By 
mwiiiB i>t thia ilotlvd sysUfm, a. blinil inim 
is able to k^E'p iiieiuoniiulai or aocuuiiU, 
writ* his own music, emboas his owit books 
from dictation, aud carry on correspoQ- 
dence.' fl. Sy tlu^ Mitui lo fM .SV^inj.^ 
Mr.St.Ciftir.ft rausicti?itcherinEdiiiburgli, 
Biid Mr. tin.]], usrd narbonised paper and 
It fine hard point (pencil or styluii), Kt. 
Clair's guido cfinxixti^ of n. linn of Biiinll 
square holes, i^ach rvprcurnting a letter or 
a apiive ; Gall's 'typiilograph' wiut much 
moreelaburate,aR(l hud a sriiall projoction 
in the middle of tlie right side to mark 
the aiae of letter. But the belter edu- 
cated write just like the seeing, only with 
a special guide for the lines. 

The history of the several American 
institutions for the blind is concisely 
statj'd in the Eiu-yelnpirdi'i Am^riri'i'i, 
vol. i. pp. 5r>6-rt0. From I8;t2 to l««2, 
33 tnfititutioiiB were latoblishefl. Indtw'd, 
in Atneriwi. the uBvlums aru rrailly excpl- 
leiit educational inalilu lions, where high 
musical training takes u. prominent place 
in a thorough general educutjon. From 
one of the American reports we may quote 
a short passage to illustrate the Urge views 
that obtain in that country on the educa- 
tion of the blind : ' A school for the higher 
education of the blind should be ^Epecially 
adnpte'l to the condition and waiits of the 
persons to be tmired. In it the course of 
Btudy should Iw the sadie as in our best 
oolltffea. All instructioii should lie oral, 
and the appinituRn.nd mofles of Ulustration 
be addre.-ai-il to the touch. It should have 
largi?vulltM.-tioiiBof inodelsof various kinds, 
BuchaswBights.nieiisurcs, tools, machinery, 
andUie like; mauDikinx, and models, show- 
ing tite anatomy of plants and niiimalE, as 
well as their outward form. It should 
bavflcoUections of shells.orystalB, minerals, 
and the like ; models and sections sliowing 
geological strata : philosophical up|Kirittus 
Adapted to the touch ; in short, everything 
that can be represented by tangible fonas. 
It would amaze those who have not re- 
flected upon it to know liow much can be 
done in this way. t^annderson, the blind 
profiMSor of muthemntics in Cambridge, 
not only knt-w ordinary money well, but 
lio wfti an «'Xp(;rt niiroismatist, and could 
detect count^-rfrits in a collection of un- 
til) ue coins Ix^ttrr than ordinary persons 
I'ould do hy sight. Such an institute 
thould hart! able profMSon and teachers, 

with special aptnesa for adapting ti 
lessons t« tlie condition of thvir scliob 
Education (Phyiieal). Stt Phtbi< 

Education (Pmctioe of). .5m 
ooov and Si^iiool Man'.voehest. 

Education Society. — Tlii* society 
founded in I.'*"-'' 'for Oio developmi-nt 
the science of education.* The otiject 
its promotei*s is to colle<:t, examine, 
classify facts, and to establish and 
pound those principles on which the pi 
tice of education should 1>e luunl. 
particular, the socioty has maintained 
imiHirtance of connecting the study of 
Bcieuce of psychology with tli« exercise 
tlie art of teaching ; and has urged 
necessity of the systematic training 
teachers. Papers are read and di«c: 
on every third Monday of the montli 
S p.m. at the Memorial Hall, Farri 
Street, E.C.;and an annual volume of jTi 
action* is published. In January, I 
the work of the society was 
with that of the education section of 
'Teachers' Guild' (7.1-,), but is being 
tiiiued otherwise unchanj[(i(L 

Education (Technical). SoeTecasn 

Edacation (Theory of).— Tlie 
theory is opposeil to practice. In di 
guisiiing the theory from the practice ot 
eilucation we mark oflT thuscifaitiific ground- 
work of theart,. That is to say, the theory 
of education aims at setting forth tJioie 
scientilic truths or principles whicli under- 
lie the rules followed hy the practioal edu- 
cator. These principles arc dimvcd from 
! a number of special sciences, among which 
may be mentioned physiology, which sup- 
plies tlie trutha underlying phynicat edu- 
cation, and psychology or ment«] wivnce, 
which gives us the prinpipha t« be ap- 
plied in the training and duvplopwent of 
the mental faculties. With thU lafll miut 
Ije taken logic, wliich furiiishea rulee fof 
the right discipline of the reaaoning fa- 
culty; and ethics, which, hy defining the 
ultimat« end of all action. s«TV«e at one* 
to give ua a clearer idee of the purpoae ot 
education aa a whcilc, and to supply u* 
with a true ideal in developing the moral 
side of the child's nature. The theory of 
rducntion, which, tike all other tfaeoriM, 
follows a certain development of the cor- 
re-sponding practice, may bo said to aim 
Hrst of all at sclentiljcally explaining, and 
GO providing a sure reason for those pnu;* 


Dwxuns which have boeii reached by 
euipirical loethod, i.e. aa the result of 
ual trial and a MHupartHon uf the T'ei^ults 
if diflereut workers (»w Eupikical Me- 
>d). Mor«i tbao this, a complete theory 
edacHtion should coablc us to detect 
in |>nt«tic«nnd to d«duc« now riil<« 
hv Ahcnrnnlt trsti-d and vnrified by 
txpericnce. It t.i evident from thiK brittf 
dcanition that the ttieory of education, 
thoogh ill s uuDuiT i>p|](Mied to th» 
pnctiee, u orgaiiioally and iuiieparably 
tailed with it. While of the ^I'eat^st 
nhw wheu iuo>'ing in associatiou with, 
nd Qoder the guidance of, practical «x- 
fniaDOd^ it is apt wheo divorced from 
IfaN to w«nd«r into the region of vagn« 
■nd tinfroitfiil xpocuUtinn. Wliilo thrnry 
h thux vnluclcsE ilntachr^d from pmcticitl 
«b«iTation, it bi-conif^s of the very )iigheat 
north when propprly i^onjoiucU with tliis. 
Dw CTOTiL-tiioii is now steudily gaining 
ITMod MBong iPOfhera that a. study of the 
nentific pnudples which make up the 
Iheory of education is a necessary part of 
iIm pr?f«rntioD for the work of teaching. 
iS". Professor Payne's LecCuifg on the 
Sdntet and Art of Edurnlimi, Lectures 
Lud ii : J. bully's I'eaclwri Handbook, 
Aof. L ; W. H. Payne's Contributiorui to 
ieSfifiw ^' EdMration, chaps, i. find ii.) 
Sdueatioaal Institute of Sootlnnd (The) 
is inrawpormtrd by Knyal Ubartflf. The 
Bitoib«nicniuitt of {a) heitriWKiivboarrfad- 
ouKal on thi- rei^nmini'iKljiliDTi of the Inciil 
Mwciitioo within whime liounds t\iKy re- 
a4e,eir by direct applioation to llie Bcinrd 
rf ExftiDinen with production of rebitiva 
Mimoiuala aud certiliL-ii,li.''ii. The jfritde 
bbononu)', vid is euuferri^il uidy oii thuse 
vbo have ailaioed a prumineut place in 
lb* ptofMSion, aud who hate taught pub- 
lidy and satisfactorily for at least twelve 
Jiais. Tie diploma fee is two guineas, 
*ith au annual subscription of five shil- 
lings. (6) Associates (soninr and junior), 
*lia are adtnitt«d by examination, or on 
pradocing GoTvmnicnt ci^rtificiit,<r, univnr- 
(tty i)egr<-<; diploma, or !<oinc iciniilai' satis- 
Uaory •rvidi-nras of profi-sslonal ai;i|iiire- 
■nmita. The diploma fee ix for snniora 
<M»n goinni, for junioni half-a-fniiu<'a, with 
Svr ah illingn annual nubxcriptinn. ((r)Meui- 
beni, who are admitted hy tilt! Board of 
Eaaminer* on the ntcomint-ndation of any 
Ideal asMciation within wboKe bounds they 
nndn. I>iplonia live sliillings : aniiutU 
sahMTiption fiv« ahillings. (</) Proba- 

ticuiem, who an- adnuttcd at any ortliuary 
Qieetiug of a local iiwiociatiii'ii. Annual 
subscription two idiil1ir]<.'s and sixpence. 
All communications re^pcctiLii;; admission 
to the Institute should be addrwisod to the 
Srcretary to tlie Board of lixamincm, 
Thomas Slorrison, LL.D,, F,E.i.8., Fnj« 
Churrh Ti-aiuing Oo)|pge, Glasgow. 

Educational Ladder, .sw I»8triio- 


Ednoational Law. See Law (EducA' 


Efficient Schools. .^01! Classifica- 

Elaborative Faculty. — According to 
COrtaiuGennnn perlagogists there are three 
principal stages in iatellcclunl develop- 
iiK^nt — reception, reproduction, and ela- 
boration. Tliia last includes the whole 
process of separating and reconibining, and 
tlius transforming the niftteriala of thought 
originally supplied by the senses aud ren- 
dered available by the reproductii'e faculty. 
This work of elaboration ujay assume one 
of two unlike forms, issuing in the pro- 
duction of new pictorial representations, 
the imaginative products of the poet, or 
in general or abstract ideas reached by 
combining a variety of particular ideas or 
images, and constituting the products of 
thought. As subserving the ends of know- 
ledge ttiis second fonn of elaboration is o(j 
much the greater conse(]Uenee,and writers 
like Sir William Hamilton, who employ 
the phrase 'elaliorative faculty,' confine it 
to the operations of comparison, nbstroc- 
tion, iie., which constitute thought. The 
BP]>aration of a receptive, a reproductive, 
and an elaborative stage in mental growth 
uiust nut mifllead ua iuto supposing that 
the child in receivbig external impreHsiouB, 
whether directly Ufim objects or through 
the medium of others' words, is at the 
time purely passive, and only begins to 
orgnuiso those impressiona into knowledge 
latpr on. In truth the reception of an 
extprnal imjircsainn only amounts to true 
acciuisition when it is conipleted at the 
time by a repnxluction of past iniprea- 
iiionsanda rudimentaryprocessof clalKira- 
tion. (.S'm AcquiNiTios of KsowLnufiK.) 

Electricity. — The questions we slmll 
Bi't oursLdvcs to jinswi-r in regard to thi* 
subject are : What are the jdace and pur- 
pose of electricity in education, and how 
should it be applied 1 The rw^ent rapid 
and immense development of electrical 
Kcience should justify the «ug^«;«l\«ni iA 

thmtc qur-stimi)!. No bmnoli of liutimii 
knnwl(id;in pvft iiirulo pnicli ni[ii<I utridi-a 
as tliiii on« : none of thi- forfi-s of outuri} 
which hu.\'i? htvii f(iil))UKutt-(l tu Uii^ £er- 
t iL'i- of II1II1I biiv^ tTi au short u time f^wn 
from pi^'iiit^s to ^antB, arii} none dow 
tnake such promlsBS, or seem to possess 
such potixQtialities for future scrvico as 
thoso which aro produced hy nipaiis of 
eltH7tric!ity, Although it is trmi that th<! 
Nul)Jl^ct9i which nro to forrn th<! Jnictru- 
miMitH i>f iHlucation inunt hr m-ic-cted on 
account of thdr utility ai dUci[)!int>N of the 
mind, wul not siiiiply lie(!nuai-' of thirfr 
practical apjilicatioiia in tJn- busiiieaa of 
life, yet it has ooine to be accepted as an 
axiom amongst tcacliere that where two 
studies serve the aame purpose iu educa- 
tion, tluit one should be preferrrd which is 
ths more directly useful. Th<^- gi-npral 
purpOM of sci«ncn in wlilcntion is to cul- 
tivnt.)^ in the ntudi'nt an intpUitfent atti< 
tudf! of niiiid in reliition to thit tliiiigH luid 
phi-tioniiTna almut him, and to givi' liiin 
ubility t« ohirrrve and iMcaininp tlieiii, to 
d^crtbe and rt-iL»'iji about tiioiii, ti con- 
trol anil use tliPiii. Whi^ii I'Kiki^l at in 
the li;>ht of thin, tlie science of elec- 
tricity possesses uiaiij features which n'^e 
it a. ctaiin to the fort'niusl jiluce ftition;,'8t 
what are known ns the phjsical sciences. 
It is rea<Iily aysteDiatised : it presents at 
every st^ip laws to be traced out and 
verified, and the couneutious of these l»ws 
constitute some of the beet eicamplcs of 
ecientihc reasoning. Uence, the t«noh- 
ing of electricity hns ceased to lie a mure 
Inntiiro-room exhibition of tricks and star- 
tling eftects, and has become a veritable 
■oience. It can tin ciininii'nc4>d without 
much [imliininnry drill, for it has no [>e- 
culiar and »|«>cial alphiil)i?t of its own. 
If mai;iietiau] be iiiclude<l in Oiia science 
of electricity, the upparutuii required for 
the first ex|]eriineiitH is of the stiiiplest 
kind, and the ex)>eniuent8 at Brat are 
such as a child can perf<jnu and can 
understand. Vet the results obtained with 
this simple app.aratHS are not to lie pre- 
dicted without es^ierimeiit, and they afford 
simple but comprehensive illustrations of 
the nature and construction of natural 
laws. At the same time, in every part of 
the subject tiiere is always soniethiiig to 
leam, sind the things in it which evon n 
child rony understand lie very near to 
other things wliic.h nj*- too deep for the 
iii'>.r ; iM found pbolaeoplier. 

Again, this science has intimate 
ncctions witli all otiurr nifinbtTni ot 
group of phyKical scaeiMea 
dynauiics, heat, light, sound, and cl 
try. Indeed, if these are tjreated Iml 
handmaidens or attendants on eJec 
science, designed to be called up and 
used only when required forthe assistanw 
of their chief, there will l>c fdW, if any. at 
tho main attrihut'M of any one of thes 
which can rnrnain unknown. 

Anothl^^point which should nvomineDd 
It for school and college use is tlial it is« 
Diatlieuiatiua] science utittaiiig tlie whok 
range of uiatlieniatics, from tht- iiii(iplf»l 
form of equation to the highest efibrtsnf 
analysis. It serves, tIi«refore,a8astiniiiliii 
to mathematical studies by creating a de- j 
niand for a knowledge tA matheinaticsl ^ 
processes. In attempting to put eloctrit 
principli^ bpfore the general student, Uio 
fact that these principli-ji are cmMitiallf , 
of a matheniaticnl cbaractiT should merit 
be ignored. It in true that in apj^icatwo* 
of pleclricity, as in applicntioiui of mft'i 
chanics, the student ia often able to f 
mn^.'O appiiratua with which many ounoaS 
phenomena may be observed without biSi 
having much knowledse of eleetncal or 
mevhauical magnitudes ; hut tli«re can b« 
no doubt that there ia an iuuneiiM waste 
of time and knowledge due to attempts of 
tliiskiud. Indeed, itmay belaid dowuasa 
general rule for electrical students that Iw 
who has not a quantitative knowledge ol 
the principlca of electrical science will 
only waste his time in making origiiwt 

Finidly, it is by dissnminating an ao- 
curate knowledge of what has Iwi-ii already 
established tliat further imjiortant acnnisi- 
tions may be secured. It is not only bf 
the study of the few, but also by tlM' inlel- 
; ligent observation of the many, Uul (he 
most recent discoveries have beim brooight 
about. It is by the spread of fiduoation 
among the masses of the people tliat we 
are hastening the discovery of new civilis- 
ing agents. The history of electrical en- 
gineering during tlie last fifteen years is 
one of the best illustrations that can lie 
given of the fart, that for many people 10 
have HOTiip knowledge, however low iii l«vd 
it may lie, is aii neceiNiry to the develop- 
ment of discnvi'ry aa for a few people to 
have greater knowlnlgp, liowrver high in 
leval it may be. F»r all Uinv raasoM 
togethrr electrical scituicc deaervea tin 



Bnt plac« in tlie school aod college science 
Coufw, and wben one bnnoh uiily in Uktm 
Ifcb aliould be the one. 

As regards tli« method of t«iichiDg, ue 
mu6t Rrnt ivmnrk that tlie liest order 
for cluciiinting the principles of tilts and 
kiniirpd »cicni-i^ is, mk n nile, the histori- 
nl ohIm' of di*covciy, 'J'he facts that nre 
fint foundinonlrrof titnrni-n tliOKi^%vhii;h 
He mmt poljinbli- und lie- ncnrrnt to hniid - 
«bil«, ou the i)liicr hiuid, tlio discovei-ifji 
tf reoeot yean are dnmn fram tlio more 
iailricat« phenoineiut, whith n-t|uiri? to be 
smrefaed atuv. Bui thJH urdi-ruf difvulop- 
Meat is often ex»cily tlie revf^rau of tie 
aiier of iin[H>rtaDce and utility ti& rej^ai-da 
ih* purposes of life ; nor is the order of 
fiK0T«i7 nlwRVji identical with » logical 
ttnntEt'tiK^nt. \W ttiny tj»ke account of 
diii diflVmnc« hy firnt expounding to be- 
f^nem tin- prinoiplr-s of nloctricn! scieneo 
in ihnr htHtorical wiiucncc, ftnd then with 
1DVe Bdvaucnl Htuili-ntA fansuking thnt 
^Ui aiul dMiliii)- with thn uppl lent Jans of 
•iMricily to tiiduAtrinl lift-, nccording to 
their importance for tlie tiliit! bt-ing niid 
for (lie immediate purpose. 

The imponmioe of allowing tlie stu- 
drnts to make for themselvrs actuid *:x- 
ptrinienta fi-oni the first cannot be over- 
niifi. At first the experiments will nefes- 
Mrilv be puivly qualitative, but as soon 
aip:eeRbfe, and as oft«n as possible, they 
Aodbl bi- qnanlit^t.ive. This science, if 
[topiTly trr^ti-d, Bti'ords /ibtirKiiint oppor- 
tuniti« for drfiiiitriifss, ami no other 
lOHicc ftiraUluiK w) iniinr 'piantitics ad- 
ftittrne of exact mi-iiAiirfmont. Fnrces of 
[■in and rp|mlMon of mngm-ts and 
; I'lnJ Ijudii-B, (juantiti™ of beat dn- 
nkfiMl byele<:trt«ly,p|eL-tro-nifif.iv(?forco, 
tiftntiev of potential. rftsj»tJiticrt, cum-nt, 
opacity, lines of force, niaRuetiwitiriti, 
dkenucml affinity— all these ai-e ini^iur- 
tiit, am) not only can they be rmniitiiK] 
•ftiMt, but calculations can be mad« aljout 
ttm vith as much certainty as calcula- 
(tao> in dynamics. 

Yonng a« thin it(neiic« is, teachers have 
matarrd wvi-ral mcthoiU for renderin;* 
Mdrr the comprchrnsion of tl)e maanin^fH 
of tnmiK, nnd tin- prti^ntioii by the memory 
et thm relation U-lwH-n the diflerent elec- 
triod qanntitifs. Tlii; use of the analogy 
(vtwren a llow of elBctridty and a flow 
o( vatn" ti an exiunpli'. ThiK analogy 
has been made aan of in the following 

The analogy lietween potential and 

The pressure of water and tlie E. M. F. 
of electricity. 

Tlie law of dividing currents and the 
theory of Wheatson's Kridgo. 

The action of a (triinime collector ftnd 
the union of a double flow of water. 

The water analogy in umtfiil, becaul^(^ 
tiverybody has fairly exact notiiiim aliout 
wtttt-r, and bivmuse, within cprlJiiti liniita, 
the analnRy is «. true one. The fullowing 
t«blt! by Professor Pony gives it more 
f «Uy :— 


]. Sienm-pump burii§ 
riinl ■ml lifta waur t» u 
hi^h IcvoL. 

flliioiint of wntFr llttisX 
+ ililTuri'iiiW iif levi'l. 

II ir oe let nil ihc 
»ati*r tliivt a»nf tlirocinh 
n ^haotiKl ttt A Liintvr Ifx'rl 
wllhoui UoiBK work, lii 
"iiK'tf^y in iiU iNfiivvfd'il 
iii'o liMl bwKUM of frtiv 
itond Tcalalaocc of tba 
pipd ur clianD*!. 

4. If wa kl varinrork 
It hoiiit u wdl II dmr 
UiioiihIi diaiitifli, iMi 
wndir fli>ws tlmn btfims 
Iran yiowfr It watlcil la 

!t. Udkjvi-c lona ninl 
uhrrow K\ny l>^ tfii.' hIiiiq- 
n^iL, wilier nuiy ba 
lirtiiff'it fniEii Any ilii^ 
tiDcc. Lowcver cr«at, to 
f;ivi' nut itlituitiT. nil ttii 
iinciiml i-nnrijj-toii IioikI. 
Tliiui:4UtriMn jjo'iit litiicl 
hiilI HmnU <|iiiiiiTiC.r "i 

H, !r H piiLiiLi iinirliiuwi 
■ xrry alow. conliDuoiiB 
l!ip» .jf WdHu 111 nil I'nJ 
l'"^ [ii|n' whic)i lEiiiy, Of 
may tiotn wurk walci. 
|iriwjtiini ^iiuMii'H hy ilii 
inull'tn. the i^x^rk il^nt on 
iiYfrv piiiiiicl vT wnli't 

cjilU'il till' ti>i«l avnll- 
jE]ili<[kMiLl,n])iJ ii JM (;ii-;tit<T 
Thfli] rlip jjrtatcfl dilliLT. 
»i]c'ii uf |ir«vuni HlBwrv- 
thlp briKtTn nllv (wo 
|)uiii1fi in Ulu c'iri^uit. 


1. G™(f«viiliurn«iiino, 
or UK* moolEAnlcjil power. 
AhtJ hfi* vlu'[rii:ity to A 
higher Ivvt'l or potoritiii], 

/. KiiiT;y flviiilabiu in 
ftmoimt "f i<tt-rlni-ilr 
4 4ll1i?r?l)<'' «l polpDIliil. 

fl. If im Uii ull IliK 
eli't'trti'ily flow tJirniiir'i « 
¥.in' ftoiii one icn-'W of 
our (fi'ovmtor tolli'titlitr 
wiilii ut doln^ H-Dik. all 
tlin vlruCrical ancrgy 1» 
connrtol iuM bvM bo- 
en dm of ndilanco of ibo 

1. [f we let onr tiM- 
tridt7 wnrk a aiachln* 
u wetl u £vw thronub 
wim, ItH llnwi thna bo- 

Itiroui^h tlic mlBtaDl:^ of 
till" wirv. 

6. Ilowtfvpr limit nixl 
thill lilt wire, ma}- bo. 

iilpi'tri'-ilytimy rmliriiUMht 
fniui aoy diitiDCr, huw. 
vvnr ^r^'iit, to ffJt''^ oul 
nlmoot ill iu 'iiininnl 
cniijcy lo a mai^hlnc. 
Thip r1:'l|llln>^ n k"^xi A\U 
fcroiioo o( jiiiIciitiEiti nnd 
a <iimlJ I'lirri'itL 

ti, if n ^cJier»tor pfv- 
(Iiii:!* n Hiiw ur ului'iilvlty 
In ■ cirvuii uliii'li iiii>y, 
ur litav not, woik ■:l«'?Tra- 
Biot'^r-. Ibf mi^rjo- if'mn 
lui-vcrvusitqimiitily {or 
rnllloiutrl 'if liliwllicity 
p-iulDi; ilirnujjh iIm'UTHi*^ 
rmoi i" callcil ilio I'U-tiro- 
iiioIivF {iirrf '•( ilm k''"<i- 
ralut, nnJ it la erwVr 
lllAO llir iiri'nini UiHur- 
uavc of poiojitial obnvrv- 
Hhiv biilwiviii anv twa 
jMiolJ In <hr ririTuIt. 


Many uiWTful associations of iilcax hnve 
Itet'ii udupted lui nmemonice to aid in the 
rt-tcntioii of the facta and laws of ijlec- 
Irioity, ami it may be coiK^luded that the 
men* the alcill of. the Teacher is combined 
witJ) tliat of itie expt-ritnen'teT Uie f;R«.\AC 



will be the use of thfi science in iMlocntion, 
and thp motv rnpidiy will n, kjiowlmlge of 
it Kprcjifl ainoii^: ihe fteople. 

Elemeniary Schoola. Sbi Codb and 


Elocation i^oiuists iu tlie perfectly 
auilible, distiuL-t. pure, and etreetive pi'o- 
HunciiLliou wliicli la ^veii to wordg when 
they are ari'aiijjed into eeiit«iiceB and form 
written or extemporaneous composition, 
either in the shape of prow or poetry. It 
cM^mprrhenda tliri npproprintn inflections 
And moduliitions of the Epeakioj; voice, 
the proper pauses iind ri^ht iliscriuiiiuiitioii 
in degn'BS of emphiisis, notation of i^uan- 
tity, aiui due ol)8f rvantt- of the pliyeiologi ■ 
L'al law of poiar^ ; and it is (considered good 
when it espresses tlie aeusL- of the words 
employed in an easiiy iiitelU^ilile manner, 
and gives at the same time all the beauty, 
force, and VHriety of which such words are 
susceptible. Hence we may say that the 
art of elocution consists of a, sysW.m o-f 
rules which teach U8 to pn>iionniV! written 
or extemporaneous winijMisitton with just- 
tiess, tcucrgy, l>t>auty, varii^ty, and ease ; 
and as thus delined the art was largely, 
and with enthuaiaaiu, studied by the 
Greeks and Rinnans, to which study in a 
great measure we owe some of the finest 
pieces of ancient oratory extant. They 
lUstiuguished the various qualities of elo- 
cution by simple epithets, such ns smooth, 
clear, slender, full, flowing, flexible, sharp, 
rigid, and hoarse ; and designated the pitch 
of vocal sounds by the term accent, rank- 
ing three kinds of acceuta — the acute, the 
grave, and the circumflex, which signilied 
Bevernlly the rise, tlie fall, and tlie tuni of 
the voice, or union of acute and grave on 
the aanie syllable. Tliey did not, liow- 
ever, go much lieyond this, and it was left 
to modern iuquuers to give that clear and 
full description of the elements of speeeli 
on which any attempt at full and satisfac' 
tory instruction can be founded. The 
subject has in our day been minutely, and 
iu some respects satisfnctiorily, analysed. 
The speaker should always l>e natural ; 
and the best means to accomplish this end 
ia to have confidence, courage, and fre- 
qUMit pnwTtice. Keshonid roail frequently 
ijoud, and declaim occasionally in the open 
air. Ikidily exercises arc also of great 
advnntnge, as everything that tends to 
Uic improvement of the health has a cor- 
nwponding influence upon the voice. All 
«xceH(w,howcror,aro injurious, and should 

be avoided ; thus the voice should bf 
ercised with ctire when it is breaking. 
imraediiitely after meuls, or »hcii hi 
although a, alight cold often improve* 
raucous nuolity of tlie voice. Wines 
spirits are also injurious ; and it should 
added that tlie simplest and best remi 
for a Uiirst when speaking is n glaM 
cold water with a little gum arnbic i 
solved in it. It is a mistake for a Kpml 
to tliink that he is heard wtM^n 
speaks loudest, for such E^ienking is i 
agreeable in itself, and extremely fat), 
ing lioth to tlie speukt^r and tfae ' 
When the natuml extent of voice in 
ditiary conversation ia not sufficient, 
speiiker should extend that lone, but 
serve the usual key. Weaknessof tbevoii 
is always overcome by loud and forci 
expulsion from the glottis of the vaiioi 
vowel sounds. There must also be disti 
articulation. This depends on thw cl 
enunciation of certain elemmit* 
usually crinsnnants, which may be 
rally descrilied as certain modes of 
ing, ending, or interrupting vowel sound. 
Sounds and articulation of u similar fori 
lion should not be allowed to coalesce, 
e.g., the classical illustration of MilUin'i 
attack on Bishop Hall's Itncfi each. Di»' 
tinctness requires that each sound sh. 
be completed before another is begun. 
at tlie same time that the end of the o: 
and tlie beginning of the other shall 
made so quickly that whUe the separa' 
is distinctly eflected, contintiity may 
be broken by any pause. It has 
suggeatJ^I that this may be aroided by 
slight downward action of the tower ji 
which, seporatiiig the parts that produ 
the articulation, will Icuve Uiciii at perfi 
liberty for tlie utteriuice of the sump, or** 
similar sound. Important wonix or pun- 
sages, again, should be eniphasin^ by their 
fon-ible expulsion from the chest. Ai 
tention should also be paid to inflexioi 
which are tones of speech prooeediti^ 
slides from one note to another. ~ ' 
iutlexions indicate BUspeDsion, doubt, un- 
cei-ttunty, or incompleteness of sense, whili 
falling inflexions indicate conviction 
completion of sense. Itut no speaker 
lie aauoce-sa without gesture, which shoi 
be siniple, pleasing, varied, and, above 
graceful. Ue should suit his action, 
to the word, but to the idea. His gc«tu 
should always aeconipany the c^xpressioD, 
and should never bi- ntotm frnquunt 


'^BIn^*T of Id«as. In » word, Ihft 
!er sliould alw&jra remBtulttr Ihul lie 
a be beard, to be underatood, und to 

linotiOu(TIic)ar«n variety of the fe@l- 
that is to Riy, thosi" oliJing"% or affep- 
of thi* fniiid which utr rhaniiTtcriKpH 
[rornhlRti<>.N> or its opnositR, mid which 
rammod up iindnr the fntniliiir nnti- 
II |ilrautur<! iind iiitin, uitiiifaotian mid 
tntfnictioti. hapjnnvaic uiul tniMiry. Of 

I BKTvettble and diHURn-eiibl^ uiental 
K tnera are two divjgious: (1) thoae 
Kted with the bodily life tind resullin^' 
tly from the action of some nerve or 
m, «s the foelings of hont, oold, hun- 
and thint, Ihv jiU-svuurpn of colour, 
i,tv.-, and (2) those which nro thp 
It of iii«nta] activity, as the feeliug rif 
^ttd*:, revrrpnci', remorse, .l-c. Th^ 
dirinon am inarkrd off as St'tisc-ff*!- 

, Ute aeooiid a* EmotioiiB. The emo- 
) ahow A certain ordpr of develupiueiit, 
sh in ^ueral corre^spondg with th« 
ie ct mental activity involved. Most 
b« chamcteristic emotions — as fear, 
IT, love, &c. — mnnifost thomseives with 
R or lou distinotncwi within the period 
ifaney. OtJinrJi, ngnin — -ati the fueling 
isticc, the lovo of truth— Iwlong to a 
r pnriod. Thn fivlings that arc dcvp- 
d first am thost' which suliaervp tho 
><if ««ilf-prwiTvation. To th« properly 
ttia tcriinffi thero tucci^c^l the pumr 

II of aocia) fmding, vh. ilisinU^rcstRd 
^n for i>Uii?r*, sympathy, mid Ijphi'- 
noe. The cultivation of the emotions, 
A proceeds partly by uioderatiiif; the 
snce of early passion and by keepin),' 
egoistic feelings within due bounds, 
ily by exercising and devolopiog the 
ler ODOtions, is one of tho most iiupor' 
>and yiet most ditticult departmonts of 
mtion. It« impoftBnop arises, first of 
from thft cimumiitiinii! that feeling, 
e in itH mon^ I'Xcititl fnnns a surinuK 
ado to int«ll«ctuul activity, is iit the 
» tinn the xole *ourc« of what we mil 
nuit in study; and, m-utndly, from the 

thai tolling suppliiw the inct<ntive to 
m. Mid that riylit L'ondu<.-t is only pos- 
! wber« there is a preponderance of 
lu|[li«r feel ill jip over the lower. While 
educator has thus to ^ve special coii- 
rmtion to the feelinas in connection 
kwitliinlellectmil and moral education. 
mIcb more espeaally, in what we call 
^ culture, to cultivate the feelings 

for thitir own sukrt, i.e. as n source of re- 
fined and Inating enjoyment, (.SV,t JEsthk- 
TIC CuLTcnB.) The special ditliculty in 
euiotiunal culture la due to the gresit 
diflerenc«a of temperament and "natural 
sensibility among children, and to the 
circumstance that the dovelopmerit of an 
emotion is a gradual process implying the 
co-oppration of experience, association, and 
internal reflection. ProlHibty, the most 
profound influenc-e exercised by an rdiiea- 
tor on the emotions of liis pupil, is by way 
of sympathy and unconscious imitation. 
A child insensibly tends to enter into and 
reproduce those modes of feeling which it 
sees habitually manifested by those about 
it ; and where there are love and respect 
for the tj'ftcher this tendency to take on 
nnother's feeling becomes rtiinforced by 
the magnetic attraction of example. (AVtt 
IwlTATIOS.) {See Bain, Ediicition lu a 
.SVi/'Tici'.chap. iii.; J. Sully, TcnchrT^sIInnd- 
biiok, chap, svi,, and Schmid's Bncydo- 
padif, article '(Jefiihlsbilduiig.') 

Empirical Method.— By the phraan 
empirical knowledge, is meant knowledge 
gained by esperience and observation only. 
It contrast* with scientiticorratioiial know- 
ledge which has been carefully ascertained 
by scientilic methods of reasoning. The 
larger part of human knowledge has been 
first acquii-eil as empirical, and is only gra- 
dually liecoming transformed into rational 
by a process of Hcientilic explanation. In 
this way, for example, the succession of day 
and night, and of the seasons, the effects M 
foods, poisons, itc, on the human organism, 
were phenomena long known as a matter 
of obseri-atioii, before tliey were deduced 
from scientific laws. As the human race 
has necessarily progressed from empirical 
to rational or reasonable knowlwige, those 
who. like Mr, Spencer, maiutjiin tliat tlie 
mrnt«l developraoiit of the individual 
should follow that of the race, would urge 
that the natural and sound method of 
teaching is tirst of all to exercise the 
child's mind in the accumulation of a storo 
of empirical generalisations, and only to 
take it on to a higher and truly scientific 
knowledge of natum's operations when thfl 
rtNxsoning faculty is more fully developed. 
(Compare articles Mbtiiod and EvoLU- 


Emnlation may he briefly defined a« 
the desire to surpass or excel another in 
any exploit fitted to brinji; honour. It is 
thus closely related on the omi sid*; to 



nmhition, or the dewm for nmini'iitM) luid 
dittiiicUuii (>>:« Hosoi'R); und on Uinothdr 
Ui riviilry or the desire Ui iJi-fiut uiiotli«r 
for tlit^ Hjike iif ibe pleasure o( victory a.ntl 
of Bu[ii-riority. So far as the lulti<r {HmDniil 
Caeliu;; li^comes conspicaous i-uiuliLtiuu de- 
geaerateg ioto a disliiiclly anli-sociH,] and 
■Uftlerolpnt fooling. In what is connnonly 
understood by emulation, however, ns dis' 
tinnt from piv«lry, tlio fei-ling of per- 
tmnui nntn^niftin ui not iillowcd to Hho 
into ctfMir oomtcioiiHniatx, and the tlioughtA 
nro lixod on the coveted hoiiuur. As 
apjHnliiiK to one of the stroagent fnellnga 
iit liuumii iiiiture, emulation hus always 
held a prominent place among the fuives 
of the oducator. It is the natural tiixom- 
paniuent of th«i toAching of numt«rs, as 
illiist.ratfld in placp-tftking, pme- winning, 
and so forth. Its utility as a motive is 
grently diminished by the circumstnoco 
that it nlf(ict« a comjiarntivn few only^ 
tJuit is, the mort) forwai'il mi^mlxTS of thn 
cUuu, and Ikuvc!! juit tho.ii' uiiniovi'd wlio 
most of uJl re()uin' Htimulus. lu additiim 
to this it must Ije b»riie in mind that tlio 
situation of comf-etitioii or contest alwu-ys 
tends to develop a. feeling of antagonism, 
and is pretty certain t« do so where the 
contest is lierLt- and prolonged. Hence, 
vbile a large employment of this motive, 
us iji tlie system of the Jesuits, may favour 
the development of habits of industry, and 
a spirit of self-reliance, it tends to the 
formation of a selfish and unsympivthetic 
type of cltaractCT'. So far us tho motive 
is made use of by the teacher, everything 
mtut he done to discoiiruEe the feeling 
of pirrsonal utitiiganistn, and to direct tlio 
tlioughlH iif th(' comprtiVir to thi) worth 
of tlie diHtinution in nnil for itself. (Sen 
Bain, Education, an a Scwji/k, pp. 74 and 
1 U ; Sully. Teoch^4 Uaiuihook, p. 380.) 

Endowed Schools. See Geaumab 

England and Wales (Education in) 
Sue CoitE; LawIEdl'cational); Instruc- 
Tios (CoriiSE or), and Wm.!«ii EnrcATiON. 

Enelirfi (The Study of).— Under the 
Ijeneral heading * English ' there is com- 
monly included a surjirising variety of 
matters, some of whirh eoiild not have 
found their way thnre exrtrpt ns the rt>- 
sult of curious hiatorienlnci-idi-nls^'hicriy 
of contrasts. Ai np]ui.ii'il to closaicK, or 
'Morlem Lan^agcs,' 'Knglisli' is ofti^u 
hekl to compriso history— even tlio history 
of Greece and Romc.tuid ;i[ttO|;>^pby (phy- 

sical as witll as political), and «ren 
luetic. We must limit the Appticatji 
Looking lirst to the i-h'tui'iitary trcatmi 
of ttie mothi^r-toujjm; \i\ primary 
we observe tiiat cltlldren coni« to 
study of EukHsIi with a oertAin 
quired speech, In te.uning Rbadixo (^.1 
they are gradually led to recofiuiae 
written or printed forms iJiat 
the sounds witli which they are a) 
fikiniliitr, ok n'pn'.snntiitg varieties of mi 
iiij( ; iind they nicn-ano their vocabi 
The tirat steps am hy no mtnUH ouiy. 
one mtftJiod, culled the 'Louk-anu- 
MgtiIod (f.tT.), they aft- uucuxtomcd to 
pi'ehend at once a. uluster of letters 
representing a particular meaning; 
take tlte words as wholes, without 
attempt to resolve them into Uieir comi 
nent letters or syllables. By auoi 
method they are gradually trained 
a systematic series of examples of 
1-egulnr values of tho soveraJ vowelt 
uonsoiuints in the moat common typii 
combinations : a plun that bus l>cen 
out by Professor Murison witli much 
and complett.'ness in tlie Ulohe ReaJat, 
publishe(l by Messrs. Macmillan. Th» 
chief irregularities bein^i; found in tb8 
more common and shorter word*, bow- 
ever, it is unavoidable to introduce seme 
words at an early stage on the Look-ani- 
Say principle ; and no doubt a juiliciout 
mixture of the two methods, with llit 
LiMik-and-Say in the utmost feasible sub- 
ordination, is the iiest tliat coubl be da- 
vised. The Uecitatiux ig-v.) of |illlilMp»ti 
both of jioetry and |>roee, is a popidac 
ex«rdee in all schools : it truna tuA 
stren^hens the mtrmory, and cultivate* 
the taste, at the ouuie time storing the 
mind with memorable ultt'tmu'cji of moral 
as well as intetleetual value. H'riiittjf, in 
the sense of copying out paaantcrg, is aba 
a useful means of impressiiig tlu! youthfdl 
mind ; it conduces to aooora«y, wut it is 
especially helpful in acquiring ^nd fixing 
themoretrouhlesomebugbesLTaof SrELLixd 
(q.i',). This is the most, arduous of all the 
tnsliBof the school children^tomast«r tlie 
English Fipelljiig. The chief diSicultiea 
lie in the most common words: yei Uie 
exivptions to tho general rolee cao ht 
grouped into classi-s, and thus coDqnered 
easily in dt^tail. Nor are they so very 
numerous, or so very difli«nlt, as is fre- 
quently supposed. Many authontios now 
consider it is a most wasteful thing 


mnch time (wer tli« tiioulmtion of 

ntton&1s}w]liuss,sii<l urK>^ tlnil wli^n 

I l«Kc)>«T bas given a luodentle amount 

l9uti«n to th« matter l>v inMst^iice 

lAtfsiinilaritiRsof rUsscH of words, wjlJi 

. of iJwt coninmn Hiwmtlariliips, b" 

(doilR qBitrninu^li, 'ThiK rducntiioniil 

' "i.WjniProfi'JworMiirison.'hiuifxnRtcil 

I mittoiK triliuli' of worshij), which ought 

Qtobe Kuiti-nuUv diininiihwl forthwith.' 

AsttnmiiiK tint the pupil lviii n-od itiitl 

ito atul ap(-ll, «illi reu^tiubk QuiMu.-y 

accurac)-, we may now consider the 

lT*nMe« aod mecJuuusm of EDglisb speech. 

iTh" individual words maj be examined as 

t/i mr-inin^i it,ii<i tifriralinn. Obviously, it 

U iT'-'-'ntia) thnt thi< prrRiMt roranirtg, or 

ijn, in which k word is now ii»i>d, 

tip clvttriy ttppn'hciidrd ; the pm- 
ai; vtcisnittidFB tlirou^li whi*^h it miiy 
^tntcini will ulwava h.ivi- a, ctrrtJiin int«- 
, iittiiou^b ueoessarily an inftrrior tin- 
It will ajso be useful to dJs- 
ninatp words of the aiiiue form with 
oC mmniiigs, niid difTererit words 
mor<" nr If** simtlnr meaniit^s. In 
rivatioii, th*- main point is, to apprehend 
I fortnn — Iho pmcisi' nso of pn^lisesand 
tec, and the ocRiuiionnI inodllii'iitions 
! »owrl ; to tracfl iack the word, throufth 
I RhII<«b vnrit!tiM of nrhitrnry spHlii^i;. it 
■J" li«!, to Aiu/Ui-Sajiiin or poJSJiil'ly Siins- 
I krit root*, is an attnictivn (-X(-ri'i>>n tltnt 
«Uiit be jealouidy vr«li.-ln>d as ii c"'nt 'thief 
irf tuui?.' ■Hki niuin ohi(n:t is to know the 
Aoderu nsaK". Thi* discriiniiiiition of 
' lynonynu, it sbouLd Iw uddcil, is fur too 
tjil to be pursued into uiiwarrmitiiLlt- 
huT^spUttlD^ : for all purpciacH, thi' yuuii^ 
)«pil sbould be sAtJ^lied with the broad 
1 iiD<)D(«tMaable distiurtioiia. 
I ClRSJtHAB (7.i!.)deal8 more particularly 
the putting lojnJtJier of words in 
I Mntmcet. It« proiinoe is not very ri- 
skily liniit«<l. On thonni? hn.nd it usually 
I Mdodm dnrivntioR, whiln on the Other 
Jlpniw r mori! or Iras into compdsition, itti 
nan pnmliiir ■nlijix'tj* bding /'nrnnff, or 
th» df-linitiou aih) chuailiimtion of th(! 
'Putaof S|>«sdi.' Kiid AsAi.vnm (7.U.), or 
ibfBeiNiration uf teiitenum into their c^mi' 
fot«nt loi^iubi^ri, and t]io coniddcnitioa of 
lb* preciwf retations of Bui-h mi'iuliTs. 
On^iet of (•nu>iBariaus,r(*pn-Hi-nl<.>d chti-Iiy 
'7 I>r. Richard Morris, would miike it Iho 
Bain purpose of gruiiiitiar to Imve. bauk 
t^zraramatical forma to tli««arliust tiiuea. 
nitian iurwtigation is no doubta proper 

wxirk for a si-Iiolar, nn<Tt1ieTSi3mgpracti»uil 
results ou;;lil to !«• embcxiit-d in English 
gmromars that profess to go any iliKlanco 
into details. liut, after all, tlie tirst ob- 
ject of the teacher of grammar ooi-h t aarely 
tn in' to present it as it stands at this pre- 
mint day;all rjrenrsions into the past bping 
Bi'viTt'iy r['jcnlat*'d m-.Tirding t^> the tii>io 
and future carrer of thepnrlipular«tmjent«. 
Tlie Liigii-al training to l)e obt^iini-d thrnngh 
grammar is sorm-whut dehwivi'; still, tho 
dctinitiuTis, (.-laastUcationEi, and distinctioits 
ouglit to be presentLid as logically as |mm- 
siblc Thocrabtied nomenclature of gniia- 
mar is, at best, repulsive to the young 
pupil, This difficulty, however, may be 
got rii'M- by ejHrrclsingtho pupil svsteraati- 
ciilly in tlie interchanges of all the c(|ui- 
vab-nt forms of fxpreiaiou in h'ngllsh. 
'The pupils,' aay* Professor liiiin, 'are thu« 
avcustouied to weigh itvi-ry expression that 
comes Ix'fore tlieni. and tins t take to bt- 
tbe beginning of the art of composition.' 
The syst^rm bas the importAut advantage 
of boing teachable from the very start of 
grnmniatic^ tnuniog up to tbe most ad- 
vnncod composition, as well as of oxercising 
the iniiida of pupils at every stngo in ths 
wmential luiittiT in the whol" study — the 
woighing nf a)I fnmis of expression with a 
view to tho intcilljgi-nt selection of the 
fitti'st, (.SVn ProfcKsor Slurison's f'imt 
Wori in Erir/Un/i : Longmans,) The prac- 
tict'of i'ltrity/iriifiny is now coiidemiicd 'an 
tbe itioat ileplora^ily desecrating and exu 
crable tliat could have Va-on seriouMly pro 
posed;' it will hardly be able tosurviv« tbo 
astounding reports of tbe Uovemment In- 
spectors of iSehools— notably, Mr. Matthew 
Arnold's cxporionce (187"J) with 'Canst 
thou not minister to a mind diseased]' 
and 'Now witi^hcraft celebrates.' 

In higher schools, and for public or- 
ntiiinations (e.g. I'niversity lineal l^xanii- 
natiiins), it is usual to prescribe a play of 
Shakespcarp or some of llacon's Essayn, or 
Rimilar selections of prose and versn. Tim 
(|ueMtion then arises; What is the pupil to 
do witli it! Tlie answer is given in tho 
iiutus to BOlu" popular edition. Tahtt, for 
t^xaniple, the ulitions of the Clarendon 
Press— and the sauje remarks will apply, 
tuore or leas, to most other editions of a 
less elaborate characler. What do we 
find 1 In the words of Professor Itain, ' dis- 
cussions of anii'iuarian grainniar, idiom, 
and vocabulary ; changes in the use of 
particular words; explanation of figuta- 

tivB ^an^Sr^tsn'''^^*^"'^ '^^ doubtful 
l-Trg-t :' snd BO [i^rlh. 'Vnry tittl« 
alttMitiuii is um&Uy ^iveu to tliti uutliur's 
nierita uud defects, which are eqiially cun- 
Bpicuous, and er|ually instructive.' So 
with Ba«on, or with Miltoo. There is no 
question of th* ability of tho writer, or of 
the importance and interest of his work ; 
but tho trnntmcnt ik fnr ivtinovi'd fmm 
modfrn Ktylr, niid it in iilincixt wholly txul 
CKamjilc, and t!ip matt^^r iUelf mijftit W 
protitiibly replaced by more uiodern <-(>in- 
positionit. 8uoh e*Ulioiia ou(;l>t to t>e u«*hI 
ui private Htudy ut a later sta^e. The 
time of the pupil at §oliool ought to he 
dii'ected to the great practical purpose of 
discriminating b<>tween tlip good and bad 
in composition ; in tho words of Dryden : 
'to nnderstand thi? purity of English, and 
critically to discern not only goiKl writers 
from bud, and a propiT style from u cor- 
rupt, but alsci to distiiiguiah tlmt wliiL-h is 
pure in n, good author froni tha,t wliich is 
vicioiiB and corrupt in hiui.' 

The time of the pupils is so limited that 
the teacher Is bound to consider: (1) what 
can and what cannot lie taught; and (2) 
what it is more profitable to teach and 
what it is wise to omit. In other words, 
wliat is the best he can do for his pupils, 
that his pupils cannot conveniently do for 
themselves I Koepingthc practical end of 
good compositioii stfadily in view, he can 
evercise them in gmmmaticnl coiiEtructiou, 
with the right applirution of words and 
idioms, and tin* [H-culiitritii^s of syritax. 
I^lsaing into thn iMinlcrlatid lietwet-ii grura- 
miir nnd Rhetobic{7.i'.), he enters Uieex- 
tnuirdinurily profitiible field of arrange- 
ment or order of words. The fij^ures of 
sjieech ought ta be well studied in a care- 
fully clioseu series of examples ; the chief 
iiildlectua! i.|uatities of style (simplicity, 
clearness. energy.oriniprcHKiveneRs) require 
long practice, and tho emotional qualities 
reach forward into the highest criticism 
Uid practice. Without this preliminary 
training, it is ventnresinie to emiinrk on 
any of the large forma of componitiun — 
description, narration, exposition, per- 
suasion, poetry, tientus can no doubt 
overleap intiirmediat* barriers, but even 
genius would hn all the betU-r for the dis- 
cipline of continuous many-Bided study. 
In f.Mai/ writing, the com]Hisition exereiae 
in hnmfiemi by the totally extraneous en- 
i^rcisn of litidmg the necessary material 
and nuuiti^rinx it for use. In tlils form of 

English «xerci«c mon: thnn in sjiy , 
it is necessary to dincrimiiiAte the se* 
elejnents of the performaiicu, wid to i 
learners a^ far ua puattibte fmm wnfl I 
cannot reaauuahly be regarded nsiint 
iulo training in Eugliiili style. Aitd 
is much scope for simplification; fu 
stance, there ought to be a clemr sep 
tion of the various kinds of comp 
— if the eJiercisfi be description,* letj 
student keep clear of exposition ; if i 
narrative, limit him rigidly to nsmti 
aiidsoon. There ou^dit to liemuchMS 
and great ueuuired facility in simple i 
positions betore undertulcing tlin 
complex efforts. 

The field of English LiCeralttn 
sore puzzle to those among us who d« 
enlarge the appreciation of Knglish,iill 
form of 'Mdiooror'Trip«M' in the Ui' 
sities. What is a professor to tfiach 
the name ' English Litcnaturn' ? Tbel 
guage of bygone centuries would atway 
iissunied by him : presumably, tho 
standing of the old forms would 
philological ext'rcise, sepnnvtj!, and 
preliminary. The )}enuoat hisUffl 
authors, the succession of autlMn^ ! 
sulwtance of a poem or a pls.y, or a i 
te'r of a history--such matt*-™ as 
need no professorial ai(L Tlie true ■ 
of a pi'ofessor would seem tu tin in ' 
careful analysis of typicaj works, 
a view to displaying their qualit 
composition and as 'literature.' 
an art of literary anatomy. Both 
and student ought to come armed 
some such full analysis of litersrv fo 
SB may be found in the hr«t booka i 
rhetoric and composition, and the 
cation should then be madn, wmI 
liberal spirit. Professor Minto's Ma 
of Etu/Uiih Pnifc Compimilion and 
raetvrislicJt ^f Englinh PocU (Itiocki 
contain the finest «.<i:amples of such ' 
A less tangible, yet useful and sua 
line may be seen in Mr. K. G. Moull 
studies of Shakespeare's art. The 
knowledged leaders in criticism, past I 
presont, must of course be defer«nt' 
studied ; but the anonymous critioisan i 
current literature ought not to be folia 
without deliliera.ti' testing by the ligbl t-. 
well-ascertJiined principles. Thethiuyii 
to be grounded in principles, with an op0l 
mind to the possible trnnncending of law 
inti> higher jirinejple ; the gi<eal4wt i 
lies in a te:id«ncv to nanx>w crit 


, abovo all, the studctnt should le«ve 

tCKcher with two things— 'n strong 

I (br the study of I-'nglith, m xt^ndily 

I tioiMKIsly Aid jiidicinUKly iiiculcnti-d 

'to be anqiioni-hiililc, mtd in kind coiii- 

BHOahip wiUi Ulis, a wiiH' itnrl w«ll-triKd 

i» of diroctionN for tho iipplicutiou of 
■ lovB of English to thu fruitful aludy 
tt* incompsniblti lil^niture tu En;;lisli.' 
MpTtifwsarBaiu'itw'irka: BnrjUah 'irinii- 
Mr, EnylitA Ctnttpoiilion iind liliJ'Im-ir, 
d On Tojcfiiitff English (LongiuAns) ; 
tofcnorBIiiito's work«,as(ibov«>; I'rrfaco 
T'r..f.<oaor Mnrison's /Vr*( Wnrkin Eng- 
^'muu) ; Mr. K. O. MnultWs 

■r,.-^ .j—irf nl a Dramatie Arli»t {i'\a,ren- 
m Pr«8s) ; an nrticit! *0n th« TnLc!iiii;i: of 
ulish {Tim'L, May 18s7); Engliih J,it«- 
ttf*, and how to ttudt/ it (J'all Mall 

Envy i> » form of ill-will to another 
boon wu »e« to bti iu poaseaaioa of some- 
■tag which we ourselves desire, orntleAst 
punl a* worth possessing. It includes a 
nnsble feeling of discontent, and nt the 
mti time an impulse of malignity towards 
le |<enot) who exdt*'s this feeling. With 
nj must lie tafcrn ji'idnusv, whii:h is nnly 
a same foeling vioweil imm the other 
Ac While the pang of envy is excited 
r tlte sight of another's posspssing what 
t desire, jealousy is the vesiition iind 
iKke which nriso when wc icar that 
Mther will take from us, or slmre in, sciinc 
HWMion thftt we raliie, mure rgjieaiiiUy 
Wtber's lovfi or good opinion. This j>a8- 
gn is a well-iniirked chumotfrristio of u 
m ataga of menial devf<loptuent, us illus- 
atMl in ehildmn, in the backwui'd ruL-es 
t nankind, and aiuoiiK the lower amnml^i. 
\x ant! r4 tJie luoat repellent forms of 
e)Gihn'-S!i, aiwl na the most fiuitful eource 
I luting haCreil, the impulses of envy 
bd jmIousv iu the child need to be cnre- 
iQj watched and repre^^d. Where there 
I a ftron^ natural inclination to envious- 
Ksa, special hend must be tnkon not to 
DTfuiy occasion for the outburst of the 
Klingbiy tli«I«astsenibUTir«of pnrtinlity 
)tfc« dispensing of oarcsses, favours, or 
^^■pi of cornmi>n<liiti(tn, It has lm>n re. 
^Hbtd by MixK f-lilgrwiirtJi ihikt 'ohildivii 
*1io hav« the nio«t lively syinpiithy (i.e. 
Wufhility to others* good opiiiiiin) are, 
**Ib> thny bft Judicinusly nluaited, the 
*l in danger of fti-ling ivirly tlie mule- 
lent pAwions of jisilouiy una envy.' Aa 
node of witj-aocial feeling tlie iuipuliie 

to envy others can only be fully eradicnted 

by developing the social And kindly feel- 
ings. (On the jealousy of children so« 
Perez' Tkf Fimt Three Years o/Cfii/iliiooil, 
chap, v., also the same writer's L'Jiflvea- 
lion din U Brrcenu, cliap. vi. ; cf. Sdimid's 
Eiuiyfhipdd'ut, article 'Nfid.') 

Epidemic Diseases no frei|uently dia- 
orgimise school-work by reituciiij; the iit- 
teiiilunce that & study of their nature and 
mode of propayiition is of the highest 
importance to every teiieher. The chief 
epidemic diseases which are of importanco 
in connection with school-life a'-e acarlftt 
fever, diphtherin, smull-pox, otdckru.pox, 
menalss, Oermaa mejislcs, nititiips, and 
whooping .cough. Tlicsc nre utl extrenii-ly 
infectious, lutd upt to be sprHiid by the ctoaa 
intRn.'oinmuniciition occurring in sdiool- 
life. The following rules may help the 
tencher in taking action in any doahtful 
case: (1) If a child appears at school with 
a suspicious rash on his skin, or if ho 
vomits, or is feverish and languid, send 
hint home at once. (2) A bad sore-throat 
might indicftt*" scarlet fever, diphthma, 
Uernian nienales, or a simple sore-throat. 
In nny case send the fuitient home at one", 
and ask the mother to k<x-p him away till 
tho true nature of the complaint becomes 
certjiin. (;i) If a child is Biitl'ering from a 
BHVere cold, with snceiing and redness of 
eyes, it may mean an inlluenxa colil or the 
onset of measles. As both are ijifectious, 
send the pittient home at once. (4) A 
Hwolling in front of and below the ear 
generally means mumps; and a violent 
pitroiysiiiol cough, making the child sick, 
or bleed at the nose, or l)eeome blue in 
the face, generally means whooping-cough. 
In all dmililf'il cases act as tliough the 
case were an infectious one. Puralion of 
/it/ecfiow.^The earliest period atwliieh a 
pupil may return to school after the onset 
of an infectious disease should theoreti- 
cally correspond with the end of the period 
of infection, but it is always wise to allow 
a margin ; and even then amedic-al certifi- 
cate ot freedom from infection should bo 
insisted on. Thusaft.erscarlet feverschool 
attendance should not be resumed until at 
Iciist six weeks from tlie o<imniPncenient 
of iltnet^s, and then only if all peeling ia 
completed. In diphtheria the infection 
lasts two to three weeks, but school at- 
lendanco should only be ullnwed in th(» 
fourth wet'k, and not then if nny sore- 
throat ordistihar^' frtnn nura, Q^t^.aTttQiA 



continuM. A.ner srnnn^ox and chick«n- 

poi lit Uywt four or five wocks should 
rliipKit. TIk! infnRtion of ni«AsW UNiinlly 
(Muuu'it ill tw(i or tlirnu wcukii, but at Ii?i»t 
thn:<: wi'i'ks hIiuuM i!1m.|]!H5 l>ofc)rii ihtIhk)! 
att«iiJaiioi?uuvBiiirit)i]. ForlitmiianmtviiU-s 
tlirt-L- we«ks ure ulao n-quireil; tur mumpii 
fuur wet'ks ; ajid tor wlioopiiig-Ltxieli at 
k'ast etj>bt weeks, before svhool ulteiulaDM 
is allowed. The Above periods repreaent the 
minimum iiilervAl allowable. The udmis- 
m/jH to sffiool o/<i'/y}amnll-^fifiitrJiy eliildreii 
from infentRd houfwholdK should always bo 
frirbidilen, ThuonlypoKHibloexceptionsan? 
for niunipa and whooping-cough. Appn.- 
rtintlyheiiltliyphildntn may parry thnitif(H?- 
tioii 111 their flothes, or they iiiiiy ht! really 
Buffering from un eurly sUijjf? of infuctlous 
diiiwise, or a »li;;!iU?r foi'iii of it in it litter 
slttKe. Mi^aslpB, scarlet fever. Ac, are in- 
fectious as soon 03 the earlient Byniptoina 
start, and before the appearance uf the 
Dtnih. It seems ti j^eat hardship thnt 
healthy ehiidrpn nhould be prevented from 
attending school btioiiiiiii^ others in the 
BfLme hoiiS'' hiive iiitu*Ttioiis disease. The 
only It^'itimati! way out of thp difficulty 
is {1) to reniovf! the iiifi-ctious vanp. to the 
huspitid, or (2) to rKiiiovp the heiilthy 
children to iinothor house. If either of 
the tiliove ooursfls are tiiken, then the 
thildren may resuim- school fttt«ndn.nfe 
after mi iuter\-al has elapsed to allow of 
till! development of the diseoAe if it is 
olreudy in the Byateui. This period, which 
we may call the qiuiratithm jii'riad, will 
vary in diU'ei'ent cases, acoording to th« 
varying time til ken for each fever to ile< 
velop. For a trustworthy table of perioda 
during whinh these diseases are not iiifec- 
tiouH and no syniptjiins are present, se« Dr. 
NfWuholmc's ^ehrinl Htiqint^. 

In tivin hciLlthy children have been in 
till! jiatni' h()«si' as a fcvi^r pntient through- 
out Uie toume of the illniKS, it will not be 
Kulfiment topn-vwit them coming toKchool 
until 'the end of the periml of infection, 
but for a lubsei^ucnt ijunmntini! p-riwl as 
welL Thus, after HiM,rlet fcvor six weeks, 
jiltia two weeks, should elajen ; after 
diphttteria twenty-one, j//ii« twelve days, 
and »o otL Of course when the healthy 
cliildren have been removed to another 
house, tills prolonged quarantine in not 

It occasionally )iap|)m8 tJtat diaeiase 
hu been acquired by children from un- 
SMUtary coiiditioiif^ of the fi^'hoi>l prcmitie^^ 

This more pni^en Inrly j»ppl i ps to typli 
fevCT (i.e. ent«ric fi-vi^r) and diphth<>n». 
this cose the school sliould Ih' cl<«nd i 
ing the necessary n^piirs of dntinx, 
»nd tlie wati.-r -supply should >ir iitnL 
tnvestii^ted. In liuardinx-H^hiMilsaa] 
pure niilk-sujiply iH aooieiiuiea th« i 
of an epidemic outbreak. 

EratmiU (6. at Kotterdam I V,', , 
Basle li>3fi), a natural sou of Uer«rd I 
a citizen of Uouda, and Margitret, < 
t«r of a physician o! Xevcnbcrgco in 
tiant. He wa» well eHucntod during i 
fiither's life; but his father dying wh 
was fourteen, he was handed ovnr to I 
honest giiArdiuns, whomis»ppropri«t«dl 
patrimony and dT-ovoliiminto«iao 
to hide their robbery. He took llie vo 
at Stein iu HS6. He subsequently b 
private secretary to the Bishopof Ca 
owing to his kuowled|{e of I^tin, an 
the close of this engagement he w«a alb 
to go to Fans, wjiere he with diffic 
supported himself by taking pupiU. 
many years he was a womlcrcr, and ri 
England and Italy. In \b\Q h« 
to England, on the invitation of 
Itlountjoy, and was ap])(Hntrd I.Bdy 
garet Professor of Divinity ut Comhrid 
Kotwithstanding the frieitdshlpa ho I 
tructed in Bnglimd, and the iis^Ktano 
received from .Sir Thomas Mon\ 
bishop WivrliJini, Dtsiii Colet (to wboml 
dedicated his work Dt Duptiei'RerHai\ 
Vrrlioriim Copui),an'i other illustriouci 
niirera, Erasiuos iu l.'ilSdecided l« i 
to the Continent, where he ^^i 
a wanderer from city to oily. It 
dur'ing this periwl that he devoted 
brilliant scholarship to tranalating 
New Testament into Latin, and to 
preparation of those writings whi«h [_ 
him the ere<iit of having ' laid tjio i 
which Luther hatehnd." He thus i 
aided the Reformation, and did morli] 
bring about the revival of sound Ir 
He holds u conspicuous ptocr in Ui« | 
tory of education, on account., not 
of his erudition, but of his idnw on i 
catioiial theory and proctict 
deeply imbued with the chutsical Mpirit,! 
iHiticipaleil inodcrti educational mfo 
by bis advocacy of the educationid 
of Bcieiitific studies, and hi* innist 
upon the importance of Um inteltwlo 
training of women. His CvUo^uim wert' 
used as an easy scboot-book for I.iatin- 
Th^y were published at B»sle. but 

in use in man; countries and in our 
till t\aite recently. 

twKTi. — TliP art of expreaiimi; oneself 
ly sod adnijaately in one's native 
I* M not in tJic niAin » gift of natart', 
B mnilt prodotrd by much practice 
conitAXit attention to good rnodols. 
practioR oui Ixi roitdcrcd i«.r more 
~~~ And tli« mniltn mny hi arrived 
', by » urell-ordnrvd and gniiiitiilly 
lire plan. W6requiri'(rt) anonJor 
b}ect«,corT«q>ondiiix to tliQ growth 
pupil's miDd and knowledge; {h) an 
in theftiDount of persoual oriKiii'i'l 
on tlin p»rt of the pupil ; and (e) an 
' of treatment — both as to tlie actual 
li-iity of th<t lanffiutge employed, and 
to the fafahifB callsd into play. We 
t nisn * corrcjipooding gmduatcd sit 
fiaodeU, with which tli« pupU'a composi- 
mn b<! und nhould b« oomparod, tlie 
' of his inferiority hi-ing mtulr: quite 
The orcfcr o/' ituijVc^f* will bn best 
(rom that of tho growth of tho 
ties ; subjects which «x.?rciiH) ths 
ofiaervations of thin^ miult; thurK 
tlien by the pupils, those which n-ouire 
tftl reproduction or memory, those 
icfa *ierci« the constructive iiuo^na- 
m, and so on. The particnlnr subjects 
lu will of course depend upon tlie 
achool-work of the pupil, the know- 
h« gets, and the life he leiuls, The 
der of personal effort will naturally be 
BID oral composition to written worlc. 
ha papil should always be required to 
m QDcnplnto sentences when answerin;; 
iHstson*, and to be clear. [Lo should 
Ikditallv be cncotimgnd to answer more 
dlj. In tlui written work wr should 
Igm by ninding short puungns nr st^nrip^ 
and, uad requiring thi- pupil to n^prcidure 
iiiiniadi&t«ly »ft4>rwnrds gmdually 
tlie length, ditTiculty, and chn.- 
;«■ of the pii-ce, and iincouriiging the 
uctiofi of adiUtions and variiitiotis. 
'eioay Uwn give mendy tin- main ontlinds 
the stofy or passage, then niprely tho 
i*jn points, and lastly tlic bare subjed. 
all the«e steps it wUl be well at first to 
boon the story or psaaage from sunie 
■odd— CTen when we give only tlie btvre 
■difaci— BO that at least one coinpa- 
may be made by the pupiL The 
firr ^ Irr/Unicnt as to langua^ as far 
it cut bo observed, will of course be 
Im siogia abort' stAtements witJi simple 
MVjseto and predicates to those in which 

the subjects und predicates are mors el^ 
Ixiralf, and tlmiice to oompouud B«nt«noM 
and euiiiplex sonteiioes. As to the order 
of the faculties (.-ailed into play, this will 
of courw be the same as tho order of the 
growth of the facultioa — obs<;irvation, me- 
mory, constructive i magi nation, itc, tkc 
Only iu their later stages should nssays be 
given M 'home-work.' If nob treated at 
exercises in spelling, mid if kept t-jlprably 
short, the work of r^iuling and retnarking 
on th<?ni nee<l not be excessive. Essays 
should never be given back to a class 
without some oral comuienta on the leading 
oharacteristics shown by tlie doss, ^^'ith 
a large class there will hardly be time for 
much more. 

£thica is the science which speks to 
determine the ultimate end of human 
actien, and, in clow cniinection with this, 
the grounds of duty and moral obligation. 
It is thus at the head of the Pmcticnl 
Sciences, viz, those scienoea which bavn 
to do with things — not aa they actually 
exiat, bat as objerts of desire or ideal ends. 
As the supreme practical science, ethics 
dinwts us in dedning the true end of edu- 
cation. (:9ricTiiE0RVoF Education.) As 
oonoemed with the end of virtue or moral 
excellence, and with the systematic treat- 
ment of the several duties, ethics connects 
itself in a peculiar way with the problems 
of uiursl education. A study of ethics, by 
familiarising the mind with the dilSculties 
inherent in moral prohlenis, and by com- 
pelling it to hnrmnnisB dift'erent parts of 
the received moral code by reference to 
some uniting principle, may be regarded 
as a valuable }iurt of the preliminary 
training of the educator. (.Sr« Prof. 
Sidgwick's OutiUtet (\f Ihf lliUory nf 
Etkiet, chap. i.;tho same writer's larger 
work. The Mdhndg n/ Ethifn; Mjldii- 
toah'a DiaserMion : or Professor Calder- 
wood's llandhonk of Mur<d Phlloaopht/.) 

Xton. .S'<M PcBLic Schools. 

Etymology. See Gs-vmhar. 

Euclid. See Ceouetrv. 

Evening ClasseB. Srt Adcit Edo- 
CATioN and pRovisctAt Colleges. 

EvolntioQ (Doctrine of ),— By this ox- 
ureuion is meant the theory— mainly ela- 
ooratod in this country by Mr. Darwin, 
Mr. Herbert Spencer, and others — that 
dilferences of species among living things, 
phmts and animnls. are not original and 
unalterable, but that the numerous exist- 
I ing varieties have graduaWy \ieOTi evoXv^A 


out of a few primitiw forms. Atporrlitiji lo 
UiU doctrine man hna nttuiiiMl lii.-i jirriHOiib 
phywcal and mental couditioii by a, lonf; 
aeries of grnduat transitions or transfor- 
mations from a humbler stiite. The doc- 
trine of evoiiitiim has impoilant bearings 
on educiitinn. In thu first place it em- 
pbiisiscx the fact tlint human life is pro- 
gKuivc, and that inch (^nf^rntion is con- 
sciiniHly or uiimHutcicmily wnrldng for a 
higher intelleftu!],! uud monil coiiditioti in 
the reinute future. Again, it teofihi-s us 
that human progress ia due not merely to 
the improving effect of better 
circumstances, but to a certnin lulvance in 
native aptitude and dispoailion. Tliat ia 
to tuy, the effert of tlie exertions, intel- 
loctiin! and moriil, of eJich generation, 
transmits itaelf, to some extent, to its sue- 
oeaaor, rifcimiing to the principli' of Hs- 
HBrilTV (7.".). Finally, thctioctrinetpiichpa 
us that thttBUL-fesHivephjisi'sof thi-mentjil 
life of the individual torrpspoiid, liriMidly 
at leant, with those of the metitJil life of 
the race. Mr. Spencer has applied this 
part of the theory of evolution to tlie pro- 
blems of education, urging thiit the child 
•lioidd Jittjiiii its knowledge as the rate 
bos attained it, proceeding from the con- 
crete to the abstract, from tJie empirical 
to the ffttionfil. (AV<! Spencer, EUiicatuin, 
chap. ii. ; W. H. Payne, Contribiitioiut to 
the ffrifitr.r of Bditcntinn, chap, iv.) 

Examinatioat art- of two great classes : 
Bcholfuitic and oHiri/il. The origin of the 
oiKcial exami1iati<ins is distinctly tracenble 
to the [lopuljirity of thi? scholnstic exami- 
natir)ns. ScholiiBtiu comprititive examinA- 
tiona are at present univenul in all plnue-S 
of educatiou in this i-ountry, nnrl are even 
more popuUr and more rigorous in some 
parts of ibe Continent. This is especially 
the case in Franco, where at the Poly- 
technic and at some of the niilitjiry schools I 
the two schools run into each other, scho- 1 
JaBtic victories being the lx«t if not the ! 
only pawport to some kinds of uihciul em- ! 
ploymcnt. In ISngland com{)elitive ei- j 
aminations for scholastic purposes are | 
comparatively niodrm. At Oxford the ' 
system, a* applt<id to degrees, is only a 
little over fifty ymnt old. At Cambridge 
it is considnmbly oldnr, hut within the last 
sixty ypurx it ha* bilcrm altogether a new 
poution, and at prawnt formn thn great 
niotivo pow«r by which the whole of the 
«dumtion given at the Univprsity ia im- 
partnl. And at tlie Innx of Court, the 

regular system of «TKm!nntion ax a 1 
<iition precedent to ™1! to thn bar 
ordy intpxlucrd in 1S72. Pntriout^ 
IHSri there wjw much diacuiuioM ax (ol 
mode of filling up juninr iimHiintiin 
the publie sen'ice liy noimnatitni. 1 
May of that year, by an Order in ' 
the result in a great me««ure of Lord '• 
aiday's indefatigable e.xeitions, Ch« 
step was taken towards tli« com; 
system, proviaiou bring madfi for 
by uxiunination and by subflrqumt 
bation the fitness of all candidates for) 
public service. Therowcremanyobje 
r.iised to the new modo ; but rv 
they were found to Ije futile, or to 
l>ceii grossly exnggeratwJ ; the advaaC 
of the new mode were oonoeded, anclj 
principle was accepted aa a baai^ fori 
conduct of examinations, aItliouf;h a ng 
nation was still re(|uired in many 1 
The success that attended the 
competitive eiamiiiatiou as applied tol 
Civil (Service of India, encouraged the f 
vemment to issue an Order in 
June 4, 1 S70, by which the principloof « 
comjietition was formally adopleiL Po 
five public departnicnts were now ' 
open to public competition At tic 1 
time advantage was taken of the or 
tiou of the Civil Service Commia 
hand over to them the examinations fori 
trance to the army, which had al«a I 
placed under the same system, and 
are now among the most severely ixml 
of our examinations. By virtucof tJi«( 
inCouncilof June I,! 870, the Civil f" 
Herkahips were divided into two cb 
Class I., with salaries from 100/. a yf 
400i, a year; and Class II. with rail 
smallersalaries— no attempt being mado( 
equalise tlie aidaries in the \ arious dep 
menls. In 1876 fresh regulations 
promulgated, on the recommendaticpn 1 
a commission presided over by Sir " ' 
Playfair, by which public aerviw 
ships were again (Uvided into two cin 
higher division and lower di^'ision clfl 
ships. Tliesystemof competitivpcxar 
tione runs much risk fA being nbaKed by* 
ordy way of checking th* abuse is to keep in 
mind the fact that thcox.vniniition liasfc* 
its object the estimating of tlie piwerof tl» 
candidate^ and tJiat only. Experience M 
foiTOulaied thrrw useful rule* in thia con- 
nection. IteKtrict the examination tote* 
subjects : aak only such qncatioci u '^^ 

mi-tbod in lli«ir an^wnr rnthrr thnn 

l; e*i?r Ii»%-o al)!e ciciiniitntni, who arc 

iil«il ■Ilk)' with tliR su)>)i>rTt miittiT 

I Ike (ix&miuaUuii aiid the future work 

ibe expected from th« ituciWKiiful <vui> 

KmnpIolInSaencGof). .SWIuitation. 
Kxperi mental Science, ^'tv Isdcctiok. 
Explanation is eitJior of tenus or of 
Th« first or logical cixplaoatioD 
tlie Miitfi a» Unfinition (^.n.). Tho 
or txiivntHic. rxplnniition hns ns its 
to conni-ct what U nitw iin<l iin- 
witli vrkdt is known. Scientific 
mtiou cuiift-mM itself rnorn purtiou- 
«ith [MiiiitiiiK out thi! ciiiiiH' of a 
iiu Toexpliiiii a nuturul [Atv- 
inon. as the foruHtioii of di-w, U to 
by w Itat agencies it has bei'ii hrouKht 
In nil euch.clisiMivery at iitUH^H 
iiiect tho p^rticuhir fftcl to be h\- 
vitli what wo already know. In 
word*, WR bring the new fact under 
gnwml clnw of farts, and so apply 
it*giin«n) priiicipb. The bbkio pro- 
of explanuti mi ii illiistrnt^l whi^n we 
«Ue to dnluL-v an L-nipirioFil gt^nerall- 
frtiio sotai- histher firiiiciple nr law, 
wbeii the lloiitiiig i>f woor] itnd the 
ing of mittal in vriit^-r ai-o spph to he 
nn:«Mnry coniioqiiPiira'-a nf hjdmalatic 
iplcs. {Sir Km-IBICAL Mktjuii).) In 
iiiing facts Ui cJiildn-n wn hiive t« 
■kort of final itcicntitic exuluniition, 
iteuling ouriH-lvni wiUi sucli ]iartuil 
pUiuitJuii as ix reiidtTml poKsililt) \>y 
ir previous kuowledge. (On tlie uaturo 
tL-ieitliBo explanatiui), mx J. H. Mill's 
cyir, bk. iii. cliup, xii.) 
ExpoUion. Sm I^aw affkctixo 


Eye (Cultivatian of), — The sensn of 
^t is the 6r«t< in point of iutoUectual 
iii|>nrtAn<,'V. Thi-ough this we gain our 
)o«t Acmrntf kiiowlwlge of ext^i^rnal ob- 
set*. Not only so, it shares with honr- 
Uf thr distinction of being an ivrtistic 
nuo — Li>. n situw which is spf^ciolly ap- 
ndrd to by the line nrts. 'i'hi- tniiiiing 
I th(! ere is tiiiiK n.n importunt ingn'dic-iit 
I iatvllpcltinl tsJumtioii and in nvitJietic 
iltucc The ■■jtrroim- of th" intflh^'tiial 
OdHn of the sriua M)ii(N-ma itnilf with 
ha permption of tJii> piisition of nhJRctx 
n span:, of their tiiagTiitucIc, mill of their 
turai.-f risttu form. It t.t n«w known 
ib« •string thinj.'s in tlieir ri^dit jilm* is 
M ori^mj, but is aojuirvd by the aid of 

expi-riiince and ths iissociatjon of imprce- 
sions of sight with tliose of touch. The 
w)uL-(ilfir nmy do much to render the 
child more ready and exact in rpcognising 
tho distanc- and the roal size of objects. 
The education of the eye coucenm itsulf, 
however, more especially with training it 
to a nice and accui-at^ observation of 
form. Here care must be taken to direct 
the Att«ntion of the child to the charac- 
tt^ristic differences of linea — u straight, 
bent, or curved, \-crticftl, horiaontttl, or 
ol>lii:|ue ; then to the way in which lin«« 
are t^ombined so as to produce whn,t wu 
call an outline or form, and more particu- 
larly to the relations of prtiportion. A 
tine observation of nature, aa well as apti- 
tude in all the nicer manual exercises, 
frijui drawiti){ and writin;^ upwards, de- 
pends upon ail eye tritined to tlie accurate 
perception of fonii. The other chief func- 
tion of the eye, the discrind nation and 
appreciation of colour, though of consider- 
aldo importance as subserving knowledge, 
suhsTTves in a &till larger measure the 
gi-atiticatioii of thp feelings. The jibility 
to distinguish finely one colour from 
another, and to derive |)I ensure from 
colour, is one con.<picuous chimwit in the 
love of nature. In addition to this it 
forma u princi^ial ingredient in wtiat we 
call artistic biate, as euijdoyed not only 
ulioiit pictures, but about dress, household 
decoration, A-c. Children vary much in 
the natural degree of their colour sensi- 
bility; but, save where there is a distinct 
organic defect amounting to colo ui'- blind - 
neas, iJiey may be led by a pi'ojier system 
of traiidng to dl^'riuiinate and enjoy 
eulours. This sysleui should begin by 
rendering the chUd familiar with the 
elementary varieties — via. red, yellow, 
green, and blue — and then exercising him 
in discriminating the several sub- varieties 
of each of these, including the compound 
tiJita, as orange (i.e. reddish -yd low}. Such 
discrimination of colours one from ano^'*i3r 
should go hand in hand with the clasriG- 
cation of like or related colours. Thus 
the child should In- able, not only to dis- 
tinguish the several reds, but t« group 
them all under the general head 'red.' 
This sffitelnatic knowledge of colour ilU- 
pties a very carefully selected colour voca- 
liuliLry such as we see employed by artists, 
dyers, Ac. Since colour is more inter- 
esting to oliildren tluin form, and tho 
per<;e]>Uon of it is muck &iu\\i\i:T, ^« 

edooatjon of tlii^cnTonriiPnsnnliould precede 
to KUDO exlif^nt t)mt of tlie si'USP al (oral. 
A niimbfr of simple- nnil ngref-able ocoii- 
luit.imis litl^Hl to lievi-lop tliP colour- sense, 
such as niimlitig out a, iiuniber of (Hlfereiil 
eolriiirpil objecla, iiiatehiuj; one colour with 
KDolher, arruiifiiuf* colours in a graduated 
eories, mav be approprial«ty introduced 
iuto the nursery or iufant class (cf. article 

Eyesight in often seriounly injured hy 
scliool-work under iinfavniimlile comli- 
tinna. The prntoni/rii cr/^tion nf ihe. cyoo 
whinh 19 involvpd in scfiiig iiPtir objects 
iinj>lies a strain »f the RO(y>tiinio(luting ap- 
purutua of the child's eye (pBpei'ially the 
ciliary tuuselea, whiuh alt*^r the I'onvexity 
of the lens of the eye). ThJa evil is com- 
tnoEily iuci-eawd by badly arra,nf;ed desks 
ftnd seats, aud by the scholar being aliawed 
to read with his head bent over the book, 
and probably in a bad position for reveiT- 
ing the light. The eye* should never be 
allowed to come nearer thnn twelve inches 
from the Imok or skte ; and if n. sebolur 
is noticed per9ist<!nt!y to hold it nearer 
than this distiinoe, a message should be 
sent to his jiiirents that an esaminiition of 
the eyes by an eye-surgeon is required. 
An inadrqucttf. anmitnt itf light, or un ill- 
directed light, is another cuuse of over- 
strain of the eyes. (6cs also Lichtisg.) 
The preparation of hoiue-lessons in nemi- 
darkness is a coniuiou cause of injury to 
Uie eyes. ImpriijKi- tifpe of reading and 
Other hooka tends to produce the same re- 
sult, Roman is much better than Ctotluc 
type, and the excess of myopia among 
Oermans is to some extent ascribable 
to their use of the Utter type. The 
thickness of up and down strokes, the 
spaces between letters and words, and he- 
twi-Pii bnen, and the length of hnea, ail 
require attention. If thu letterpress is 
derived froin a woni-out fount un imper- 
fect iinpri'SSJon of tlie hitters is produced. 
Tlio (vmslruction of such letters us A and 
h, V Olid n, should be eajiecially pn-cise. 
Pale ink and jjriauiy states are very trying 
to the eyiiH, and w> iikewiBe is a. glossed 
(Wiper. Slaps diould contain as few data 
BS puHsible, and the lettering Htiould nut be 
too fiii«. (For further detaila see Scliool 
hyyiene, p. 113: Sonnenscheiu.) AWiIle- 
uvrk in girW schools is more trying to the 
eyes than any work boys have to do. In 
moderately Sne linen, as a shirt-front, 
then uc 120 threads to an inch ; and as 

what is considered pMcl work 
taking up four Uiraads — two id CtddI 
two lieliind tlie linen — this means work 
to nV'i"^''' ^^^ drawing and needle* 
tlie best light is from ahoTi]i, and 
should only be undertaken during 
hright«gt hours of the day. 'J'bn 
most common defects of the rye in ■ 
dren arc hypemietropia, myopia, 

HyprrmHTtipia, or long tight. ■■ a t 
dition in which the eye is shart«r 
before backwards than tisual, and 
fore ruyi! of light do not ooiive to a I 
on the retina, hut behind it, Sudi chik 
require to accommodate the eye (i 
the lens more convex) even for aeeii 
jects at a dist&nce, and fi>r near vision^ 
strain on tlieir eyes bccome-s ttill 
Consequently th<i eyes becoBic 
and the lids tend to stick togetIi<r in-) 
ninming. The child of ten ninken tni 
and is thought to lie idle, trhi-:! realljr] 
is lalioiiring under grmt ditlicultlet 
vision. Thi- condition is often 
for short eight, beoanse the edbrts at I 
conimodation are often exceasi^ e. and i 
ser]ueiit!y the botik is held uearer 
nearer to his eyes. A ooHvergeut 
of the eye is sometimes produ««l. 

In Mi/ii/iia, or t/iorl eight, Oie eye i 
ahnorniidly long from before haekv 
so that rays of light tend to be foes 
in front of the retina. The child ' 
his book near bis eyes, in order to 
the r,ays of light more divergent, 
therefore more easily focusaed on 
tina. Myopia isdistinguishe^lfromh] 
raetropia by the fact that distant ' 
improved liy a concavo lens. If 
can see equally as well at a dis 
through a convex i<^ns as without, h) 
nietropia ejtists, Hj-permetropia in 
due to school- work, though thin marmiW 
secondary troubles. Myopia, on the otbtf 
liatid, is increjiscd, and sonietiniea cauwd, 
by school-work under unfavourable condi- 

Aftigmatignt is a condition of the tn 
in which the curvature of tiie eornwi \i 
not uniform, and therefore rays of light 
entei-iiig it at dtffei'enl meridians havr • 
different focus. It is nometinies calUd 
' slow sight,' and is a common cause Oi 
what has been called 'artiticial stupiiiitjr, 
which is quite remediable by skilfully 
applied glasses. 



Actt— These Art*, Uie most 
it of which wae du-iiod early hi 
Qhmii'b reign through the i^H'orte of 
a«nrenth El^ri of Shftfteshurj, have had 
most iiDportant induoDce upoo educa- 
inutmwb n* tJivir adoption wae a 
(D^ition of th* right of tho StaU» to 
rp tn lirtwren pnmit and child with a 
frw to Uni pmniotiaTi of the moriil, iiitnl- 
ebwl, *n(i iitiysital w<>U-)ipitig of the 
tter. TJie Ediutttion Aet* were th« 
Bceuury out'.'OLiiie u( legiBltitiuii for liriiil- 
g Uie houn of labour of uhildreu and 
nog pertons. .Th» sericB of stu-tntPM re 
tins ^ Kucji legislation were coiiaolidHtetl 
the Fuctofy and Workshop Ac:t of 1878. 
j»ong!i~t other important reflations the 
St OMtkes provision for ensuring the at- 
twUnnp at school of rhiJdren employed 
buAi^fn** and workshops. Thn Act de- 
ft 'child ' as any perann undsr foiir- 
yt-nn of ngu, and a 'yiHiiig pentfin' 
I oFiy pcrwin bnlween the ages of foiir- 
!i"n una fight«!ti. 

F&CUlty ix cnmmnnjy di^fincd as a dis- 
iw?t and original powerof thpmind, by the 
Itkia of which a jiarticiilnr claHS of ineiitnl 
mdart* sriM-i. Thi- [mwm commonly 
boirn lu fiiL'uttim nn thi- intfUectunI 
OTrcm, luarkcd off aa pcrcKiitioii, attntiory, 
■Mcioatiou, and reuaxii. rh« division <if 
niS intAsiicIi faoultim marks tlie earlier 
Mfiw ot development of paycholoj^y. and 
I open to the objection that it reeolves 
>hat is realty an organic unity into a 
mber of separate agents. Accordingly 
I recent p^'chology the attempt has heeii 
■de to r^Dce the operation of the several 
inih^es In more fundamental forms of 
(tiTitjr. Titos, l>r. Uain gives as the 
fan(tuD«Dt«l functions of inti'llert'. 
iminntJon, flonsciousnoss of JSinii- 
, and ItctontivenRss. Th(^ familiar 
inctionn of the mental faculticK an* of 
crnivmii^npc (o thn rduc-ator, eapfi- 
ly aa tbry amiwirr to sii ccfvtsi vr stages of 
i(al growth. (.Sw Di^vkmu'Mknt.) At 
mmit! timn thn i-ducator should Ik) on 
guard agatRnt thii error that thtr npem< 
of dilTcrnnt fii<riiUi<^x an- nidictilly 
ict fmm onn another. It may he 
■fely md tliat the wlioli.- theory nf me- 
HfT-tnuning baa suWi^md from tin? orro- 
MMtt Mippwtition that itisafnculty njmrt, 

whereaH iti truth the [wrfect tmining of It 
iiecL-sttarily involves much that ia eom- 
moiily covered by tlie tarm observation, 
and uot a little of what we mean by judg' 
ment. (&W Mbhobt.) Similarly, the train 
ing of the imagination and of the faculty 
of thought or I'eason has been too widely 
mmdcrcd by the etiucator. Rightly con- 
c<pived, imagination is an essential pr«- 
Hmi nary process in thinking; and thi'tmin- 
ingof the imagination, hy giving the mind 
humility in sepaniting arid recombining its 
iiiijirPSsiojiB, is prepiiring tlie way fur the 
processes of alistract thougliti (iSVe Flem- 
ing, Vo<ralniliiry of Phiffiaophy, " Faculty'; 
Bain, Menliil .SViVhcc. Introd. chap. 1. ; 
Sully, Tttich-tr^g Unndbook. p. 45 and fol- 
lowing.) .S'fie Univeimitiks. 

Fagging. .SVh BrLtviNO. 

Tairy Tales and Fables. .SW FrtTios. 

Fear i» an eniotJon of a disagreealilo 
chnracter, having a distinctly df^rcssing 
eflect on the energies of mind and body. 
It is the feeling of uneasiness and ap 
prrhension that arisen in presence of a 
danger, i.e. a prospect of evil or suff«r- 
ing in sonie shape. Lt is Fin instinctiva 
i^motion, having ila root in the impulse of 
■elf- preservation, which includes the ten- 
deni^y to shrink from what is painfuL A« 
Huch it shows itself in a distinct foi-m very 
e^trly in life, and is iiideeil one of the lead- 
ing emotional featui-es of childhood. It is 
held by some evolutionists that certain 
forms of fear — e.g. of Viig animals juid 
strangers — which certainly appear within 
the (ii-st year of life, are the inherited in- 
sults of ancestral experience. It is a moot 
point whether children have any instinc- 
tive fear of the de.rk. Kear tjikes one of 
two forms— that of definite apprehension 
of some known form of evil, as where the 
hiimt child dreads the hrc ; and that of 
vagne fonel'oding in presence of the un- 
known. This last enters into children's 
disUke of strange surroundings. It also 
has its place in a more disguised form in 
the childish feeling of awe be-fore what is 
great or sublime. Their sense nf inferio- 
rity to their elders in physical strength, 
knowle<lge, Ac, favours the development 
of this feeling ; and llius it may be said 
that childish timidity helps to sustuin the 
attitude of revei'cuoe. Ftuui Udb Wvvi ba- 

eountof th« characteristics of the emotion 
it may be seen tlinl th@ editcator's tA«k in 
relation to it is nf>t (i simple one. On th(i 
one hfiiid tlif rhild i"equirp8 to bn slii^'Iiind 
froo) thn iniwrifw of fear in all its mom 
intpnKi' find injurious ffii-ma. Notliing is 
inort! to Im (Ifpreciitml in the e«rly train- 
ing t)f chilttrcn tlian a threiit of iiny evi! 
wliifli, by its vustnesH anij unfamiliurity, 
ovcr'powerB their intiigi nation. Thejought, 
too. to be lielpetl to nd tliemsulves of 
t hjUsU and «upt<itilitiouB forma uf tear by a 
§ouDilei' kuowledf^e of things ; and Itistly, 
tbeir exti-onie liability to fear, with it« 
Dntumi TOorsI out.Krowth of cowardice, 
ehould bi' corroctod by a judicious exercise 
of the virtiirx of iviui'agi' and endurance. 
(.V™ CoiI«A«K. ) Wbiln, hnwevp.r, the edu- 
cator hiis thus to repress II nd rcstrniu feiir, 
he most be cart-ful not to undcrvjihw it os 
u feeling suljservitut to the child's self- 
prest-rvalionjaiid promotive of theiittitude 
of reverence and obedience. Foolish reck- 
lessness is almost as fjir removed from true 
couragfi as cowardice, and in bovB of a i 
Cfrlain tempeivtment requires close watch- I 
ing. The moat liitiicult problem, perhaps, 
in the educntioiml management of fear is i 
to iissigTi it its proper plai^o in moral dis- | 
cipline. Here it is the correlative of 
punishment, and an appeal to it is conse- . 
qunntly implied in any system of gnveni- I 
mtint. At the same time the depi'essing 
und injurious elfocta of intensin fear or 
terror clearly iniposo rigid limitx on the i 
use of ibe motive, in order to secure the | 
disciplinary value of frair without these 
diawlHicks we must be careful to avoid 
eveiylliing in tlie shape of harsh tyranny, 
and to threaten oidy such evils ns are 
definite, and such as huve u magnitude 
sutticicnt to det*r, but not to frighten or 
overpower. (Sffhockeoaadnaifiun, sect. 
1 1 !> ; ^tiiin, Siiueatinn im a Scii-nef. p. 66 ; 
an<l Sully, Tn/i-lm-'s /liiiiilio-ii:. p. 3G6.) 

Fetbl'ger, Joliamtl^az von( 
Glogau, irL'4, d. ITf^e).— RoiDsn (Aitheiic 
priest, t-ducutfd at Drrslnu, and appointed 
Abbot of 8aguD in 176*-'. He was a great 
reformer of schools in Silesia aTid A ustria, 
Attrattwl bythe workof Hcckorat Berlin, 
be founded new nchools, published cla«&ica, 
and givt hinmelf up Ui reform the popular 
sohoola. Tiie CJovernment of Prussia offi- 
cially entrusted him with tlic work of re- 
om.'an^iig schools in Sileiiia. He pub- 
lished various works setting forth his aim 
Id education, wliloli wan * tu xlorti the 

memory not onlv with words but . 
to train tho undi--n>tiui<)in);, and to 
ri~tl«sTtinn, to unfold the reason of 
and makcthrm intelligible, (ocdo 
dnnts by mcniia of (|U(«tioDS knd . 
t>wingt<>tlie success of Fdbigwinf 
Muriu Tlu'resa appointod him dii 
general of bcIiooIs iu her dominiona,) 
published (1774) detailed rubo fdl 
schools, wliicb he dividnd into tlireej 
Felbigur a<lvoefttod comi>u!siory edtio 
He subsequently rooniv^d fruin "' 
priory of Prcsburg and & peuaioo^ 
when Joseph oame to tlie tiiroti« bs 
favour, and was compelled to 
Preshurg. whrra be devoted himsnU ( 
forming the scliooU of Hung&ry. 

Fellow. — This term signilies tbo 1 
bership of a learned society or of 
lege. At Oxford and Uuai; 
applied to a member of a. coUegn mi 
tici|)ate8 in its revenue wid govi^n 
FellowK are usoftily olcwted fn>iii tliil 
clielorswbobavotAKf^n tliehighi!*t<' 
but in some case.* then- is un exainl 
for the Fellowships. At different i 
both at Oxfoni and Cambridge the F« 
ships are held under varying cOB 
As a rule, they are worth from StC 
2^01. a year, with rooms and 
and are trenahle for about seveo 
When a Fellow holds office in hU i 
ho is pennitled to retain his Fellod 
after the prescribed term of years, fl 
the new sUtutHs Fellowships &re nol" 
forfeited by ma-rriage. 

FeUow-Commonen. — Q«neraltj 

sons of noblemen or young tncn of I 

I atOxford and Cambridge, who par »l 

rate of fees, and are peniiittoil toj 

I with the Fellows, and to gniduntc wV 

I examination. They are now conlioi 

Downing College, C^anlbridglV (A'ea i 

versity Snobs' in Thackeray's Ikf 


Female Educanon. Sea Eduq 

OP tllRW. 

brai, Ul."!). - Tliis OiiitiuguialuM] S 
writor B.nd tlieologian bas a place \ 
histflrip- of education, as thr autbol 
treatise on Thf Sduealtoti o/Oirlt.\ 
he prepureil at the request of the M 
Duche^e de Beauviltiers, who, besU 
veral sons, hod a family of eight 'tniii 
Fi''nelon also direct«cl the iHlucationl 
Due de Bourgogne, nnd it wiu wlulj 
engaged that he wrote MromI cii 



ac worfca, luuluding the /{rfiiirit ilf» 
aiii! TiUmaqitf, whicli BIT still 
rit«« with the suhoolliov!! nn<l Rtrlii 
j oitly of Knince, but of oilier ountrit^ 
Ficht«. Johann GottUeb {17G2-IHU). 
IB of tie ej"xh muki-i-B iii tiia liist/iry 
^0«niian philosophy. H« vnde&vuurM 
««tAblj«h idcAlism upoti the bam of 
dousnt^iH, and to oonsti-uct aciMi06 
llip uiumptioa that all ktiowleiigo 
nil act of the ''igo,' or B«tire prini.'i[)le 
I whicJi tlie ' non iigo' is the postulated 
juct. Thoufih I'lchtv WM accused of 
u, Im; bud » lofty idral of Deity, 
d.'be said, 'munt Im! bclii^vod in, not 
We oui wily know Him na the 
I Onler of ttie world ; iind to attribuli! 
l_iJitn intelligence or p-rswiJility is to 
into AnthroponioqthUin.' Fichti? Cur- 
beld tlwt it is action aloui* tluit l-oii- 
nality, and thai qjjou uuraelvt>(i 
dc^ndfi th* mniiifeatattou of the 
1, tliB milUAtion of which is but the 
1 devrlu{>iiH-nt of ourselves. Therefore, 
i is to QurHtlvi-a thnt we niu8t direct our 
utioD, and education mast aim con- 
■tly Bt Ihiji si-tf-dfvnlopment in thn 
to tvsUisL* the good, thi! iiti'^fiil, itiid 
>b«ttutiful. Man.hcheld, iscommnndrd 
to be moral by tin? nrcrssity of liis iiature, 
T« be virtaoiM U to fulljl ad inti'irin] Inw, 
not to oIm-'v au tixtenml one. Kichte de- 
nied tliat lUBii wtts liorn natui'iiily prnne 
toevil, Aud uQirmed that hix niitiinil dis- 
f(«itioD was to love, tlioujth it wns nrci-a- 
IBfT for him to arrive itt immility by 
wnstBut edbrt Ua held tlitit man ih 
perfKlible, And tliat Jt is poiuihie by 
wuifi of well direou^ etlucatioii to elTeot 
dttmoTBl ekvtttion not oidy of iiidividuuJa 
htof iMtions. His educattonul i<ltML» are 
OMaiiMd for tlie most purl In liia AildrnM 
bl4« OtrmaH A'ation., T/if .V'Uvrt of tim 
Sdetar, «nd TA-r Ckir-tcterinlicg of llie 
Fnarat A^r. 'I'hc two last of these have 
bsen tniulnti^ into tinglish. 

Fiction.— Kniry Ulp and F.ible, the 
dfji^ht of thif tthildhood of men and 
MtiooB, r-xcrt ■ powrrfiil inHiiencp in the 
dtvcU^Moent nf the ititoilerl iind thr nmo- 
t '.OS, and in the formntion of character, 
aud c<in>M|upntly ttic indiKpciisablo aids 
to ndaaliun. Not only ;)oi-tic in all o^Nt, 
bat other rul«n id llie i-nipirct nf thought, 
liM tmriy Gre«k pl)il(i!i»iiher», the fnundem 
i^f ^^tigiou■ systeins, and er<<n lomc of th<i 
-real diAOOverer* lu Kcii-noe, huvi? reoog- 
Kued ill* power of Iwtion as u iDedium 

for the cnmniiinic'jition of truth ; and oil 
ilic! gn^kt edufAtioiial reformers —Locke, 
Pdrtaloxxi, Fruwbel, CouieniuB — have re- 
oominendwl the judiciuus culLivatiun of 
tlie fu(!ulty to wbicli fiction appeals, as 
OttWDlioJ tu the h<»lthy devL-lupment of 
child'UatnreL 'As soon as a t-hild has 
learned to read,' says Locke. 'itisdeairable 
to pJace in his hands pleasant books, suited 
to hiacApacity, wherein the entertainment 
that he tlnds might draw him on, and re- 
ward his pains in rending; and yot not 
BUch BB should fill his head with perfectly 
uscIms tnimpi-ry, c>r lay the princijiles of 
vice and folly. To this |>urpose I think 
.Eimpii /ViWrmthe IhsI, which lining stories 
apt to delight and entertain a child, may 
yet ufTord utit^ful rellections to a grown 
tnan, au<l if his memory retain them all 
liia life after, he will not repent to Iind 
tlieiu there, amongst his manly thoughts 
and sei-ious business.' jEsop, howover, is 
but one amongst the enclianti^rs with 
whose works it ii desirable tis fiiniitiaruA 
tlio minds of children. Great care, how- 
ever, should bo taken in selecting works 
of liction, thot they are works of real on- 
pbantrnent, works coiistructfHl on those 
true ivrti%tic principltis wliicJi lie at tlie 
foundation of n just cnncnption of tlie 
humorous and the ]iathetic, tlie heroic, 
the beautiful, and tlif good. Tliere will 
then be no dnngpr of tlie child's reverence 
for truth lieiiig violated, even though the 
stories given him tu read open up to him 
the vistas of fairyland, which can havo no 
existence enuept in the ima^nation, and 
recount to him the marvellous adventures 
and ocuurreucoswhich could never happen 
ui actual experience. On the contrary, 
his love of truth will be fostered by such 
stories, which are revelations of the ideal, 
the only truly and permanently real. 
What we call thn real passes awiiy, in 
fact, is never existent for two' moments 
together in the same state, hut the ideal 
lives for ever. The real Homer, the real 
Shakespeare have trocideii the road to 
rfusty death, hot tlie ideals of Jfomer and 
Shakespeare, the men and women they 
created, are irumortal. It IB possible, 
however, to apjieal ttiomuch to tlie child's 
imagination, and by means of fiction to 
producti unhealthy excitement, which, is 
injurious to the natural development of 
the moral and intellectual nature; there- 
fore \\e, should be discouraged as much se 
possible from tlie penual of UiQ«mt&^tm>i\«.\ 


triwh wliieh Mr. Ruakiit would pliMW la 
hi» c!Lt<!fi'"7 oi'ioui liutiou,' u,u(] U) wliioh, 
unf'irtuimtf ly, si'lioolboya havv ha<] too 
Veiuly aoL't^s bIih* the introduction of 

p {iriiiliii^ and competitive publish- 
Most of tlie periodicals now puh- 
lidbed for tbe special delectation of lioys 
and eirls belong to tht? 'foul fii-taon" c]ass. 
and should be kfipt out of their way with 
as mucli cnution iix wc would remove 
from thrtm tliv tt^inpbition to imbibe nr- 
di-nt spirit*. 

First Grade Schools. See CL.\aaivi- 


Firth Colles^- ^'W Proviscial Col- 


Flogging. Set Cokpoeal Ptnibh- 


Floor Space reijuires considerntion In 

the eoiiKtniclioii of school builfiings as 
well lis cubic sp/ice. A very high. cHJIing 
will not compi^iistite for deficient floor 
Bpftce. A splice eiiclosisl within four high 
wilUx and without ii roof would, if 
crowik-d, BjM.-t'dity Ih-ooiup stuffy uiid of- 
fouiiive. 'Lofty' and 'airy,' jib applied 
to rooms, ure by no lueanH neceiuiikrity 
KynonyiQoua. Any height above 12 feet 
lias but little influence on the purity of 
thfi lowor atmosphere in which the chil- 
dren hu»fl to live ; and even free cruHfl 
ventilation near tlie hi^h ceiling w^Ill not 
necetiaarily purify the lower atmosphere. 
The Engiith Education Department give 
80 cubic feel as the minimum spnce per 
Bcholar.andS square feet fis the minimum 
floor space allowable. In the opinion of 
»me sanitnrinns, however, this minimum 
is much lower than sanitary requirements 
demand. At Iciisl l.'i HijU/irn feet of floor 
space, it is nrgod, should ho nllowed per 
child, which, reckoning the height of the 
rooms na 10 f™t, would givo 150 cubic 
feet of spactt for each child. About l,&00 
cubic ft»t of fresh air are required for each 
pupil per h<iur ; thcircfcire, witJi ilii allow- 
ancn of IftO cubic £«■! ot space, it is 
vrident that the air must !«■ n-pleriished 
ev(!ry six minuUis, i.e. ten times in an 
hour. Such frequent rejileniBhment of the 
nir, however, is not successfully carried 
out in practice except in warm weatlter. 
(Hkh Ahciiitecture.) 

Foreign Teachen. See Tuacubiui. 

Forestry. —Though nearly every other 
civilised State pusseesea one or more forest 
schools, there is in this country no or- 
ganised system of forestry instnictioa in 

existence excepting in connection irith I 
ladiao Service: and even students fori 
forestry department of that service 
required to visit on" or other of th* Oo 
tinental forejstry schools. The witn 
examined before the Committiti nf 
House of Commons recently npjiointtdl 
inquire into the subject, were gener 
and stringly of opinion tliat tite establld 
ment of forest schools, or at any fat«( 
some organised system of (orait lustne 
lion ill this country, would be very de 
ubl« ; but Uiey differed considerably m I 
the beot mode in which this roi^t T 
effected. As regards the formation of i 
forest school, the Committ«e connd 
that more than one centre of 
would be desimblc ; though in thn 
instanca it might be well to csiablinh i 
school only, in order to sccum the 
complete equipment, the bi-st t*a*ihB 
and a sufficiency of studenla. The ludil 
forest students, they thought, mi^ht 
stitut« a nucleus. The IndiiinGovenune 
is already at some expense on their behl 
and it is proliable that the fees fiom < 
students would nearly if not altoget 
repay any additional expense which th 
udiuis^iou would entail. The school wcii 
doubtless be situated in England, buti 
Conimittee urged that a school for I 
land is also urgently needed, and 
also of opinion that it would probably 1 
desirable to found another in Ireland. 

The following is a syllabus of the 
course of study at the School of Fomu; 
at Neustadt Eberswalde, in ]}nuidrnburj. 
This is a superior school, all mnttitn con- 
ncctei:! with the mannj^mnnt of fnrtsU 
being taught theoreticnlly and pmctically. 
The aubjecta are : Tlie cultivation of 
woods and forests, forest taxation, politi- 
cal economy in general, ami with spevial 
appliciition to the ad ministration of (oceete; 
history and literature of forest tuaumge- 
mont, knowledge uf game and gainelieep- 
ing, naturitl sciences in generaJ, geaeni 
lx>tany, forest botany, the anatomjr at 
plants, general entomology, special kno«- 
ledge of forest ii;aecta, natural histonf of 
vertebrate animals in general, and of birds 
in especial ; arithmetic and analysis with 
reference to matters occurring in the man- 
agement of forests, geometry and trigono- 
nietry for the purposes of practical survey- 
ing, the niatheniatical principle* of road- 
making, stereometry and niatlinmntical 
geography, plan-drawing, nKchanical phy- 


tbe fonosof Prufisiaa (ort«t uieiuiun'' 

its, civil l&w with ref«r«ii(H to tlii' ud- 

listratioii of ioivst» Miid K^iue, the pru- 

.ioD nnd police of forests, chemistry, 

', ajmSitDicfil phj'sica, ami the 

of plnntn. Two diiys a week 

ili-vfttwl to prnctical studies in the 

lararts brlo(i]^n;t! to tho institution, aod 

io «unimt-r rxcuraicms iirt- mudp daily for 

fciHittiic HtudiuH aiiil jimotico in SDrveying 

Fonn. —This word is umvI in thn piihlin 
is of Etislaiul to Hi^tify not only thn 
on which pupils sit, but th« cluss 
Io which they belong;. It in thus eauivn.- 
knt to the word ' stiuidanl ' us tixed iii th«t 
ddnoiitnry schools. 'ITiere are generally 
■he forms in the great public schools, but 
lb* numbfir rnrips, and the order of prece- 
il»no" comtiMtico from the lowest, numlier. 
TIiui thf fint-fonn hoys ini those in tbe 

.',rv ulagi- or loWfst. pUkk. 

Forster, Sl Hon. W. E. a'™ Law 
lliDcc.vriov.vM and Jiciiuoi. Boasds. 
Poandlinga. Infantii abandoned by 
puwnto. Tin! K''™-'' clmrilyiii Giiil- 
BtTMt, Louduii, liLiowii as the Fomid- 
Hoq>ital, which haii an itiL-uiiie of 
mat 10,OOOI.a year, was ori;;i[mtly (.•stu- 
Uiriieti hy jirivabH bene vol i-tu'o tor tlio re- 
IKftiou of such tufaiits ; but iU l)(>nt'tit.B 
>n now eit(-Ti<[i>d to poor illegitinmt^! 
(bildreu whoM^ mothers are known. The 
pvonon re<|uire to be sutistled of tlie 
pnrioos good character and present ae- 
°mi^ of the mother, and tliat the father 
& living) has deserted her ; also that the 
Weption of the rhil<i will be the menns of 
ifJicing the mother in the course of virtue. 
InnM, EdQoationbl Law of. Ser 
wii (Kini'MTiovAi.). 

France, University ot Sk» Uki- 

Ruicke, AapistuR Herman ih. IfiCI, 

i 1737) hokl* a placid in thi! history of 

*diHBlJoti betwocD Comcniux und Pesta- 

ifaxL H« leanit with gr^at rapirlity iis a 

W.«nd»ifoort<*UPntpriid thn university, 

■Sere he stniliMl tliHolnsry and laiigoiipea. 

In 1691 be w»s uiaili* Prcifiissrir of Orientjil 

bjiaage* at llalli.'. uiiil uftt-Twiirds Pro- 

biwrM Dii'imly and pii.ii.or uf Glauolm, 

■ nborb of Halle. It wiis ns pastor that 

h* bcueu) tbe work which haa inmhr his 

uawmmoofl. Hefound the iifnoiunee of 

III people >0 deiu« that he began to teach 

titft cJuldrao, whom he supported at the 

■une time bjr small donations. He took 

a frw orfihaoH to t«ich, and tlieir numbers 

mpidly iricrf^o-it'd till he IimI to be assisted 
by many cluritable persons, It is caIcu- 
tated that ntsirly five thousand children 
have reueivedufree education in his orphan 
asylum alone, and now there sirp many 
otLer schools in and around Halle whicii 
bear his name. 

Free Education. — Tho controvw^ 
known to our, gennration as tlin troo 
education question diites from the intro- 
duction of thp law of compulsory wibool 
attendance which came into operation by 
the Education Act of 1870, and was sulj- 
BiMjuenlly stmngthened by the Education 
Actof 1^76. Consequently, in tliis country 
tlie disGussiou has tuitied. not so much 
upon the general principle whether the 
cost of tlie educjition of the. wliole or a 
part of the child population should lia 
defrayed by the community, and only in- 
directly by the paront of the child, as upon 
the nfirrower ground whether — now that 
the State hn,5 decreed thfit tlm parent of a 
child shall cause it to attend a public 
elementary school, unless it is receiving 
elementary instruction in some other 
manner satisfactory to the local authority 
— it is or is not desirable to demand pre- 
payment of a weekly school-feu from the 
parent towards defraying the cost of the 
education provided. t>f course, those who 
have given in their adhesion to the general 
principle of free education, with or with- 
out compulsion — as the United States of 
America have, where compulsion hu fol- 
lowed, and not preceded, free education, 
and has not even yet been adoptud in tho 
majority of the States— take their st-and 
solely on social and political grmmds ; and, 
if they live in England, would doubtlesui 
consider the additional fact of compulsion 
in the light of an A fortiori argument in 
favour of their free-school views. But it 
ia quite possible that many persons who 
rejiiot the general principle of free educa- 
tion would l)o prepnreil to acci'pt the jiar- 
ticulnr application of it to a country which 
has introiluced tlie principle of compulsion. 
These would take their stand more upon 
expediency — on the principle that a duty 
enforced upon individuals in the interest 
of tlie community should be performed at 
the cost of the community iind free to the 
individual ; or, more broadly, that ' free 
schooling is a particulcirly siife and useful 
form of public aid to the working ulaasea.' 
Again, the arguments for free «du<^>jV«iw, 


witue the scfaools (sMondajy u well aa 
elemeotAiy) »tten<iC'(l by the larj^e mt^oritf 
of the population —rich and poor »libe — 
■je frcu, will not fmrvn entirely where the 
schooU »tt«nd«d only hy thn poorer clfuwrs 
art) fn«. For, in tlto tint cnse, the richer 
closwii, who pay more in tnxe*, usr the 
•MMiudury vdiooU, which cost tnnre to 
niaintoiii ; uiid the pooTHrdiiesi-s, who pay 
tew, uKO the less costly eteiniintitry schot^s ; 
and thus each cluaa obtttiiiii itii efjuitable 
quid pro i/uo tot the ^McaXiaiml tax. But, 
in countries where tlie elenieutAry schools 
only are free, the richer classes, who ilo 
not UM^iese schools, nnd yet piiy the sbnre 
of educatjoiial taxation based upon their 
looanM, recoivD no similar return for this 
outlay, and cun thnn^fore only he recon- 
oil«d to the [Kiviuntit of this tjuc ou other 
grouiuU thiui thd 'fiiiniosn'of its incidence. 
It follows from tht!> th^it, if a. coinfuirison 
with foreign foutitries be instituted with 
the view ol jisaisting the judgment on 
tliis question of fren education ils it alFects 
Eugliiiid, a starting- ^Kj in t must be made 
frora those countries which hold at this 
moment as nearly as possible the same 
position ns England ui regard to ennipul- 
sory sch'wl attendance and payment of 
school fees. The upxt stage would carry the 
inquirer to a renew of educational phe- 
nomena UI those countries which at tliis 
moment possess what England would pos- 
flpss if the particular elian^ desired by 
educational reformers were an accom- 
plished fact. Now, in England, at the 
prcsimt time, clciiietitiiry education is com- 
pulsory, but the elementary schools are 
not ' lre&.' Ill thi«« n-spcicta Eiiglund 
most nearly n-siMublei Germany outaide 
Berlin and otlier large t<)w;is, Austria, and 
some (if not all) of the provinces of Aus- 
tralia. If the euutroversy now rs^inji; 
were determined by the passing of a law 
re^piiring all schools aided by government 
grants (i.e. public elementary schools), 
whether further supported by local rates 
or voluntary contributions or endowments, 
to be opim frre of school fees to all appli- 
cants for ail mission, then this country 
would be working under similar conditions 
to Krance.excppt Paris and some ot her lar;ge 
towns, to Bi-rlin and other lar^ towns in 
Uennany, and to some (if not all) of the 

frovince« nf the Dominion of Canada. 
tut the parallelism is not nearly so com- 
plctit, nor, therefore, the coiujuirison of 
datM to valuable, when we t4ike Switxer- 

laod, or Paris Ami mmdc other large te 
in France, whcri- ixlucation, aecynidiirj : 
well as elemenlnry, ia free ; or the 
of America, where ibis la also tlie ■ 
and, in addition, some of tlwoi hav 
compulsory law atid otlion not. 
no ailment at all can bo derived 
Holland or Belgium, as in both 
countries education is neither compu 
nor free. 

But there is one point in which 
laud difFers from evrry oiher 
with which eomparisona mi^ht be 
and th&t is in the existence of a large an 
ber of elementary schools, deuominatio 
or otherwise, under private managemr 
which mnk eijuiilly with the schools un 
the public management of School IJ 
ns public clementiiry schools entitled I 
legal recognition and to a siuuv ol 
Government graJit, Of the 3,438,0 
children iii average attendance in 
elementary schools in Englan<t {in 
a, 1 87,000 or 64 per cent, weru in D«m 
national Schools, l.SSl.OOO or S6 pert 
ill BoardSchools. But in no otlieroll 
couiitriee named has the voluntary ^ 
ciple obtsiined such hold. Mow a luge i 
: jority of the 5upjiort<rrs of iheae (so- 
Voluntary Schools in EngUml have i 
up their minds that the adoption ot 
education would lead to the extiiiotion| 
tlieir schools, and, with this, of all | 
tees for the ^^Iigious education o< 
children in the principles of religion,! 
viewed from the standpoint of their ■»- 
veral dene mi nations. When, therefore) <t 
is sei-n how targe a hold the denonUB*- 
tionallsts in Ktigland have over the dft* 
mcntjiry education of the country, WW 
bow strongly preponderant, ac«ordin^yi 
is the inlluence of those who, on tneW 
grounds, look upon free e^lucation with 
disfavour, it is obvious that the nroblea 
of introducing free education into Kngland 
aasumes a much more difficult fomi than 
it could have assumed in France, Berlin, 
or Ontario, or would asMitm- in Grnnany, 
Austria, or Australia. Tlie intruductioD 
of free education into EngUuid ha< alsfl 
b€«en opposed on the giMieral ground of ib 
coBtline-sa t)n the face of it, however, 
tlie adoption &f tliis principle only impliei 
a rodist.ribution of an obli^^ation now dis' 
charged by the parents ol the individual 
children attending the schools, so that H 
shall in future be met, in the intemsti 
of tlie community by ©very tu-pftjiiq 


nlier of it. Bat, u » matter of hxal, 
ooni|>urisou of IIip coat of the fr«e 
en aud tlie te»-payiiiK ■}!>t«iii oonuot 
ij toade witkout takju;; into account 
lexOu coat dow incurred in enfarcing 
m lh« prem-iiw of Ike nefioot 
dM only directly, in the tidditioNal 
Tof offic«n rwiuircd owiii),' to friction 
opposition, b>it indirectly, in the in- 
ijOfttc IVSUlt, ns rociisumil hy thn lower 
kttcndMion cornpulxinn iK nlil'i Ui 
■n ft> coRipnr»d with whiit it mi^lit 
if tu> Bchool f(w wcrt' domiindtid. 
I bjtt a Ml iMlucntionul loiu, thi? inugni- 
! of whidi ia estimated very vurioasly 
1 cdncHlional experts ; hut if thut loss 
turn out to be great, and the 
ntry should aw&lie to the fticb, the ad- 
; of free education would not be very 
; delayed. It would then n-ranin to l* 
I whether the sum lost in fees should 
I riToiiped to the aevcnil Rrhools froni 
; lociii rat« or tbe imperial tnxps, or in 
tin prop'irtionn from hcith ; iind, fur- 
T, whether Ihf! diMiominiitioniil schools 
Ih! allowi>d t<i sham in tliis luldi- 
_ il enilowmpnt fmin fiuliHc sooroi-ji, and 
«il! retain all thi! j)rivileg(!s of priviito 
Wid irreapoiisilJo iiiiitia^eiiii-nt now eri- 
jjpd tiT thpin. 

French, .s™ Moukrs LASouAfiEs. 
FntfalnaiL — An undeixruduatt- at Ox- 
hri orCiunbrid^ U termed a ' frfshman' 
to the end of hia Gral year of reaiiJoiR'e. 
Mtbe prf«t?ot time, when the univeisitiea 
In coutoiiu&lly widening their schemes 
Ud extending tlieir inlluence, the luauDers 
Wi cuatoiDB which obtuin there are l>e- 
coning generally familiar, and the fresh' 
ttto is hardly distinguishable from his 
The freshinan is now always 
ned lest br> should appear at his noi- 
sily in ntall hat,or parry an iimbn-lUor 
"ick when he is weariiig his cRp itnd gown. 
He wouM ncvi-r think in thc.ii- diiys of 
mking B ilrmonstration when lin piisse* 
liifrifrnds in the stwels, thcslighl*!*! nod 
u tuflicirnt, neithiir would he ai-Uimpt to 
iloke hnivdi whim li« piLrtgt with thum in 
Ibe pvi'nitig. 

FroelKl. Friedrich Wilhelm August 
(IIW lf>."i:;), wiia boni at Oberweiaaljach, 
athnprindpftlity of Svhwiirx-RudoUtodt, 
in Tharingin. He is known throughout 
Europe and America as a striiiiigly ori- 
pnal Mid Bcieniific writer on the subject 
cf th<* nlueatiou of children during the 
I jettTB, and as the inventor of the 

KiNnF.ROABTRN (rf.v.), or tlie institution 
ill which children bi?tweeii tlie ngi's of 
Uiree and seven are to be enahled to dii- 
velop their fat-ulties. It will be rendily 
seen, however, that his theories and me- 
thods, based as they are on psyiiliology or 
tlic science of the mind, are by no means 
limit^rd in their nppliciition to the earliest 
yenrs of childhood j nor were they so 
limited by him. Wp shall not attempt 
hern any moi'e than a pinin «atfrment of 
hi* principles ; but onr or two events an'l 
dates may bo rnentiont^d lis important, 
Froebel studit^d under Ppstalowi at Yver- 
dun (1808-10) ; published \ns principid 
work, Tli« Education of Afun, in 1826 ; 
oponed his tirst Kindergarten in Blauken- 
burg 1837— in the year 1840 (the four- 
hundredth nnnivorsary of the invention of 
printing) this WHS chungcd into the Univer- 
Hiil Uermtin Jvindergiirten, supported hya 
joint-stock company, and this is the year 
from wliidi most Frocbeliana now date the 
movement ; and published his jyiiMfDjiui 
KoaK'f,i''.dfir (songs, games, and stories for 
niothei-s to use) in l^i'A. Miss PriiPtoriua 
established the lirat Kindergarten in Eng- 
land at Fitzroy Si)uare, Iiondon, in \>*M. 
The Froel-el Society (London) was fonned 
by Miss Doreck and others in 1(*74. In 
1.^77 MisaShirefT wttB elected president of 
this society. 

Tlie purpose of a Kindergarten, as 
briefly stat<'d by Froeliel himself, is as 
follows; 'To tjike the oversight of children 
bnfoni they are ready for school Life ; to 
fixffrt an influence over their whole being 
in Imnnony witJi its nature; to strengthea 
theirbodilypoworB;t« exercise their senses ; 
to employ the awakening mind; to make 
them thoughtfully acquaints) with the 
world of nature and of man; to guide their 
heartB and aoula in a, right dirPction. and 
to leiid them to the Origin of all life and 
to union with Him.' His theory, and the 
principles oti which his priietice rests, 
start from the idea that human nature in 
a child — though liable to error and tiiiuted 
by her<:idity —is in its primary elements as 
free from evil and falsity, as completely 
what it should be, as nature under every 
other a^ei't and in every other manifesta- 
tion. He liolds it, therefore, W \tp the 
mother's and thn educator's task to e.n- 
doavnur to develop human nature's in- 
born original capacities and abilities by 
n carefully graduated progress in every 
dinsction. "Tim child's nature l»ittS^w\ \te 



fisaenop what w<' call ([ood, what wo hftve i 
tci (io lit first ill nipn-'ly to ln-lp iu normal 
growth liy atituriiiK £or it, a (iropi-r euvi- 
runiiii^iit, und by Htipplylii;^ it with, a.nd 
eiiUuiiig it to use, thri Uttiiig means for 
t)ie act ivi ties which its nature noeds for 
<levelo))iiipiit. Nothing thaldocs not spring 
directly from the natural primary outfit, of 
the cliild— is not a natural outcome of it 
^-should hp impoi't'xl into the child in the 
first stAgn. Tln'rc nhoiild lie no pn-st-rip- 
tion nor nncroiwliini'nt, no arbitritry inter- 
ference — nothing but a loving, oftreful 
guidancn undrr the dinwtioii of the broad 
gpni-riil laws of liuuian nature. To pro- 
otNtd : FriM-ht>l holds that in everything 
tlien is tin elvriuLl hiw which always finds 
its expression, with ei:|ual clearness, out* 
wafdly ill physical nature and inwardly in 
the spirit, and also in the life (which is 
the result of the union of physiciil nature 
and spirit), Benejith this atl-pirvading, 
all-powerful In-w lies a single omnipiitont 
cause^OiKl. The spirit of Ond rests, lives, 
nnd works in nature, pxprosses itself by 
nittiim (as an iirtiBt exjiri«aes his spirit in 
a work of iirt), iirijuirtB itsHf through 
nature, <-ojitinui?s to give itaelf shape in 
mid by nature ; but nature is nut the 
body of (Jod. Tim coiidilioii on which the 
<(iisli'ni'i) and the devt'iiipnient of things 
(h'[«-nd is their agreement with and liku- 
ness to this oiuuipot^ut cause — lit their 
God-likf-nets. This Coii likeness, or funda- 
mental harmony with the laws of their 
being, rt^ts in, rules, and operates in all 
things \ all thuigs live and develop through 
the Uudlikeness which worksin them ; and 
the Godlikeness working in everything is 
theessenceof the life of that thing. There- 
fore, the destination and vocation of every- 
thing is to develop, and fitly eichibit the 
essential prineiplc of its being (it« Oodlike- to manifest and rcvMil God in the 
transiloiy visible world of things. The 
partiouUr destination, tliH jinrticular vo- 
cation of every perepiving and reusoning 
liunian beingistodevclop his individuality, 
his essence^to bfcomr himtfl/; to grow 
fully cfinBcious of, to win a vigorous and 
clear insight into hisGodUkenpss, so as to 
develop it in pnicticn in his own life, of 
his own frne will and desire ; to make it 
(■flbctive in every direction which his inner 
cnnocity admits at. To awaken a human 
being to a full sense of this, and to provide 
hiiu in unbroken coutiuuity with the means 
(or putting it into pruutice, is to «ducaU 

man. Proolie), like FeBt&Ioni, fioMs I 
wherever tliere is life, wherever then ! 
development, tliere must be motion, : 
vity— that develiipuieiit is only to be ] 
duced by e.tercise. A part, therefo 
u large part — of education must consist] 
active original endeavour, active 
work, which compels tho child to uae i 
own faculties. Education cannot 
of mere listening and imitation. 

According to Froebe!, from it* 
breath the child comes under th»inflti 
of tliree powers: viz. Nature, »mimt«i 
inanimate ; Humanity ; and tbt! Po 
which pervadea and directa tli«w — rial 
to its highest temporal manifeatation 
the hitter— the power wa call God. 1^] 
child's body connects it with organic and 
inorganic, animate and inanimate, naton; 
its /lenrt aifi mitui connect it with ani!' ' 
make it a part of the great whole, hu- 
manity (past, present, and future); and lU 
luh'ih heitiff ivnd myiit depend upon and rnfl 
energised by Gcxl. If this be so, the child, 
he thinics, should grow up niuler the inflo- 
eneea of nature ; thi-re it should gnds- 
ally, but in unbioken continuity, kain 
that laws underlie all organic fonnatim, 
and that conformity with thonK laws ii 
the fundamental unvarying condition (or 
all true and every-sidetl devdopiurjtt lO- '^ 
wards perfection ; should come t<i 6M 
gradually that all tliese laws am in rtality }' 
but various modes and manlfextatioDs « J 
one law, and thus learn to link togetbtf 
or reconcile vluit seems separate or <^ 
posed ; should, through the loving eufi 
liestows on plants and animals, enlarf!* 
its heart and sympathies, and prepam it 
self for the loving care it is to bestow on 
human beings; should, in studying and 
imitating the conformity of His works, 
find and love the great Master as tiis 
Creator of oature,, and itJi own Cr«Ator; 
should breathe in the peaoe which rukl 
in nature, and in occiiputinns eoniiecWi 
with nature, before tlie noise of th« world 
and of sin ent«r its biding. 

The means that nature chooses for lb« 
development of a child's body ih phvKiool 
niovpinent. Therefore, let thi- limhi b» 
carefully exerciBed— especially tho hand, 
and with it the wnse of touch. Th# 
instinct of construction and the iwnMS o( 
sight and hejtririg should next receiVB 
attention and he exercised. The occupa- 
tion of gardening ahotild be Cocterrd. for 
by it the child K«ina bis flrtt glioipatM cl 


In wooden *ik1 beaatfM of 'tmtur^ ; leariiit 
• lo»e labour aud lo une labour fur the 
ffauure utd K<^ <)f o(Ji(-i-s. To leiui the 
tliild from nature to huuianity, kU iiibcrn 
Mmt impulses altould be dntwn out and 
bf* liTiiiglj »ctivp. In short, every Kpon- 
JNMMU dnvvloprornt which the cliiid's 
Mtarft mnkf« n. dcmnnd for Rhoiild lie 
Wiilnl anddin'cti'il in niic llnlirokrn enn- 
liuiiity, >nd with t)ii> gnuti'Mt (} nnfl 

On the practical side, th« maater-Ktroku 
((Fropbrra gcuiuH was liisorgiuiiBiition of 
cbildrwii's play. Ht^ reeogniHwl it ua the 
Bmus iiatur«i lienelf luul uhoseii for the 
taatiaa of the younj^. Ho saw lliat by 
mTJliin, ft wise and thoughtful choii.'e 
i mnMB, And orgituising them, he could, 
■iucnt in ftny way spoiling the epon- 
■BMds delight, tDAke ttimi the tnmns by 
rindi hia idiMS of educntion might Im put 
UUi pmolicn in thoir Snt and moxt i^le- 
ncntari- fornix. Gninf>a of movement for 
Ik timlHt, for Hm lands;, of iTcmslruction, 
vt cfetldiafa soiiK — "H the-ii' :iji^-ht well be 
colhxiti^ or iuveiitpii ; mid tliise hn did 
ndlecl ur invtrnt with lultuii'alile sui'i'i^hs. 
Ife ipuueo aud nongB will be found or- 
Mned and expliiiiied in the ifutUr vrui 
Eim-Lietier. TIil- implements for the ex- 
CKIH of tliD iiitttUeL-tuiil faculties fui'm 
»hM ftK called ■ Froebel's Gifts.' The 
employment oC tlie gumes. aoii^, aud frjfta 
ti what is called the Kiiid^rgdrUn Sytlrm. 
GMdening — nature's own most delightful 
pMP-^and the cnre of animals did not 
niiuire bis iuveutioD. All he harl to do 
kn was to encourage and lead the ehil- 
dn« to make use of the rrsults of thc-ir 
iiUnt vObrt« in the enrvice of others, 
T\m would dmw them to their fellows, 
•Wild link tlipm in humanity ; nnd from 
lw» of tbrir fellows would lie ileveloped 
Us low of Goil. Work, whith at the 
•nne tinw vitta tlw^ fullilment of duty, ho 
Mv wa« tii« only trui? buniB of monU oul- 
111* ; but it was nweiiaiiry thiit nuoli 
nrit tbould not only dt-li^'ht the worker, 
illitiOBldabo uituf}' liis inntinelof love;it 
Amid tfiereforo ba^'e an objeit ; and that 
(ijwt sboold \i6 to give help and pleasure 

FomitBrCL — The furniture required for 
M ofdinary claaS'room is as follows: (a) 
iteakt and aeau for the pupils; ('-) teacher's 
ri«ak and seat ; (r) a cupboard ; {d) a blnelc- 
loanl : {*) a bookcnse for 1ea<;her's hooks ; 

a clock. The best desks for pupils are 

single desks placed eighteen inches apart 
and occupying about two-thirds of the 
Uooi- spuue. The seats should lie slightly 
hollowed, ftiid oapfkble of being rai&ed or 
lowered ; and the lirtekKshould slopeslightly 
backwards, and should be altjjmblc so as 
to gfivn thriir chi<:f uupjiort just lielgw the 
Khoiilder-bladeiof the pupil. There should 
he n rent for thl^ feet somewhat in front 
and KlojM'd upwurd.i *a iJmt the fore-leg 
may reat comfortably at an anjjle of idHiut 
GO". The lid of the desk should slope 
towards the pupil ; and its lower edge 
sliould come to hiselbow and be vertically 
over the fi-ont edge of tlie seatv The lid 
should be twenty-four inches wide, aud 
haven hinge about one-third of the way 
up from it* lower edge, so that this part 
may be turned back and used as a book- 
rest, and may also give tlut pu]>il room to 
slond freely. The box part of the desk 
should not enl«nd towards the pupil far- 
ther tlian this hinge, and sliould be ciijui- 
hle of being raised or lowered. The ink- 
wells should be provided with covers. If 
diinl dehks Ix- u^ed, a slightly larger num- 
ber of pupils may be seated in the suuiA 
floor space. The teacher's desk and seat 
should be placed on a broad platform raised 
aljuut nine inches from the floor. Tho 
desk should be provideil with drawei-s on 
the left hand, and a cupiioard on the riffht. 
Pi'olwbly, the most aon'iceahle blackboaM 
is one marie of wood, and divided into two 
parts, wtuch can be moved up and down 
like tJie sashes of n window. Kach part 
should be about six feet by four feet, Its 
most convenient position is either irame- 
dialfly behind the tejicher'a seat, or on 
Iho same wall, ftooiewhat ferther to the 
right of tlie teaelittr (when aeat^'d). Fixed 
to tlie wall, close to the teacher's dehk, 
there should lie a siimll b'lokcase (with 
gl;i£s door, and lock and key) to hold hia 
books, The cupboard should be large 
enough to hold all the apparatus of rend- 
ing-books, stationery, .tc. usually required 
by the class. As a rule, its dimeiisiona 
should he seven feet hiijh, by four fert, and sixteen inches deep. The 
shelves should extend from the left side 
three-quarters of the way across; tlie^ .her 
quarter being left for the storing of niaps 
and other apjiamtus whose length would 
Other-wise prove inconvenient. Hooks 
should be fixed on the top of the black- 
bonnl frame for the hanging up of maps, 
itc. There should l>e a few yiciiit**. «». 

the wnll* to giT«i thn mora gnwt^r <i)ieer- some sonnra or Hxums of natarel 
fulni-jixAnd intwmit. Thd sulijPctH of iht-su tbwr object being toduuia nthcr I 
piutuns nliould Ih.' iMthcr liitttoriciU, or I inatntot. 


Oall, James. See Ediicatic>!i of tub 

Game*. .?■■'■ Pr.Ar. 

Garfield. James (A- in Ohio IS.W, ns- 
saasiiiatixl lt*Sl), one of tlip frrriitpst 
Amerienin i(tiiti-aiii<^n and mtviwati-s of 
popiil!tri-iliiCiit,ii»n,stiirt*d lift- in tlie back- 
wood*. His fiithpr was li biuuU farmer, 
and It'ft u widow with four children, of 
whom Jaiii«B wils th^ youngeBt, He liad 
but litt.IeiHtiicatioiiaa a child, for he began 
to work on tlio farm early, and latdr on 
he watt u wiLUinijan on a canal. But a 
st'boolu] aster, who had observed his iotu'l- 
ligetife. BKCJiestwi I'hnt he ahnuld take to 
teaching, and he coranip.neecl tnsludy. At 
twentv*one we find him cnndupting an 
eleinfintary schcitil. Liiler hi bocanie a 
student at WilliiimR CiiDege, and took his 
drgnie in 18.'i6 with distinction. Hniiext 
lici-ariii! 11 professor at Hiraiii College, and 
then principiil. TIk-ii he coinmeiUKil liis po- 
liiii^iil cantir. He was stronyly op|iose<l to 
iiUvcry, on which tiiiestion he inside many 
Kpei-chi'Ji, and won greut popularity, so that 
in IHttI he wiis elected member of the 
Sftnale for Ohio. He left his college and 

J'oini^ the army, where he distinj^sJied 
liuiaelE by his ability, and roee to the rank 
of major- general. He was elected by Ohio 
as repreaentativo in Congressin I8G4. In 
Mai'cb 1881 he succeederl Mr. Hayes in 
the Presidency of the United Statej?. In 
the following Jaly lie was ghot by an 
assassin. As meml»erof Congress he t^ook 
a keen inWrest in education. He fought 
a griwt battle on behalf of Miperintendents 
of lieboolH, who de.Kirnil to have a central 
administration. In this, however, he was 
dnfi-alinl, hut the IJunwu of Education at 
Washington reaulleil from this eontcst. 
In his prt'-iidciitial itddreHs, on March 4, 
IKHl, he ai't forth his views most elo- 
ijucnitly on the iinporbince of eitucation 
OM n giianintee far t)ie maintenance of a 

Generarsation. Sm An-iltbib. 

Geography. — The iinjuiry into the stat* 
of K^'>;;rupbii.'al teaching in Engtiidi schuolx, 
instituted a few yeara ajfo by tlie Royal 

Geographical Soca*^, wfaiefa reaulwll 
Mr. J. Scott Keltie'a ezMUmt i 
1 885, proved what few niasten doul: 
that grngmphy was little taught (e 
in elementary schools), and that 
badly. At the best, children arc i 
couunit to memory a vast amount of i 
tistica — moat of which are of no 
value ; and not a few of no rnlne wh 
ever. The whole plan is a fiiilura. lit 
with the hope, therefore, of hulr 
much needed reform that tlift full 
plan is describeil. The tirst staRO 
train the constructive imagination of j 
child ; to enable bim to furm menial ]^ 
tures of what he has not seen by meentl 
that which ho /laa seen. The first «a, 
thereforp, is to exercise ib* child in at 
serving iiis own natural mrroniKlings, vul 
llie simplpst and commonest natunu iib»- 
nomena. Wh^n bo lias observed cumlij 
a rivulet, a mound, or a sloping pieM »! 
ground, we may lead him, by [Jie ud of 
exercises in relative magnitudes, to ima- 
gine a stream or rivr^r, a mnimtatn, a slop- 
ing plain or watershed. By the aid <i 
rough nioili'ls, pbologmphs, and vwtai 
descriptions we may tlien enable him to 
form mfnUil piaturr* of particular pjacfl 
and localities which he has not tar-iv S' 
doubt the best plan is to see a plaoe witb 
one's own eyes ; to travel in it auil en- 
mine it But tJiis is only posaibtofcr* 
very few. The generality must dopeod 
on the pictures and desoriptiouB of othtM 

' What the teacher has to do ia to mate 
sure that' these pictures and descriptiiHii 
are clearly understood, and result in •ri'ii- 

! tat pictures ; that the leanier knows h"" 
to use tliem. Maps are of no use here, fir 
they help the imagination v«ry little iu' 
deed. The time for leamin;; about tbe^m 
and using them comes later. What ore 
needed are pictnira (or, rather, photo- 
graphs) and rough models. Tbn titncher. 
however, has one grejit difficulty to «»■ 
tend with at first : vix. that childrcai do 
not care for still life and scenerv. It i> 
hard to get them to ot>serve still life evn 
wlirn it is |>ment. Tbey are still lesi 


to imoffiite it. W}i»t Uiey oare 
moviny Ufe, action, tutviMitura. A 
u iutereBtlii^ becauw of the living 
men or Mtimal* that have been or 
it. Put a British soldier in th« 8ou- 
utd pv«ry one of us is interested iii th» 
and eagerly studies every picture 
•very description of it. We must, 
OMkn the locality which we are 
itally p!>ctur«, in tlie first place, in- 
ng. Wn can do this hy storiea, ad- 
ires, tmvids, historical events -espe- 
thoae in whicli the physical aspect 
conformation of the locality am of 
inportance (as in battles, for tnnULnce). 
Hirin]; acquirvd som» idea of the real 
duracter of a locality, our uesl slap will 
br lo dedac« and noUi t)ie bearioK of this 
on ordinary human lif» and iudustry, and 
the bearing of human life aud industry on 
Ibe locality. Pictures will still help us 
Vfatn W0 pass on to towns, aud buildings, 
■d4 indos^es, as well as for plants and 
ttinals. How this ma; then gradually 
Winch out into ^yticM, mdiUtrM, and 
ftiitietd geography wu need not dc«;ribe. 
It is wh«n formin;^ mental picture-s of 
U nnannn locality that the lint need of a 

aia fdt — soinething to writt- and re- 
the porta and dctniU which wc have 
karat to we with our mind's ■■yc. Hero. 
then, we should begin to enquire how t« 
■mkc a good record or memorandum of a 
Mbs DMprecent— something more handy 
vd oomprehensive than a picture. We 
■laU begin with some simple thing uc- 
telly pnaent. By drawing the vorti- 
Montane of the door or window of tlie 
■mOi oo the bluclclxHtnl, and discussing it. 
*• BMj arrive ul the iilL-a of relation of 
fvtt or drwcing to tcafe. By drawing 
tte boriamtal surface of the table we 
MriTe at an id««, of tlie oecaesity of fixing 
kne aid« of the hoard to represent some 
>tde of the room ; and by trying to insert 
00 oor blackboard plan some of the objects 
<■ the table, we arrive at ideas of relaCive 
fttitiont, rtiative dinetUKM, dUtannet, and 
amu. We may then draw plans of the 
phyground. or the neiglibouring fields {in- 
troducing the idea of ]<oint» of Ok. emn- 
pM*), and study carefully a local vtap. 
Turning next to spheres, and trying to 
copy oo to a blackboard sphere what Is on 
mMher, we may an-ive at the use {in the 
MM Ot an oblate spheroid) of the equator, 
ind tlie ideas of laiitude and longitude. 
With proper ftmogement the sphere may 

be made to heeome oblate by spinning it 

ou its axis.] R«turning to drawing on 
the fiat we may pass on to inventing the 
marks for mountains, rivers, trees, itc. (a* 
ou the goological survey maps), and so to 
mnp reading, and tlie maps of the locali- 
ties of which wo have been forming mental 

Limitj-d apace makes it impossiblo to 
descritie the details of the plan fully ; but 
enough has been said to suggest them. 
Photographs are more taithful in small 
matters than pictures, but to oollect them 
takes time. Of pictures tliere are several 
good atlases published in Germany. The 
two best are Hirt's Geographueiie Bilder- 
laf'fin {published at Breslau. 7'.), and 
Schneider's Typen- AClan (Dresden, 2k. Gd.). 
A set of eight large coloured pictures of 
Holland are supplied by its government 
to ita public schools ; these can be pro- 
cured in England for altnnt 4». Many 
large wall pictures of tocatities and towns 
were exhibited at the Royal Geographical 
Society's Exhibition of liiS^, and are men- 
tioned in (lieir catalogue. 

Geology (77, the earth ; Xdyos, a dis- 
course) is to tlie earth tliat which biology 
is to the living things on its surface ; as 
biology traces the organism from the 
Moneron to Man, geology traces the world 
from its origin to its present condition jl 
aa biology eiposea the evolution of living 
forms, geology exposes the evolution (3 
OUT planet. It strikes its roots into almost 
every science ; thecomplete geologist must | 
be an astronomer, a physicist, a chemist, 
A biologist ; he must be the most fully 
equipped of specialists. Dr. Archibald 
(Jeikie divides the science under seven 
heads: 1. Coamical Aspectfl of Geology. 
■3. Geogno^ fy^, and y^i(r«, knowledge), 
an investigation of the materials of the 
earth's surface. 3. Dynamical (StVa/tis, 
power) Geology, de;iiing with tlie change*, 
internal and external, which the earth has 
undergone. -1. Oeotectoiiic {yi}, and t(«to- 
i-i'a, workmanship), or Structural Geology, 
deiiling with the architecture of the (^arth'f 
crust. 5. Palieontologica! (TroAaio't, ancient; 
okTo, beings ; Aoyos) Geology. 6. Strati- 
gruphical(H(ro(ii/n,alayer; ypa'0o),I write) 
Geology 7. Phyaiographiool (^ilcr«, na- 
ture ; ypdifivi) Geology. 

1. Connical Geology. — The earth is the 
third planet in the solar system, only 
Venus and Mercury circling round the 
sun within its orbit. Acotvcdiug to thfi 

oebular hypc^tH^i^s tt'lwgaB ita aepuate 
existence as a, ring of vapour, thrown off 
by the coudeoaiag nebula wLiufa once oc- 
cupied the whole area of what Js dow ths 
solar Byatam. This rin);, by dinruption 
and condensation, assumed the globulnr 
form, becoming an oblfttp spheroid in con- 
sequenci? of iti rotntion, and as it con- 
densed throwing o£F the ring of vnpour 
which became the moon. It finally be- 
citme a body with an equalorinl diiimct^r 
of 7925'604 mUeK, and s polar diiimnter of 
7899*114, the equatorial circumferBnoe — 
■which iH an ellipse, not a circle — being 
rather less than 25,000 miles, 

2. Geognoay. — Tlie earth may be re- 
garded aa consisting of three parts ; the 
atmosphere, or gaseous envelope ; the 
ocean, or watery envelope, covering three- 
fourths of its surface ; and the globe itself 
The atmosphere boa a thickness of from 
forty to forty-five miles, and consists of 
twenty-three parts by weiglit of oxyEen, 
iind seventy-seven of nitrogen. It contains 
alio normally carhun dioxide, aqueous 
vapour, ammotiia, and oioiie. The ocean 
occopip-s 14'1, "12, 000 square miles of the 
earth's surface, and its total cubic con- 
tents are about iOO millions of cubic 
miles ; it is estimated that this is but 
about two-thirda of tlie primseval ocean 
which once completely enwrapped the 
globe. The exposed surface of the globe 
is about 62,000,000 square miles ; its 
highest point ia Mount Everest in the 
Himalayan range, 29,002 feet above the 
ana-level ; its lowest the shores of the Dead 
Sea, 1,300 feet below sea-level. With re- 
gard to the globe itself, the older but now 
discredited opinion was that it consisted 
of a crust of aolid matter enveloping a 
liquid nucleus. It appettrs now to he well- 
nigh certain lliat the globe can only be 
fluid in comparatively very limited spaces. 
The internal temperature is proved to be 
very high by the existence of volcanoeaand 
hot springe, as well as by the rise of tern- 
peniture observed in aeecending minea, 
ahafts, iic, amounting to about $" C. for 
every fifty feet. The period that has 
elapsed since the earliest forms of living 
tbioga appeared on the earth is calculated 
on geological evidence by Dr. Geikie at 
' not much less than one bundred million 
yeara.' Sir William Thomson reachesthe 
eame period by physical data. The chemi- 
cal con&tiluents of tho globe are — bo ftir 
ma ia knows at prMont — seventy to nain- 

ber, but ninety-nine percent of the < 
crust consists of the following rixte«n i 
ment« : oxygen, silicon, carbon, sul 
hydrogen, chlorine, phosphoruB,aluminiii 
calcium, magnesium, potaasium, aodii 
iron, manganese, barium. 

3. Geology. — Tlie 
brought about by volcanoes, i 
and other disturbing forces, f otto the 1 
branch of geological science. The 
conditions of seismic disturbaaoea at« litl 
understood. Variations of atmosp 
pressure, the position of tlie aait-spoU, I 
existence of a apecies of internal 
causing varying pressures on the 
surface from within, have beein i 
In addition to the catastrophic 
brought about by these soddenly : 
agents, alt«mtioD8 in the forni of 
earth's surface result from long-cont 
and slow upheavals and depressiona,! 
to have occurred by the presence < 
of fossilised sea organisms far above big 
water mark, by raised beocbea, sud) 
those found in Cornwall, by sub 
forests, Ac. Changes in the nature of i 
have resulted from fusion, from cont 
tion, from the action of hot watar,«rad[ 
sure. All these changes are classed an 
the general name of nietamorphism {)tt 
over ; liopijrti, a form), and rocks subje 
to them are called metamorphio 
Changes on tlie surface are caused by < 
action of the atmosphere, of rain, seaa, t 
rivers, of plants and animals. 

4. G«oUHonic Geology. — Under 
head is studied the arrangement of 
in the earth's crust. Rocks laid down i 
aqueousdeposit«showa stratified fomi,l 
these appear aa conglomerate, aand 
shales, and timestoDes, They are tnv 
by inclined divisional planea, called joji 
Aqueous rocks left undisturbed lie in ha 
Eontul beds, the oldest at the bottom 
most have acquired what is fttlled ' 
and make an angle with the horitoa] 
consequence of terrestrial disturb 
Sometimes the strata have been 
pletely inverted, sometimes crumpled 
pressure ; and it is through all the 
tortions that the geologist liaa to find hil 
way. The strata are furtlier intemipted 
by eruptive or igneous rocks that ut* 
burst their way through from benertli) 
and present themselves as boeses, sheets, 
veins, dykes, and necka 

fi. Piclaonloloyieai Getfhgy. — 'ntismost 
fascinating brknob of geology deals with 

fligunc raninm or 'ftiHiU ' imbeddexl 
1 tbe Mtrth'a cmiit. Thnse «re found in 
ht bcdic of Inkra, in pent- mosses, deltas, 
avATTui, roiniTnl ipritigs, ntiil votcanic iJe- 
Mita. Hm bed of the ocean, us rRvmlitd 
unngtlie ' ChoUeiif^r ' eipeditiou, is full 
toguie ranuuns, and Die shores of &ens 
b* ofi^ ri«h atorea tor uivesliga.tio:i. 
Ub leada directly Ui — 
6. Slrali^raphieal Geology, which Uya 
tJi« order of superpoBition of the 
This order haa been establislied 
icfly by invwtigfttion of the organic re- 
ombeddod in tbeiD. Oldest ia the 
SASr {fipY^ bo^oning), or Azoic (<i, 
irativo; {wij, life), or Eojioic (;}■.'«, dftwn ; 
t) formation ; in this are no fossils, euvt^ 
.(K( tlw FniXKin (n?f ; and xonn, uititDnl) 
xhtt Cunudiun Lauri:nttnn, nnd somi; 
of fibrous structurv in btiiidH of gra- 
iie, tfaoo^t ta{M]asibly arixK from pUnts. 
Pai.£OZ0ic, or primury rockx, Imve 
Itven subdivisions- The Camlirian liiive 
pwgw, crinoidfl, Btarflshes, trilobJIes, and 
nnova species of mollusca. Tb<3 Silnrum 
in cluini«t«ri«ed Id addition by tishee and 
■•-weed*. The Dm>nnian have a flora of 
haA cryploc;nms, hut the fauna is still 
Bonne with the exception of some in- 
Red And mympods : a few contfera have 
beat fbond, and a single fragment of a 
dfag^edonous tma. Tlie Curf/oni/cfou» 
m GlutnHrb>nKe^ by the great develop- 
natof land plantfi, cliip6y lycopoda, equi- 
Maoee, and ferns ; spiders and scorpions 
nke th«dr first appearance in the va^t 
ingtl** of the carboniferous era. The 
fmnian have thit lost specimens of the 
mt aocient flora, nnd sbow more coni- 
bn ; amphibian* np[i«ir in considrruble 
tnuben, aiul the nrst Enrojiean reptile 
fifciand. Tlie Mesozoic (/nVo^, middle ; 
ud {<*ij), or Secondary, conimMice witli 
tk TfioMie, diaracteriaed by the great 
rinelopineDt of cycads ; among its fiLunu. 
^ppetr the first deiuosaurs, the tirsl cro- 
Dodilet, mnd tbe tnauunHl, a tiiar- 
npiaL Tlie Jurasric formation allows 
tn uml adTuic« in vegetation, but is 
baiS«d by the grent development of rep- 
sBaii forms, a« the Ichthyosaurus, the 
.aroa, and the Pliosaurus ; the fly- 
nptilw also appear, and the Archeo- 
;, ImU bird, half reptile. The secon- 
rocks nod with the CmtiKtwiif, in 
are found » number of angiosper- 
pluit«, among ih*m the oak, the 
and the poplar : in the fAuna huge 

sea-scrpenta are trie mort remarkable fea- 
tiirfi;and birds— some of them toothed and 
closely related to reptiles — become more 
numerous. The Oai.sozoic {tatvui, recent) 
or Tertiary rocks include the Eoetne, Oli- 
goeene, A/ioeenf, and Pliocene. In the 
Eocene mammalian forma hecome abun- 
dant, and include the anoestor of the 
horse. Evergreena are a mai'ked cbarac- 
teristic o( tlie Oliyocsite flora, and the firrt 
apea are found in the Miocene. During 
the Plioceriie age the plants belonging to 
tropical climates retreated from Europe, 
the European climate graduaUy cooling 
as the period approached its termination. 
The Post-Tkrtiary or Quaternary rocka 
consist of tbe fleislnceiu: and Resent. 
The Pleistocene saw the glacial period in 
Europe, immediately before which Eng- 
land had an Arctic flora ; it is during 
this period that the tirst undoubted human 
remains are found, though some geologists 
claim to have found traces of a Pliocene 

I, Phyno^rapkieal Geoloffij deals with 
the growth of continents, the ' evolution 
of the existing contours of dry land.' 

The best text-books for consultation 
are Dr. Oeikie's 'J'<xt-Book of Heology, and 
Lyeli's Ekvieiit* of (ieolpijy. 

Oeometry. — Two questions naturally 
suggest themselves in connection with the 
educational aspect of geometry. First, 
what are the purposes to be served by 
studies in geometryl Secondly, what does 
a complete course of geometry include, and 
how, and in what order, are the various 
part« to be studied! The answer to the 
flrst question is not far to seek, and there 
is little or no difference of opinion amongst 
educators with regard to it. We teach 
some subjects for the practical use of the 
facts or the skill they impart ; others for 
the mental discipline they afford. We 
teiiL-li geometry for both reasons— for the 
sake of the habits of mind which this study 
has a tendency to form, and for the prac- 
tical use of the results of its investigations. 
Now, what are the habits of mind which it 
tends to form — which it either strengthens 
or creates ? 

First, the study of geometry developa 
the power of attention. It makes the 
mind able to direct itself to any question 
that may be proposed ; to give that ques- 
tion continuous thought ; to compare it 
with other questions, and U> £x it« relations 
to thorn. It cnabiea ua to T«i^'a\it.\« ^hft 


BUCcensipnnFoTifthongMa. In odier words, 
it develops the power of continuous rea- 
soning. Tliis power litis to be iioquired ; 
it is uot given by nature. To leim to 
reufiou, soni«t)iiTi^ must be given to reason 
opou- Of the many pusaible subjecU, it 
is clearly desirable to choo»e that claas of 
subjects in which we can find out by other 
niea,n3 than pure reasoning, such as mea- 
surement and ocular il^iBioiistration. whe- 
ther the results of the reasoning are true 
or not. Geometry fullila these conditions 
letter than any other subject, and has in 
consequence, for many centuries, been used 
a* the instrument for giving practice in 
reasoning. The truths of geometry are 
simple, easily tested, and capable of exact 
stabemaut. Reaaoning on them may be 
built up like a chain, link by liiik, and at 
erery step ia coherent and conclusive. 
Again, we study geometry for the use of 
the facts it teaches in building construc- 
tions, in manufactures, and in all the 
mechanical businesses of life. Every fact, 
from the most elementary tiO the most 
advanced, lias myriads of practical appli- 
cations. Wb teach gRometry, then, as we 
teach other sciences, for its direct effect 
on our weli-lteing In its practical uses, and 
for its liigher but more indirect effect as 
n discipline of the intellect. The two ob- 
jects should be sought together. In an- 
Bwerin^ the second question we have no 
doubt as to the lieginniug. We commence 
with Euclid's Sl^merUt or same equivalent 
system of elementary geometry. The 
famous E}''.iartnJJi for twenty-two centuries 
have be«n the inspiration and aspiration 
of scientific thought. The book was 
written shortly after the foundation of 
the Alexandrian Museum, and, therefore, 
after the science of mathematics had burst 
tlie bonds which restrained her in the 
Platonic school, and hail started on her 
career of conquest ovnr the whole world 
of Phenomena. It consisted of relinbl<> 
knowledge which was moulded into form 
so nearly perfect that every scientific stu- 
dent of every subject took it as the model 
after winch he sought to shafie his own 
pirticular science. ' Far ap. on the great 
mountain of Truth. wliii:h all the sciences 
hope to scale, the foremost of that sacred 
sisterhood was seen, beckoning to the rest 
to follow her. And hence she was called 
in the dialect of the Pythagoreans, " tlie 
purifier of Che roasonable soul " ' ( W. King- 
don Clifford), Thiabook of Euclid's has 

had a hiat«ry afl chftftaencl u that of ha- 
man progress itself. It embodied uJ 
systemntisedthe truest results of the seanl 
after truth (hit was roado by GrocJc, Gfmw 
tiau, and Hindoo. It preJiiilod for n(MJ 
eight centuries over that promise of UgU 
and right tJiat was maile by thu dviliM. 
Aryan races on the Meditemineun ahcMfc 
It went into exile along with th« tnieilee- 
tual activity and the goodness of Earopa 
It was taught, and commented upon, nA- 
illustrated, and supplemented, by Anb 
and Nestorian, ia the Universities (C 
Bagdad and of Cordova. From thoM it 
was brought back into barbaric BivcM 
by terrified students, wboda^edtl^lI YtaMJ 
any other thing of wh&t th«y had IcudmI 
amoug the Saracens. Translated fica 
Arabic into Latin, it passed into the scboaU 
of Europe, spun out with addition*] CSM 
for every possible variation of the Cgniti 
andbristlingwith wordswhichhodaouMsl 
to Greek ears like the babbling of luidl 
in a hedge. At length the Gn**k text tf- 
peared and was translated ; and, like oth* 
Greek authors, Euclid lieoameiinauthoritj. 
But theque-stion is constantly being um 
whether the elements form a suit&Ue bo*k 
for beginners. On the one band it is w^ 
that Euclid's book was never designed (« 
beginners, that Euclid's object was totbov 
how little need be assumed in geomMrji 
and how much that is obvious as w«H H 
obscure may be demonstrated, and thl^ 
too, under difficulties which are ne* 
encountered, and in spite of restriotuM 
which are never imposed. It is va^ 
that the teacher in this, as in otbor ra^ { 
jects, should always t«.ke advantage A \ 
the many simple and inconlestahly tn* i 
notions already in the pupil's poMn-aioB, j 
and should proceed without dcUy to ti* 
all-important part of the subject: tlie pU- 
sago, with absolute certainty and iu tlw 
most direct and simple manner, froB . 
geometrical properties whicli aro obrioni. ^ 
to others which are less obvious or oot i* 
all so. The progressive charact«r of tb* , 
science ia also quoted, and it is pmnl«d oot 
that elementary geometry can no longtf 
be regarded as a lo:ig since perfected 
branch of knowtotlge ; it is uo longpr 
classed with the seven orders of architer- 
ture, for instance, that cannot be touched 
without being spoilt. On the eontrarji 
it is generally Ttcognised now. that th« 
elements of geoiaeti^, so fa,r as prindpW 
and methods of expoaitioo are 

are ooncciu^ 



MBtUtate not a dead but a living science, 
'ptible still of being improvrrf, and 
MOl e«f«ble of fnntl^iiig new mattor for 
HMMght to boUi tMch*n- uiid student. 

On ihe other Imud, the tulvuiitngcs of 
■lifomuty are ur^ed ifl favour of tho 
ntentionof Euclid as a text-book. Every 
•suniner in tJte subJMtt IjdiIr thut ttin in- 
cotirrnwnGO of departing from Euulid i« 
ft vorj" aorioiu one, and plunges blui nt 
■toe from ortter into chtios. Many pro- 
feotwn* Iwve tliar conrers«, and uuImh 
ihe esamtncna follow the snmci sy8l«m it 
b Kliniut impoaxiblo for an wcamiiier to 
fruue bin uoestiona »» iw to pravent their 
BUfcinx biao uM of the rnnverKion of 
propoaiLioiiB. For uuttancti, the tifth pro' 
poottoo of tlie First Book may be bfumd 
a the nxtli ; the forty -M-vuiitb pmnnsi- 
tioD ta^j bo offered as the i-onveric of the 
brtjr-ei^th; and in fact if absolute friHtdorn 
tt cboJce bo allowed with re^unl to tlie 
l}itND of geometry used the result will lie 
• Mndley of portions of different syst«mi>, 
vhich vill bo nncless for the purpose we 
bite dr^Mnibnd in answering the first ques- 
tise. What, tlien, is the course whicli 
ibould be adopted in this dilemma 1 Com- 
HMo mttm suggests a oompromise. In the 
tadiiDg of Uio subject the way may be 
nweth^ hy azplaiuitian. by investiga- 
fiou, and by tha poatponoment of difficul- 
tiet until they cnn bo grappled with. It 
■Nms visn to adhere ns fur as possible to 
Hn onier of Euclid for the sake of the 
taniDoci atiuidftrd which this furnishes for 
lamination purjioM-a, but no examiner 
■bonld iiuuMt on uonestRiitiulK. For in- 
Mance^ Propoailiona II. and III., and pro- 
l»Wy VIII., aiw quite uniieceswiry. The 
iiolotion of the uiffii-'ulty will be com- 
jJetelj met by a freer method of teaching 
■jon the one hand, and in examining by n, 
indicioua avoidance of Uiose purta whic-h 
pi» ftnwn the arbitrary and unneces.itin' 
tatrictionB imposed by EucUd, and which 
W»y be omitt^ without losa of rigour us 
lOgV*^ ^e remainder. 
i !n»e superiority of this mode of pro- 
|ndiiT« for edacational purposes over that 
keeping to the dry text of Euclid pure 
nnple, will be contested by no one 
'bo bu obMrced either the permanently 
■ oSects of the discouragement 
Ivood by initial vagueness, tedious- 
and difficulty, or the permanently 
tal influence of the encouragement 
ig from early successes, and from the 

fuldlment of the pupil's nntiiral expeutA- 
tion that every intellectual effort will b« 
followed by a conscious oci^uisition of 
knowledge. To secure ami suEtAin the 
pupil's interest from the lirst is also ft 
paintof unquestionable iinportancn ; and i 
although personal uualiti>jd. lions in th^ 
teacher are here indispeiisable, thi« end ' 
s undoubtedly promoted by a niethod 
wherein difficulties are judiciously tem- 
penxl to the pupil's capacities, and tlia 
KubtlclJes of the subject to hia powers of 
appreciating them. 

It has been urged, ond not unreason- 
ably, that by thus rendering geometry 
more ucceesible its value as an intel- 
lectual discipline may be inipainvl. This, 
however, is by no luoaiia neoessarily th* i 
case. Intellectual discipline is tlie natural ' 
concomitant of accurate reasoning, in geo- 
mi^try as in eveiy other subject ; and ac- 
curacy of reasoning depends essentially 
upon the well-marked distinction maiu- 
tainer! at every step between assumption 
and consequence, and upon the manner of 
making the passage from the former to 
the latter. It cannot be said to Iw im- 
paired by omitting to demonstrate when 
deiuonstration is not necessary to convic- 
tion, or by postponing inquiry iiito the 
relation which may possibly exist between 
equally incontestable elementanf assump- 

The higher parts, that Is to say the 
parts beyond Euclidian geometry, take 
two distinct courses, proceeding according 
to two perfectly distinct methods. One 
is called analytical, algebraical or co- 
ordinate geometry, and the other is the 
so-called higher pure geometry. Little 
nee<I be said of the former beyond the 
fact that as regards the treatment of the 
branch included un<ler the term ' cotiii; 
sections,' or curves of the second degiei), 
there are two methods — one followed in 
TodhuTiter's Conic .Scctio7iii, and the other 
in Pucklt's (or Salmon's). Now, exppri- 
ence seems to show that a joint and simuU 
taneous study of both is preferable to an 
exclusive but exhaustive study of either. 

The higher pure genmetry includes 
what is enlled in England 'geometrical 
conies ' (i.e. conies treated by Euclidian 
methods), and a larger branch intimately 
connected with the former, which has been 
but little cultivntt^ in England, although 
it was long since introduced uito scienoe 
by the illustrious geometwts VowteVftt^ 




Mobius, Steiner, Chnsles, nnii titiiiiitt, nnd 
■ygtematiaed in text-booka by Scliroeiier, 
Reyp, nnd Crenionii. Tliis bniiich ia vridely 
ciiltiviited with great proitt on tlie Con- 
tinent, but 18 feebly represented even nt 
the universities in Englaud. It ia true 
that it liaa been well taught at Oitford by 
tlie lat« Saviliaii Professor of Geometry 
and a few others, and attempts hare been 
made to give it a footing at Cambridge ; 
but these efforts hnve neither been thorough 
aor extonaivcly appreciated, anil they hnre 
not been BUpportod in the public schools. 
This fact is often nspribed to a too slarish 
adherence to EaeluTt, and to the 
custom here of treating that liook as the 
omega as well as the alpha of the suienee. 
This branch of geometry includes amongst 
its elementary uoliotia that of the projective 
correspondence of the points oa two lines 
or two planes, and of the rays of two 
plane pencils or of two pencils in space. 
We are introduced by it to that special 
kind of correspondence known as involu- 
tion, which ha% lately nssuaeil importance 
on account of its appliciitionB in physics. 
The notions ot this geometry lead naturally, 
and with marvellous facility, to a compre- 
hensive grasp of the properties of conic 
tfctinns, and a more general faniiliiirity 
■with them would diaaipate tlio disorder 
and contradiction which exiat in the treat- 
ment by different authors of geometrical 
conies. It will be seen that we have not 
given a distinctive name to tliia branch, 
tind the difficulty of selecting a title will 
appear from the following quotation from 
Cremona's preface. Having pointed out 
that most of the principal propositions in 
his work owe their origin to mathema- 
ticians of the most remote antiijuity, and 
may be traced Imck to Euclid (28.t b.c.), to 
Apoll'iniiia of Pergii (247 b,C.), to Pappiia 
of Alexnncirin (fourth century after Christ), 
to DesargUMt of Lyons (IS93-]6fi'2), to 
Pascal (I6J3-I662), to De la Hire (1640- 
1718), to Newton {1642-1727), to Mac- 
laurin (1GH8-174G), to J. H. Lambert 
(1728-1777), ic, he continues: "The 
theories and metliods wliich make of these 
propositious a houiogeneoua and harmo- 
nious whole it is usual to call mndrrn, 
because they liave been diaoovered or per- 
fected by mathematicians of an age nearer 
to ours, sucli as Camot, Brianchon, Ponce- 
let, MobiuB, Steiner, Chaslea. Staudt, Ac, 
whose works were published in the e&rller 
ImU of the present century.' 

Various nanus have been gireii to I 
subject. The title 'higtier' is sometis 
used, but the tliuigs for which this i 
tive at one time seemed »ppropHnte 
to-day have become veiy «MiBntj»ry ; 
of ' modem geometry *(im««« (V-riMwJmJj 
like manner ex presses ft merely relative ia 
and is open to the objection that altlio 
the methods may be regiirdt-d «s modern,] 
the matter ia to a grmt ext«nt old. 
does the title 'geometty of poeiUon' (C 
mHrif Her Luge) as oaed by St&udt i 
a suitable otic, since it excludes tlie< 
sideration of the metrical propWtJae^ 
tigure-s. Thenameof 'projective^ 
seems to express the trae nature of 
methnde, which are based essentially < 
central projection or persi>ectivc. 
one reason for thischoice is that the) 
Poncelet, the chief creator of 'the mo 
methods, gave to his immorttit book 
title of Traili den Propriitia Prtijf 
de» Fiffure*.' (.S'pb MATirRMATice.) 

Gerando, Uarifr-JosephB&ronde(A 
Lyons, 1772, rf. in Pum, lfi42). wa» I 
son of an architect. His mother 
woman of rare order of mind. Aa a I 
however, Oerundo was oxiatdered 4d 
At the age of sixteen he was stricken mA 
a severe illness, and vowed to coriseci»U 
hia life to Gotl. He subsequently joined 
the seminary of St. Magioire in Paris. Ttiil 
he left at twenty, and oame out as waibot 
on behalf of religious toleranc«. In liM 
he was wounded and taken prisoner, and 
on being set free he returned to Parii; 
but owing to tlie proscriptions he fled V> 
Germany, and there he wrote his Inll 
philosophical work. On his subsequent le- 
turn t« Trance Napoleon made him a eonn^ 
cillor of State, and he devoted hia enericiM 
to the cause ot popular education. In ISli 
appeare*l htseloquentreporton'Schoolsfiji 
the Poor.' This roused public sympathy, 
and led to the formation of the ' Society for 
Elementary Instruction." Aft«r tltis had 
achieved signal success and kcIiooU baa 
Sprung up everywhere, tierando lent hii 
vast power to education in nutny wvys 
In 1819 he introduced singing into tlM 
schools of the society. He was one of thi 
founders of the first savings Innk. Hi 
co-operated with Cochin in estAbUahiDf 
the Itrst infant school. He had no smal 
influence in aiding Abbe Bicard by his worl 
on T/u! Education of the Jtta/and Puwi 
Gerando wms a most enthusiastic and in 
duBtrious worker, and liis works, CoUectee 



ftn pnUuhed in eight 



See MODEKN Lxsav XOKtt. 

naivexutiea. &■) Umvbr- 



0«rmui7, Edncational Law of See 
Liw (Ekvcatwsal). 

Girard.— Next to Pest&loui, Jean Gi- 

laid— or, u ho i< more comiuotily ca,lted, 

*I« P6r« tiinnl' — is ondoubtedlj the 

■MtciBtiieDtMhoolmuUTand educational 

nioiBwr wbom pwdem iSwitzerlaod lias 

Bodnoed. He ma bom at Fribourg in 

UftS. Ifoat d iua octivn and Icindly life 

WW apent in tliat town or at Lucerne, 

wJwr in t«acluug in the KchoolH nnd in 

■risraing popular education, or in work 

■BDeeted with the Pnnciacan Order to 

which ha belonged. H« died at Fribourg 

in 1850. ilia best known works are 

CSi»»«igii*mftti rrgidiar d/: la Langvn 

MatenulUt published at Paris in 1814 ; 

udhia Court idtKol^fd! la Lmu/tie Mattr- 

Mlb, the liijit Tolamo of which appeared 

k 1846. ThMo books have had a great 

bating ini^nmoc both in Switzerland 

Im Prance. The method they so ably 

forth ia distinctly an inductive and 

1 ojMl Instead of beginning witJi 

I learning of gnrnimar — the generalities 

labstradionji of which (Jirard held to 

kkeyood the comprehension of children, 

I tberefore wholly Dninteresting to them 

fint step is to nscertain what Ian- 

the children hnbituaUy use to ex- 

thetr own idtus, and to rectify and 

•ihllte it aa Ear as is then and there 

■wsnary for tli« children in <iuestion. 

Btaiting frooi tiiis, tJie children are jita.- 

daally uioUiarised with the way in which 

*afda aro used in sentences to express 

idtas— both by being helped to examine 

ample wntenoes already made, and by 

Wing iadnced to make statemeiUa of tbeir 

In tbo former case tbey may 1h> 

all bat a noun or a verb, he, and 

nqnired to supply a word which will 

B sense i or tbey may add adjectives, 

rbs, die, to K simple 8ent«ncc so as to 

I the minning more clear or more full, 

•nd tfana leam the value of each word in 

saanteraee. From this they may gradually 

tncaed to oompound and complex sen- 

tacca, atid \o phrases. In the latter case, 

*)Ka the children make statements of their 

<*a, tiey ate only rwjuired to spenk and 

W Tit* of what has actually come within 

ikw own «pwi«nce. They should begin 

quit« aimpir with such a statement aa 'a 
bird sings; and then go on adding to the 
statement, as: *a little bird sings,' 'a 
little bird sings in the garden,' 'a pretty 

little bird singBsweotly in the ganien orery 
morning;' and so on. Diffiouliies are to 
be introduced very gradually, Kuli-s are 
to be arrived at by tlie children tlieuisatves 
— not complete rules all at once, but rules 
which gradually grow more complete as 
experience widena Even the conjugations 
of vorbs are not to )>e introduced in com- 
plete elaborate paradigms ; but bit by bit 
OS they are wanted. The object of the 
plan ia to enable children to read with 
perfect intelligence, and to speak with 
perfect intelligence, clearness, and acen- 
racy. For this purpose, Girard maintains 
that what we want la not uodified, ready- 
made rules, but copious, well-chuaen ex- 
amples, and constant practice In making 
other atatemeuts like them. In the later 
stages, the grammar is used as a book of 
reference in which is to be found a careful, 
clear alatoment of the re-sult-s of experience. 
For more details we niuat refer the reader 
to the books them selves— they are well 
worth study. 

Oirls (Edaoataoa of). See Edccation 


Oirls' Pitblio Day Sohoolo. Stn 


(Hrtoa College. Sm Educ&tioh or 

Oleim, Better (6. at Bremen, 1781, 
d. 1827), was a distant relative of the poet 
Gleim, and the daughter oE a merehant at 
Bremen. She was interested in questions 
of education early in life, and in 1805 »h« 
established a school for young girls in her 
native town, which she conducted with 
great success for ten years. In 1815, in 
order to extend her knowledge of educa- 
tional subjects and methods, she left Bre- 
men and visited Holland, England, and 
somediatrictson the Rhine. Upon her re- 
turn, shereopeucd her school, and continued 
the mistress until her death. She wrote 
several works — one of which, entitled The 
Edttealion and InatrucUim of Wonuin, is 
regarded as a classic in (lermony. The 
second volume treats of the method of 
Pestalom, which she adopted in hwacliOoL 
She bus unfolded his method with remark- 
able lucidity. She also wrote a aecuud 
work on education of women, mtitled 
Wluil hat renewed German;/ the Highf to 
tajitetjivm it» Woment 1814. 



Goethe, Johttnn Wolfgang von (6. at 

Fmnkfort-on-JUin, 1741), H. I8;i3),ha* no 
for doiiinated Geniian thought, tliat any 
Htatetuent of liis on education is of the 
htghtist interest. Hid fathrr wnfi a man in 
comfortable tircumHtaiices, though of no 
great poaiiiou in Booiety. Yet lie had a 
great love for lit«i'ature, and great taete 
in art, so tfatit he pxerted a powi^rful in- 
fluence on the <lesiross,nd charact«rDf the 
3^ung poet. Goethe is said in hia rarly 
ytMTs to have had anxious thoughts about 
religion, »nd before he was eight to have 
devised A form of worship to the 'Ood of 
Nature.' He entered the university of 
Iieipzig at the age of lifteen. Here tiia 
poetical tnm first showed itself in a pro- 
nounced niaiiner, and though his father 
designed him for juriapradecce, inatend of 
Htudying law he tried to find some sfttis- 
factory theory of poetrj'. German liters- 
tor© was simply in its infancy, and he 
could find nothing to his tafte. Here, 
however, he began one of the habits of hia 
life, viz, to turn evei-ything that pleased 
or pained him into verse. He also paid 
some attention to the history of the fine 
arta, and even took to etching ; but this 
impaired hi« health, and in 1768 he left 
Leipzig. To recover his health he was 
sent tr> the residence of a lady named 
Klettenberg, the 'fair saint 'of 'Wilhelm 
Meist^r.' She was a mystic, and exerted 
a lifelong inlluence on the poet's character. 
When he left her, and went to Strasburg 
to finish his legal studies, he neglected 
tliein and pursued anatomy and chemistry. 
Here he met with Herder, who advised 
Win to study tJie Ilaliuii poets. On his 
return home, he produced Giii: von Ber- 
lichiftyen, 1773, and a novel, WertUeT, 
1774. This latter fairly took Germany 
by storco, «nd Goethe's fame was made. 
He was introduced to the Duke of Suxe- 
Weimar, where he went to live, and when 
tlie duke cHine into possession of govern- 
ment he bestflwed every possible honour 
tipon Ooet.he, Th<^re the poet lived for 
many years. He had complete control 
over the theatre, and produced the best 
works of Schiller on the stage, He was 
surrounded by the most refined and lite- 
rary society of his time. He was made a 
privy councillor, and afterwards travelled 
in Switzerland and It&ly for e. long time. 
MMAirhile, )i« was consMntly producing 
tbosB gTMt works which, for their power 
And variety, f*v« placed him at the he&d 

of German lit«ratur«. His drama fft 
UTtd DoroUf-a, and bis novel Wi 
Afrinftr, show us hia views on edacatji 
though hia principles are ooly scri 
here and there, and not worked out 
a cut-aad-dried method. To biio, 
tion was an evolution — dmwing forth turn 
the individual that which woa Iwst — 'tk» 
realisation, as completely as poniLile, of 
the general type of the specii-n.' ffil 
gn&t motto was 'In the brtginning wH 
action ': therefore, he orer urged 'Do, uA 
by doing you will attain to your liighMt 
and best.' In tlie education of infants, M 
in the government of nations, he tliou^ 
nothing more futile than repressive mf*- 
Burea. ' Man,' he Bays, ' is naturally actiw: 
open a way for action, and he will fr.l)ow 
you.' He says much to tliis effect, and nv 
iterates tliat 'negative discipline is powrr- 
lesB.' We recognise in alt this at a gianc» 
much that stamped iteelf in Carlyl'-, who 
found in Goethe » mine of riches. In 
Wilhslm M-ri»ter we hare mroething lit* 
an educatiniial Utopis, especially in liook 
ii, Mr. Carlyle translated WiiMm «*lij 
in his career, and a most amuiiing leviwr 
of the translation is found in De Ijuinct? 
(Works, vol, xii.). De Quincvy did not 
tind (probably did not look for) the loi^ 
principles of 'the mute system of mlucaiion, 
which Goethe then displayed, and vthicb 
so delighted Cnrlyle. The first of lhe"> 
lofty principles upon which Gonthe inaiBts 
is ' Reverence^ — honour done to thow who 
are grander and better than you, withoo* 
fear ; distinct from fear.' Tliid in all wtti 
put by Carlyle in his address to the rtw 
dents at Edinburgh, when he waa inatalled 
as Lord Eector. Referring to the p»e- 
sages in which Wilhelm'ainEtruotorecoiM 
to the ifuestion of religion in educatiod, 
Carlyle says; 'Goethe practically dislio- 
gTiiRhes the kinds of religion that are ia 
the world, and he makes out three reve- 
rences. . . . The first and simplest la that 
of reverence for what ts above ua. It il 
the soul of all the pagan religions; th«n 
is nothing better in man than that. Then 
there is reverence for what is around at 
or about us — reverence for our eqaals, t» 
which he attributes an immcnM power in 
tlie culture of man. The third is revereneo 
for what is beneath us— to Icam to reeog- 
nise in pain, sorrow, and contradiction, 
even in those things, odious u they are to 
Besh and blood — to lesm that there li« 
in these a priceless blessing.' (Sta LewM 


of OoflAe (Jjoogmajoa) ; «Iso Carlyle's 
'Uhtim ileiaer, Ac.) 
flOTerneuea' Benevolent Institution, 

ed iti4t<. Lrticc, a2 Hackville 
; Homo unci KogHitnition OfHce, 
•ny Street; Asylum, CliiBlehurat. 
teuipor&rv iLBsiataiwe to guvur- 
in distress, a jiruviiieut hiud, uiiuui- 
to aged govenietiseH, a. home for gover- 
b«tw«ien tbeir eiigA^iueut&, and an 
irlDm for govorn«3sea above the age of 
tttj. InTPsicd fiiiKl8. 161,61-2i, 

OovernDaent Schools. —This is a name 
KljHtUrly given to schools known officia-Uj- 
i^bliceleinentaryschoals.' An'eleuien- 
■ij Kbool ' in ddincd hy seirtion 3 of tlio 
&elof 1870, an 'n uilioo! nt which dcinen- 
wy edDCKtioii is the prinoipu.! jiarl of the 
IdMfttiaa there given, itud dues nut include 
nj aehooil or depurtiuent of a. suliool at 
klliob tlie ordiuary piiyments in reapett of 
tti imttuclion exceed ninupeuue a week.' 
Bf WCtiOD 7 of the same Act a ^public 
Wawntaty tchool ' is defined as an elemeu- 
iDjtciiool conducted in acoordance with 
tbt n^fuUtions there laid down. These 
■n: (l)ThB admission of children must 
M dt^cod upon their attending or ab- 
MdniDg from attending any Sunday school 
(r pl>«» of worship, or any religious 
*(lKvances or instruction in the school 
9 davwbere. (2) Religious observivnces 
ttiostraction must come at the beginning 
■Fit the end of a Gchool session, und any 
dald may be withdrawn tJierefrom. (li) 
the schocd must Ijc open at all times to 
Btr Majesty's Iiixpoctors, who inixy not 
n^nire into the religious instruction given 
(r WUbBDine in religious knowledge. (4) 
I^a oooditions Uid downin t!ieu(>dc(7.i'-.) 
aost bo observed. Public elameiitary 
Hbools M» eiUker Boabd or Voluntaby 

Oradiog. See Classipicatiok. 

OradUt* (piWtM, a step). — This term 
iiand to signify both tlie act of taking a 
Uifcnity degree and the person who takes 
il,eitlier by eiuuni nation or htitwrin cnvta. 
H AaeficA the term is also applied to the 
•etof conferring drgrees by universities. 
lUn^Utions forgnul nation diScT widely 
MdiSbrent Bnirersiti™, hut il is usual for 
♦w didito to grsduutv first as bachelors, 
urfnibacqaeotlyMmastorsordoctors. In 
1^ Scottish univeniticii, boworar. the i>a- 
thlor'a degree in the £setUty nf arts (tliough 
W in tfae otbor faculties) wum abolished 
I V IKl, ud cnDdidntes can procood to the 

full M.A. degree by nossing an elimina- 
tion in classics, mathematics, and philo- 
sophy, or can take the degree in three parts 
by passing an examination in eaeh of these 
departments sejuinit^ly. Matriculated stu- 
denlA of universities previous to biking 
their degree are ctUled undergraduates. 
{Sea DsQBBEa.) 

GiahuD, Isabella {b. in the county of 
Lanark, 1712, ti. iiiNew York. lt*U), waa 
a Scotch governess. After the death of her 
husband, who was an army surgeon, she 
opened a school in Paisley, 1774. She 
visited New York in 17(*a, and there 
founded an institute for young girls. It 
is livrgely due to her charifjibtu initiative 
that New York is so rich in benefit socie- 
ties und philanthropic institutions, such 
Its the SiMiiety for the Succour of Poor 
Widows, the Infant School fur Orphans, the 
Society for the Eiicourageuient of Industry 
amongst the Poor Classes, a Sunday school 
for adults, this latter iieiug the first school 
of its kuid in the United States. Her 
memoirs were published in 1616 by Dr. 

Grammar. — Gnnuonr is the science of 
correct speech, i.e. of certain select usages 
of speech. A grammar of any language i« 
a systematic classification of the correct 
usages of that language. Thus, gmmmar 
stands to speech as l<^c to thought. It 
is true that the t«nn 'grammar' is often 
used in a. wider sense, to cover an ex- 
amination into tlie relations of different 
families of liinguages (comparative gram- 
mar), or even an inquiry into the origin 
of language. But these questions belong 
to the more general science of language. 
Etymology and word -formation are no part 
of grammar proper; they are correctly 
described aa philology, in the narrower 
sense of that tenu. Prosody and metre 
are admitted into grainraars only by cour- 
tesy. Ill a word grammar is only part 
of the greater science of Kfteech. The 
laws of correct speech may be summed up 
under two headings ; (!) Accidence, or the 
doctrine of correct forma {Foniicnlfhrr) ; 
(!') Syntax, or the doctrine of correct sen- 
tences. These two departments are no 
doubt in reality merely two classili cations 
of the same set of phenomena from dif- 
ferent points of view. A correct aeritenco 
cannot be constructed without correct 
forma ; correctness of form has no mean- 
ing except in relation to the function 
which forms exn^iise in sentencea. "K"^ 

for convBnilriHMISldx miiy be considered 
both in iHlnl0B'(aoctd6ni;e) and us can 
ii(!ct«d in the senUrtioii (syntux). 

The vaiut! of gramiuar has often been 
called into qauatiou during the present 
century, Tlie great Jaoob Oriimo, in the 
preface tohla German GTamnutr, declared 
the gmmuiatical method to be pedantic in 
character and injurioua in result. Ue 
maintained that grammar impeded the 
free development of the faculty of speech, 
wliicli, if left to itaelf, would grow with 
the growth of the mind, nod reach a far 
higher degree of perfection than wheo 
tutored and tortured by the rigid syBtema 
of the gramniariaiiB. This criticisra was 
<Urect«d in tlie first inatanoe against the 
atnues of grammar bb taught by the cdi- 
pinoal methods of the time. Tlie only 
grammar that Griiuni recognised was liis- 
torical grammar— an im^uiry iiiUj the 
course of development through which Ian< 
guage has passed and is still passing. But 
the censurea of Grimm undoubtedly ex- 
preits a hirgt! measure of truth as against 
any grammatical system. Grammar, being 
the expression of Uie usages of the litem.ry 
language, no doubt does act as a retarding 
force — ' freeiing the current of natural 
speech,' to use FrofeAsor Max Miiller'a 
metaphor. ' Dialectical r^eneration ' has 
a less free field when brought under the 
infloAnce of gmmniar; even the linguistic 
deveJopment of the individual may soine- 
titnea sufTer from its constraint. But the 
advantages are not allogellier on the side 
of natural speech. If it is desirable to 
maintain at any given time a standard of 
correctnew to which individual t^ste must 
bow, if it ia an advantage to a uadon to 
possess a common medium of communica- 
tion for' the educat«<l, with certain well- 
defined usages corresponding to certain 
diotinctiona of thought, then the raitmn 
ttftre of grammar is enfablislied. It is t)ie 
function of gnimmnr to resist the intro- 
duction of such ch.ingps as depend, not 
Upon a generiJ consensus of feeling, hut 
upon individual caprice or a mistaken idea 
of correctnesa. At th« same time the gram- 
marian must beware of attiimpting to exer- 
cise sanimaryjurisdiction over speech. His 
function is to register the usage of the pre- 
aent, not to legislate for the future. When 
the current definitely sets in a particular 
direction, it may be strong enough to over- 
throw grammatical barriers ; and in such 
cases the gramroarian must adapt his rules 

to refonued usage. In many cbbos, 
e\-er, grammar may exercise a salutatyl 
fluence in conaisrving a sense fof the I 
finements of speech, which are apt Col 
obliterated by popular umg». The 
may come when English will have no I 
junctive mood, and we shall ^y, ' If 1 1 
you ' instead of ' If I lOfre you.' Ther»| 
a tendency in some parts of Germany | 
use the ' conditionals ' in the if-cUuaeaj 
conditional sentences (' Wenn er es i 
wurde,'d;c.}. But grammar is as yet jij 
titled in prohibiting such construe 
There have indeed beea found scho 
such as Mr. H. Sweet, ready to de 
' It is I7U-,' and similar constructiuus. 
they will hanlly find support at pr 
among the cultivated. 

The practical question for the teacb 
as to the use of grammar may bo 
sidered under two heads : 

1. The use of grammar in scboobt V 
the mother tongue alone is taught. 

3. The use of grammar in schools i 
foreign languages are taught. 

I. It is perfectly true tiiat chil 
belonging to cultivated homes may le 
to use language correctly and effective 
without any formal study of gnunn 
But on the one hand many children do 1 
hear correct speaking at home, and on I 
other hand correctness of habit is 
to degenerate when tlie pupil is br 
into contact with the less refined uaaj{e4 
the world at large. Beddes, this veryii 
fluence of the cultivated home is an . 
ficial influence, checking the natural 
denciea of the young mind. Children, j 
left to themselves, proceed to dflrelo 
speech by analogy and in total li 
to accepted usage. They say ' bringed ' 1 
■ brought,' ' mouses ' for ' mice,' ' it ia 1 
for ' it is 1 ' (because what usually fo 
the verb is the object). The hulf ixluc _ 
man who has been taught to say *It is I,' 
proceeds to infer that lie ought also to say 
' between you and I.' But we may g* 
much further. Even writers of emtoMiM 
coumiil solecisms which they would be tar 
from attempting to justify if tlieir atten- 
tion were call«l to them. Mistakes of 
substituting indicative for subjunctive and 
subjunctive for indicative in conditional 
sentences are to be met with even in 
leading writers. 'IsliouldhavelikedtoAaM 
seen him 'is often heard and read. Numer- 
ous other examples might be quoted from 
Professor Shadworth Uodgmn's Smrt i* 



Vm <if £i*glM. To correct su^ errors 
tub of the mniu functiooa of grammar. 
b mftintnincd by Mr. FiU'h {Lectures 
tWcAiwjf, 1«8!,^. :;.'■»«) Unit 'the direct 
>tJOD nnd am of gnunmnr rules in im- 
IBg our Kp«Hx:h nnd mnking it (lorrect, 
hnrdly bi; saiU to exist nt nil.' But 
Tiow kppcmni to rast upon a iiiiBtakeii 
aa to what voiislitut«s gniiuiimr. 
'. Fttcb connidt^ra ' thut of pure graiiiiuiLr 
iaver^' little iii the Eiiglisli language,' 
being in his i-iew ' the logic of 
in BO fw, tmii in m/ar onfy, aa 
exprasaon in the inflexions and 
of wordii' {ibid. p. lifll). Why? 
Svely thrrn is no sufficient ground for 
mluatng from the iicope of grnmniiir any 
which ft langiiOjUic iniky employ to 
i^rOB diffMunceK of tliouglit. Inflection 
il only one of those iiieans ; a. nior« im- 
lortant means iii Englisli is tlio uso of 
(trUin iHilwtitutM for iufleiion. Are we 
to exdude the modes of expr^sing time 
witti ona from an English grammar be<;auBe 
English baa, properly speEikiiig. only two 
taues, i.e. inflected forms expressing time 
MlUiaoia 1 Ar« we to exclude the equi- 
TClnta which supplement the subjunctive 
■wod whet« distinct forms are no longer 
ttUnl I If BO, no doubt English syntax 
v3| have a very small acope, and its rules 
idlbeiDaatly t-aiucless in correcting errors 
l^mecb. ' No wnming is needed against 
«4iBiiUbc«M'-c;ivc/the book;" "Lend 
lit mmw to he"' {ibiii. p. 2b9). It was 
mw men vi«w its this which led Dr. 
•folnuon in hi* EngU*h Grammar to treat 
tie wbolo «yntiix in ten lines, ' because 
osr language hut xo little inllection that 
ill OOtutruclion ntriUier re(|uires nor juI- 
initB o( mauy rules.' The miswer is, Unit 
to tnat En^iflb in tliis way is to ignore 
tbe esseatJal difference which separates it 
tom languages of the classical type, and 
to some extent from other Teutonic lau- 
piages. To deny that English has a gram- 
B>W is to d«ny it law and order, and to 
m]ac« it below the level of Cliinese. The 

Eftmmar of English is a very subtle gram- 
•r, and its ocsigcs, if difficult to register, 
lemand aU the more investigation nnd 

Then is another use of grammar be- 
ita piaotical tisci. Aa n science, gram- 
'rCTcalatbo laws and prindples which 
ndeiitR, owl account for, tbn speech which 
am using every day ' (Mr. Fitch, i^id. 
. 260). Here ita character is theoretic. 

and it serves not only to disclose tJte laws 
which govern an importantobject of study, 
but also to strengthen the reasoning facul- 
ties. How far such conaciouB study of tho 
mrrther tongue is desirable in elemeutaiy 
schools is «. question. Some eminent au- 
thorities holii thiit one nwy encourage the 
young mind too early to processes of ab- 
straction and reflexion, and tliat systematic 
grammar should not be inti'oduced until 
the pupils have command over a largo 
vocabulary, and Lave made considerable 
acquaintance with the concrete phenomena 
of language. This not only from a psycho- 
logical point of view, but also in the in- 
terests of gramtnar itself ; for grammar 
cannot he profitably pursued iti vatun, 
especially the grammar of the motlier 
tongue. But at some stage of tlie pupil's 
development it is well to make conscious 
tlie principles of tlie speech which he ia 
using. The ear and memory, however well 
trained by habit, will not always serve aa 
guides, and the mental discipline derived 
by conscious reflexion on the usages of 
speech isitaelf a power which emancipates 
from the thraldom of words. * Weirds, as 
a Tartar's bow, shoot back upon the under- 
standing of the wisest, and mightily en- 
tangle and pervert the judgment' (Bacon). 
In regard to method, sound educational 
theory demands that the teaching of Eng- 
lish be based on anjilynif rather than tyn- 
thenis, ' Long liefore a child comes to ths 
commencement of grammar be has learned 
to speak. . . . Thut which in teaching 
French i.s the ultimate goal of yoor ambi- 
tion, conversation and fttedom in using 
words, is Uie very point of departure in the 
case of your own vernacular speech . . .' 
(Mr. Fitch, ifiirf. p. 261). This maiim ia 
true of the mother tongue of every nation ; 
it is especially true of the teaching of Eng- 
lish to English children, for the logical 
chai-acter of the language — its absence 
of inflection, its dependence on position 
for indicating function — forces upon th6 
teacher a logical treatment. By breaking 
up the sentence — by effecting that separa- 
tion of its parts by which it ceases to Imi 
an organic whole — the pupil is led to a 
claasili cation of tlie pails of speech by 
way of their function in forming sen- 
tences. The dead members of the living 
whole may be then studied in isolation 
(accidence), and in their relation to otlier 
parts of the sentence (syntax). The im- 
portance of the latter BtuA^ to y'^^V^^ """^ 



nre suSlcieDtly developed to eater upon it, 
can hardly be ovor-eatimated. Syntax in- 
volvea ft clas8i6patian of sentences and 
■ilb-spiit«inces (etnuses), a nice discriDiiDa- 
tion of thn effiiotrs proiluced by mood and 
mood equivalents in liifFerent kinds of »en- 
tniiCL's, an accurate use of tensfs. All these 
things togrtlier will not make a great 
writer, but they will make a careful writer, 
and to some extent an accurate thinker, 
and they will encourage an attitude of m- 
spect for the great inLeritance whiali is th^ 
birthright of Knglisb-s^ieaking children. 

'J. The utility of grammar in learning 
other languages is still less contestable. 
No methorls of t-encliing, except the purely 
empirical method of the horme, really at- 
tempt Ui dispense with it. For in learn- 
ing foreign languages synthesis, i.e. the 
prouess of building up from simple ele- 
ments, must play a large part. The pupil's 
miud is at first a blank ; the first step 
must be of a very simple and easy nature. 
It is true that very different opinions are 
held as to the extent to which it ia advis- 
able to imitate the 'natiuul' method by 
which a child learns its own language. 
And it may fairly be contended that a 
cliild whose ear is accustomed to French 
or German from early years will learn 
much by simple imitation. But it is foond 
by experience that this process by itself ia 
insufficient ; the impressions left are not 
strong enough to form a substitute for 
more methodical knowledge, though tliey 
may supplement that knowledge in a vsry 
valuable manner. It is impossible to re- 
produce thpconditions under which a child 
leams its own language ; and some degree 
of syntLesie anon makes itself felt by the 
practical teacher. Such synthesis must 
be based on a classification of languaj;e — 
on grammar. Of course it does not at all 
follow that rules must Ije learnt by heart ; 
it may be often desirable to proceed per 
urempia, as Comeuius said, rather than 
pur prmri'ptti • but the examples will be 
clnsxifierl and arranged on griLinmatical 
principles. The ' natural ' method pro- 
ceeds hy way of unclassified exaniplea. 
But on the other hand the teacher should 
l>e fully alive to the limitation under which 
grammar labours, As ' subtililas natune 
Kubtilitat«m artis multis pnrtibus superat ' 
(Buon), so grammar is ultimately unable 
to render account of all the phenomena of 
speech. Tlwtre is a point bf^ODd which 
^■nmar loses itself in a bewildering maze; 

and though tiBajnintmafheaiirVttTi 
by the pupil, the teftcher, if bo think*] 
the purpose about gramnMLr, will find] 
out, and should not bo d*untcxl by 
fact He must rctnniaber tli*t with 
grammar no sciontific oUaatfic&tiiOn 
s|ieeoh— no mrthodioal Iftacluug— wc 

bfl possible. (A? pARALUiL CiSAM) 

Oranimar ScfaooU. —Grammar adia 
as their title impUi^ vtrnt founded for I 
leaching of grammar — for the puiposa j 
providing, not primary or cJemmtMy i 
cation for the nation at large, but 
or higher education for scJiolan* 
were intended, ux fact, to prepare boys| 
more than average ability for chu Unit 
sitics, or at leEist to give th<nn K)cb!_ 
learned education as would qualify than 
afterwards for useful service to tli» Churelt 
and the State. From the foundation of 
Winchester in 1373— or even from tb* 
date of Wantage, which cUinis King 
Alfred as its fouiider^.down to the pre- 
sent century, the staple school subject^ 
sometimes the only one, was Latin ; and 
the way to learn Latin was to Icaniitt 
grammar. Of grammar schools wbow 
date b known, there are only cjjjil befon 
the foundation of Eton in 1441. lb) 
number of foundations, however, begins U 
be K'^-H't even as early as the closiog y**" 
of Uenry YII.'s reign; and the tide sd* 
vances steadily till the reign of James II., 
when it comes almost to a stand. U 
Henry VLLL'sreign (thirty -eight yeai»)tl* 
number of school^ founded is fi jrty-iuM l 
in the six years of Edward VI. the iiumn' 
is for^^fojur; in Eliaibeth's nsgti (foftjt | 
five"years) we have one hucdreni iiiid if- I 
teen; and in James I.'s reifrn (t.weiiiy-t«*- 
years) the numlrer is fwty-ciylii. Tb* 
statutes of the grammar schools founded 
by the Crown or by private beoefacion 
were all. or nearly all, on one model, com- 
bining Ijatin wiiii religious instructaoD. 
Greek c-ame in with the foundation of SL 
Paul's School by Colet in 1509. Bnt b 
the statutes drafted by Wolsoy for hb 
school at Ipswich soon after there is no 
mention of tSroek ; nor does Bishop Old- 
ham name the subject for Manohesttf 
Grammar School in l!>2.'i,thou^ hewiaboi 
the young who 'have pregnant wits'to be 
given the opportunity of learning gram mar, 
'the ground and fountain of all tbn other 
arts and sciences.' In the at«tutn9 of 
Harrow (founded 1571} amongst the au- 
thors mentioned there is only one Greek 


— Hc-niod ; hot the hnyn uro 'to be 
,l«l ill th« f.lpuienta of Lntin versili- 
very «irly.' THb statutes of the 
■chooU peni'nilly prescriho Greek 
vewea.' ArL'hl>i8hr>p Orinckl, for 
iraple, requires for St. Bews (15S3) '«, 
and 1eame<l peraou that cbji inuke 
3n«k And Latin verses, aud tiiUirprvt the 
k gnmniarand other Greek authors.' 
sjtinr! Applies to Hawkeshead school 
LancJiAhiTT (I5HK(, where 'the chiefc«t 
lolani thall makf rimtinnR, epistles, and 
in Latiu iintl tSrpHk for tlieir euer- 
'anil all the sc:hi)UrE'Bhii.tlcontinu)illy 
I th(-« lAtiii toiigur or the Greek tongue 
'SI Ibey shall 1™ ablt-.' So agiiiii, Arch- 
hbbop HAnii«t wisliei for Qitgwell( 1629) 
'a mail aktlful in the Greek and Lutin 
tODgues, ft f>ood poet.' lu a few cases, 
Hebrew is required of the head ' master, aa 
at Bristol. Southwark (IGH), and Lewis- 
baa (I6r>2). iiat in by far the larger 
uniober of Rchools. Greek and Latin alone 
•w ippcitiwl ; anil in some it is especially 
bid that 'firwik and lAtin only," or 'the 
duncH only' are to be tnught, Charler- 
howe (16m) is an ext^eption. In ita sto- 
Wn (<kt«d I62T) ve find that scholars 
itU be tsuglit ' to cypher and rost aii ai> 
(wnl, MpppiillT those that icaa capable 
tdlauning, and (ittnst to be sent to trades.' 
b 1864 a royal <»mmi.'iaion was appointed 
Inmquirii into the revnnues, management, 
Ki eduoation of certain endowed iwhook, 
Ud to KiftgetH measares of improvement, 
There had been previously two commiB- 
Am of enquiry: the 6rat in 1858 to 
trport on the education of boya aiid girls 
Bf tite Ikbouriog class : and the second in 
U6] to report od the nine greater public 
lekoob — Charterhouse, Eton, Harrow, 
Mireliant Taylors', St. Paul's, Westmin- 
Mtr, Rugby, Shrewsbury, and Winchester. 
He scop*; of tlin commission of If*fi4 era- 
Iracnl nil Rchoolf, which lay between those 
dealt with by tbn other cnmmiHsiona, that 
it, the gTMtt maMi of 'grammar schools, 
lad iamoH it« report in M^dH. Upon this 
rtport was foanilt'<l the Enclowcd Schools 
Act of 1869, whioh gave authority first to 
'biidow«d Rchoolii Commissioners,' and 
aftcnrani* to th« ' Charity Commisaionnri,' 
>o fnUDO new achomes for the bett#r work- 
ii^of thesB 'grammar schools'; and aluo 
fw furthering the mlvancement of Mu- 
tation by diverting for th<! schools other 
ndowraentc not originally intended for 
f^aeationttl purpows. l^narly all th<- 

schools havR rinee ORen remortened. A 8e-J 

lect Committiw! of the House of Common*' 
was appointed in 1Sh6 to enquire into the 
working of tlw Act, and in the follow- 
ing year isBuwl tJieir report, in which thuy 
state that the sum of tht- evidence brought 
liefore them was conclusive on two pointii: 
first, the principles laid dowu by the com- 
mission of Iti'GJ, and embodied in tJte 
Endowpd Scliools Act, while in some 
respects they must be modified by altered 
ctri-'ii mstances and increased experience, 
are on the whole sound and just; and 
Bw.*ondly, that the Charity Commissioners 
have in their procedure faithfully at.tempt«d 
to carry those principles out. The com* 
plaints made against the working of the 
Act, the Committee add, are founded on a 
failure to appreciate tlie value of these 
principles and their bearing ou national 
welfare. The subject is, howe\'er, they 
admit, ditlicult and complicated : 'and till 
it is more widely and cari.'fully studied, 
till greater publicity has been given to 
tlie results of the schemes by inspeetioa 
iinil parliamentnry returns, till such adap- 
ta,tiou of schools to technical and conimer- 
eial purposes has taken place aa the 
Committee suggest, and till the schools 
have been allowed time t« develop tlieir 
beneficial results, oomiilaints will continue 
to be made.' The denominational diffi- 
culties which oecTipied so liti^ a, place in 
the enquiry of the Select Committee of 
1873 appear in nearly all cases to have 
been accommodated by tlie lapse of tiue 
and a bett«r understanding of the real 
questions involved. Disputes of clas-i, in 
Botne localities, have now replaced them, 
but may in their turn dieaway under a ju- 
dicious administration governed by an in- 
telligent popular opinion. The tendency to 
attach excessive importance to theoretical 
excellence of educational machinery under 
a fixed system of graded schools, luther 
than to adapt the schools to the practical 
needs of the locolity, is now, the Committeo 
state, corrected by experience, 'A more 
pressing need now seems to be that wo 
should not forget, in the search for more 
immediate ad vantagesof an obviousnature, 
the importance of preserving, even at some 
coBt, a high ideal of secondary education, 
both on its own account, and in its con- 
nections either with tlie Univeraitics, ot 
with the excellent colleges which have 
been recently establislied in our large 
towns with the special object of educMAtsn. 


in relation to th« newU of mn-nu^turing 
aad eonunftrciHil Rotnmiinitiea,' The Com- 
mittee find that the work done by the 

Charity OommiasioEenmiiJer the Endowed 
ScHociIb Acta, while it htis not lost sight of 
this ideal, hftii doiw much to bring higher 
instruction, in [jopulnrauil nncessary forms, 
within the reiichuf i'Iilssi's whit;h otberwiae 
would hv^a shut out from it. 

Orammatical Society. Set Pakau.rl 

Oraats (OoTsmment). — ttwasio 1833 
that Parliament mtide the first grant in 
aid of elementary education. The sum 
vot«d wns 20,000/., and a similar sum was 
vot«d annually down to 1638. The grant 
waa admiaigUired by the Trutisury, Huhject 
to conditions laid down in u miiiute dieted 
August 30, 1S33. The8e were, briefly, 
that tho money was only to be used in 
Hiding local eSurt towards tJie building of 
Echools ; though the grant was in no case 
to exceed half the cost of the buildings ; 
the applications were to be endorsed by the 
National Society {?-''-). or the British and 
Foreign School Society (^.u.); and that pre- 
ference was to be given to applications 
'from large cities and (j^wns in which the 
necessity of n*iiating in the erection of 
schools' was "most preying.' In 1839 
the grant was raised to ;iO,OOOi., and its 
administration was entrusted to a specially 
created committee of the Privy GouncU 
— the Committee of Council on Education, 
or the Education Department (y.v.). Tho 
timt minut« iasued by the new body {that 
of June :i, 18.19) recommended "tjiat the 
sum of 10,000/., granted by Parliament in 
183.5 towards the erection of normal or 
model iiohoots, be given in equal portions 
to the National Society and the British 
and Foreinu School Society (f/.v.) for that 
purpose. The rightof Oovernmentinapoc- 
lion was to be a condition of all future 
aid. and the minute provided for the ap- 
pointment of inspectors. The bulk of the 
grant was to be applied, as liefore, in the 
erection of schools. The minute of No- 
vember 22, 1R43, added the building of 
teachers' houses, and the purrhose of 
appendages, to the objecta for which money 
might he given. On August 25, 1846, a 
very important minute wiis issued, greatly 
extending the scheme of Stale aid. Its 
terms were ganenil, but it was followed, 
on Decembw 21, by another minute con- 
verting them into definite regulations. 
Thpiar-deiilt, firal of alt, witli pupil-teachers. 

In schools properly furaul)ed,i__„. 

and disciplined, and poeseoilig a 

teacher competent to iostnict and tnv 
pupil-teMhers. one such pupil-teacher M 
everj- twenty-five scholars might be ^N 
prenticed to the head-ti«cher. Tiui am 
pronticeahip was to lie for firn yowa, a^ 
the end of each of which there was to ht 
a Government examination. If the nstoH 
was satisfactory, the pupil - teacher receive^ 
from the Education Oepartmentactipea) 
beginning at 101., and rising by annoil 
increments of 2/. lOv. to 201., while th( 
head-teacher received 'the sum ot 5L U»l 
one, of 91. for two, of 1 2L for three pnpQt 
teachers, and 3f. per annum more fof 
every additional apprentice.' Pupil-tcadt" 
ers who had served their time migU 
submit themselves to an examination con- 
ducted by one or more of Uer Majes^ll 
Inspectors, together with tbeprincipMati 
normal school or a training college 'nndei 
inspection.' Those who satisfied tim ex- 
aminers Itecame 'Queen's Scbolare.' and 
received an exhibition of 20L or 251, l«i- 
able at one of the colleges. Tlie tnunuf 
there might be for one, two, or thtM 
years. At the end of each year there wa4 
an examination, and for every successful 
student of the first year the college received 
20^, of the second year 2r>/.. and of Um 
third year 30'. When these trained slii- 
denta left, and entered apon scJtooI-work, 
they received, in augmentation of ukiy, 
Government grants varying from 15'. t4 
30'. according to the length of their train- 
ing. For teachers rendered inct^Ntble bj 
age or infirmity the minute promised 
pensions. In 184T a 'brtad sheet' vm 
issued containing the conilitions on wbkii 
Certificstes (q.v.) were to be obtained hy 
untrained as well as by trained tiAchei^ 
and offering from 10'. to 20/. a jrt»T 'oar- 
tificate money ' according to «1b^ and 
division. These regulations exercised k 
very powerful inQuence upon edncatJoa. 
By 1851 twenty-five training collej^ 
had been established, six thousand pupd- 
teachers were at work, more than elevea 
hundred certificates had been issued, tho 
grant hod risen t« 160,000^ a year, and 
nearly 3,t^00 schools had been built at a 
cost to the titatu of <t00.000' and to th* 
localities of about 6tX),0U0'. tnore. Th« 
next important step was taken in I853L 
A minute (dated April 2 of that /Mr) n- 
tJiMisiied capitation grants for tho support 
of richools'in rural districts and an^) un- 



I toirna'CHHiall 'tii'ing rtcfmed 
J not inoru thiiii fivo thoiiKiod 
huta), the aniuunt of Kntnt per 
nryingwith the number of Knholiire. 
n w«i« under fifty it was 6k. in 
leboois, »nd 6«. in girls' schoolft ; If 

fifty and under one hundred, 5ii. 
. rospoctivply ; if above one hundred 
I 3c. Tho payment of the capitation 
led opon the amount ntised locally 
I »cliool, thfi fen charged, the wtlary 
liead-t4!a«her (who must be certiti- 

&nd Uie rMiilt« of the examination. 
itnute of Jttiiuiiry 26, IH.'ie, urban 
I a« riuul scliools became eligible 
Station granU. In I860, when Mr. 
I Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke) was the 
JBpiritof the Education Departnipnt, 
Ay minates which hud Iwen ihhumI 
comhined into a code, fcenertUIy 

u the Original Code. In 1861, 
W Duke of Newcastle's Commission 
KMted, the Revised Code was issued, 
todelled the whole systeni of aid. 
int* to haid-l.(wcher* and to popil- 
ta were abolished ; pupil-teachers 

be apprenticed, not to the hend- 
r, but to the managers of the 

and the promise of pension* wiu 
awn. The Eevised Oode intro- 

tbe principle of 'pftyment by re- 
|o.v.). Thnro wax to be an absolute 
n 4>. a head on the averaeie atten- 
•nd each child who had attended at 
irabundr«d timnx (half -duya) during 
U might earn an additional jrrant 

1 school In the case of children 
six it was 6«. Gd., subject to the 
at'B apprOTsJ ; in the case of childrmi 
BX it was St., subject to the results 
indiTidunl e\amination. For each 
M> passed a speciftAd 'standard' in 
^ 2a 8dL was to be paid, for each 
in writing 3«. 8r/., and for each 
in arittuDotic 2«. M. Building 
wnre continued. In the normal 

I the training woa to be for two 
ind the college was to receive 100^ 
h marter trained, and TO', for earth 
m, Onthenasiiingof the Elementary 
doa Act of 19470 a new Code iq.v.) 
tneeenaiy. The Act provided that 
Deeember 31, ISTO, no application 
aJHing grant ooutd be entertained, 
nlute gruit was raised from it. to 
> Dumber of attcn<Iances <]ualifying 
imilMtiOD Irom two himdrpd to two 
and fifty, tHn conditional grant 

for infant schools from G*. Ci to 8tr. or 
lOif., and for older scholars from 2#. 8rf. to 
■(». per 'pass.' In Ifi75 this it. was re- 
duced to 3s., but grants for 'class subjects ' 
and for 'specific subjects 'were introduced. 
'Class subjects' were geography, grammar, 
and history ; and a grant of ii. on th« 
average attendance was to be paid if the 
classes (not the individual pupils) passed 
satisfactorily in two of them. The 'ape- 
cil]c subjects' were more advanced, and a 
grant of 4». per subject was to be paid for 
every child in the upper atanilartls who 
pn8s«J in not more than two of them. 
When Mr. Mundella became Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Committee of Council, the 
regulations were once more recast The 
trunsfornied code was issued on March 6, 
1882. It introduced a 'merit grant,' 
varying as the inspector pronounced a 
school to be 'fair,' 'good,' or 'excellent.' 
It abolished a minimum number of atten- 
dances as a qualification for examination, 
and re<]iiired all children to be presented 
who hod. been on the rolls during the last 
twenty-two weeks of the school year. In 
infant schools there was to lie on the 
average attenil&nce a 6x(k1 grant of 7*. or 
9s.; a merit grant of '2s., 4s., or 6s.; a 
needlework grant of Is.; and agrantof Is. 
for singing from not«>s. In schools or 
classes for older scholars the grants for 
needlework and singing were to be the 
same; the &xed grant was to be 4s. Gd., 
and the merit grant Is., 2s., or 3s. There 
was also to be 'a grant on examination in 
the elementary subjects (reading, writing, 
and arithmetic) at the rate of one penny 
for every unit of percentage.' Thus, it 
one hundred children were examined the 
number of possible piasses would be three 
hundred ; if the number actually obtained 
was two hundred and seventy the per- 
centage would be ninety, and the grant 
ninety pence on the average attendance. 
For 'class subjects' (extended to five, of 
wfaic^ only two could be taken) the grant 
was Is. or 2s., accordingas the results were 
'fair' or 'good.' The regulations respect- 
ing specific subjects underwent no mate- 
rial change. The Mundella Code remains, 
with very slight modifications, still (1888) 
in force. (See Craik's State and Eduea- 

Orftser. John Baptist (b. at Eltmann, 
1766, ri. 1 84 1 ), an eminent Bavarian scliool- 
mostttr, who in 1804 liecame professor of 
thrology at I^indnhut, and the an.Rve "jwix 


was ftppoint«l by the Bavarian Govern- 
ment inspi'otor of schools at Bamborg. In 
1810 he was tiuiisferred to Biiyreatb, 
when! h« wrot« liis first work, eiititled 
Dioiaity. or tki- Principl/: iff th" vnly True 
Editcdtiini. Ho was iiiflaenced largely by 
tliB pliiloaopliy of Sclielliiig, and urgwl 
thiit man coaiil raise himself by fducation 
to the 'divinity of hia nuture,' i.e. to a 
life in harmony with 'the (iivino ideal.' 
In the py^a of the Orthodox Outholic 
Church (Imaer ftppenred as a heretic, and 
incurred the hoBtility of tlie prieutB. In 
1817 he publisheil the 6rst volume of hia 
great work on educational method, called 
The. Elr^menta-nf SrJi4)ol for Lift. The work 
is inthree volumes, the last of which did not 
appear till 1834. Long before this Graser 
had been driven into retirement, and he 
■pent his last years in the quiet of atuily 
lUid fajuily life. Graser criticised the 
method of Peatnioza, mid dpclared that 
there wan an ahscnce of the pmcticul in 
it, and that one could not talk about the 
' general education of man,' for education 
tnu«t be individual, and tixe first duty of 
a maater was to discorer the special ca- 
pacity of each child. His view of educa- 
tion wfLS emphatically religious. Owing 
to his inllueuce schools for deaf inutea 
were annexnd to many of the Bavarian 

Oteek. — No one who has ever mastered 
Greek can have any doubt of the wlvan- 
tage of learning it. It is the vehicle in 
which Greek civilisation, a unique product 
of tho human mind, expressed itself. It 
IB the language employed by many of the 
men who occupy the highest plitces among 
the thinkers, the pof^ls, the philosophers 
of tlie world. The Greek mind gave rise 
to nearly all the form.s of Uterature which 
are now prevalent. Many of its produc- 
tions are among the freshest, the most 
original, ajid the most beautiful that exist. 
And the Greek writers have been sin- 
milarly stimulative. It was the works of 
the Greeks that created the Renaissance. 
It was criticism of the Greeks that led to 
the outburst of German literature in the 
«nd of the eighteenth and beginning of the 
nineteenth cf-nturies. And what it does 
(or nations it does for individuals. Schiller 
was determined in his career by tho en- 
thuua«m with which EuripideR inspired 
him. The value of Greek litemture to the 
modem mind is inestimable, and no one 
who luw c\-«r enjoyed tho Gn-rk work.-s in 

the language In which they were ■ 
could ever imagine that tronsl&tio 
convey au adec^uate idea of their b 
Besides this supreme excellence 
literary point, a apeciaj int«re«t 
in the eyes of som« to the Qraeik : 
because we can trace in it« word> th* 1 
dawnijigs of science; and in the eyni 
others hpcnusi! the authoritative iam 
ments of Christianity were written in iLi 
lbs place as an instrument of cduok 
tion has W-cn a subject of keen discusBOB 
It is necessary that in the training o(4 
boy from eleven to eight«eii yooni of M 
some one language and literature tbcw 
form the central educative foroe, and til 
great majority of educationists have hck 
that this language must be Latin {f.r.l 
But some of the greatest philoaopUers inq 
educationists have asslgued that plscetf 
Gn^pk, and among them stands out {n 
eminently Hnrhart,. This philosopher nu 
tained that the literature ought to drttfl 
mine the question of priority. GrMt 
literature opens with Homer. IlomM 
deals almost exclusively with the coo- 
cret«. There are no ideas in him bejodd 
the reach of a boy of ten or eleven. And 
he is fascinating reading for a boy. Tlwn 
is no Iiatin book that can at all appraodl 
the Od-ifiiary in its power to int«irn«l I 
young boy. The Iliad and the OJyMI 
are products of the early youth of tkl 
world, and they picture tAe ideas ta^ 
pursuits of early youth, but it is an esifl 
youtli noble and generous. WbatcouldM 
more useful for a boy than to permeate hia* 
self with these heroic ideals ) What men 
likely to lay the foundation of a noble Uid 
lofty character t Then from Homer t^ 
boy can advance to the charming iian*( 
tive of Herodotus, and at a fartlMrMi| 
he could read Plato and XenophoD wW 
enjoyment, for most of their ideOB iW 
within his grasp, and Plato espeosU] 
surrounds them with every literary gnO 
The boy, then, having saturated liimstll 
with the best and most beautiful portttt 
Greek civilisation, coul<i pass on toKonM 
and froniRoman to modem timea On tot) 
a system language fortns a Bulxirdinsti 
element of training. It is not n«cc*«ary f 
drill the boy tu all the uiinuto detailitf 
grammar. He should lenni only so nwd 
as is required for the oomprehentioa « 
the author. And then, even in mpccl 
to language it is urged that the plan bii 
its advantages. A knowledge of ih 



I diftlect U etaeotial to a true cod- 
on of tlie origin of the Attic, The 
m SM how the forms of tlie one have 
It to •omo extent out of llie forms of 

lie idea that Grwlt ought to be taught 
) LAtin was not first siiggpstpi! hy 
trt. A list of tliosi? wild preccilpiJ 
a this plan is givPH in liHrhart'H 
jogiti^hr Si^hrlfi'-iif vol. i. p. 77, ami 
f thiint i» mttntionitt the fo-iiious 
r uul scholrir, IK'iiricuis SU^phaiiua 
i fetieime, ISSS-l.'iOS}. In recent 
AhreoB pn-pan^d u. Homeric Kriim- 
Skdapted for bt-gimiei's ; Diaaeii and 
ir itrongiy approved of the plan, and 
j| Herliarl's followers carriei;! it into 
06, Wiiliin tlie last few years Her- 
m has revived in great force in Uer- 
MOongst those who take an interest 
onduy ^ucation, and the ((uestion 
* priority of Ureek will again come 
I front, 

10 ttmc questions havn bwrn discussed 
tlw mode of teaoJiing Orpitk wlii^'h 

re noticed in connection with 
but not with the same intensity. 
one luigungr liux hecn empli>yed in 
ng a b<i_v, there is no ticc-d of the 
elnlKiru,t« prnci^Ks in l^-acliiug a 
1. The iKiy is advanced in age, and 
mm « language much more rapidly; 
e iit advanced in logical power and 
[th of iDPinory, and i^aii dispense with 
of t)i0 [irocasKf s necessary during the 
ngof a timtiitrange language. There- 
reek is leururd in its elements much 
e«sUy Uiau Latin, after Latin hua 
nutered. It in for tliis reason that 
arf Injudicious tobegiuOreek atUx) 
Ml age if it is to Hucaeed Latin, and 
bole tendency of Uie present day is 
Br tlie learning of Greek until very 
erable progrexs has bean mode in 

Then, a^ajn, there ia no longer the 
ncMmty for such frequent exercises 
rung English into Greek. 

recent times the application of 
ntive philology to Greek grammars 
•come pr^^valeiit. The laws of the 
natioii of tlie root with the inflection 
MO carefully laid down at the com- 
ment and carried out through all the 
gnu. Mention should also be made 

mggtetion that access sliould be 

^'aocient Greek through modem. 

mtnined or adopted many of 

of th« ancient. But genomlly 

the Attic dialect ia regarded aa the form 

of the language which must be miuitcred 
first. Some have a superstitious reverence 
for this form, and refuse to proceed furtlier. 
liut most proceed &om the Attic and ex- 
plain the other dialects by means of it or 
in conipariaon with it. 

The works which treat of the i-alue of 
Latin in education and the methods of 
teaching it gc^nerally discuss also the value 
of Gn;ek and the methods of teaching it. 
To the works mentioned in thp article on 
Latin we must add the BrlduUrttnifm of 
Curtius to his Greek Grammar, which 
treat esclusively of CSreek. 

Grigoire, L'Abbe (I. Veho, 1750; rf. 
Paris, 1831), was the son of poor parents, 
and was educated by the Jesuits at Nancy. 
He became Professor of Belles- Let Ires at 
the College of Pont-i-MouBson. Early in 
life be showed a vehement love of liberty, 
which in the end led him to advocate the 
abolition of royalty. 'The history of kings,' 
he said, 'is the niartyrology of nations.' 
He plunged into all the disijuict of IJ4 
time, through which we cannot follow him, 
but he frequently presented reports 011 
edutMlion. In 1 797 he spoke against a 
system of free education. In the aamn 
year he presented a report for the suppres- 
sion of academies, and appealed to history 
(Rome, Greece) in support of his view. 
He afterwards brought out a detailed 
aoaonnt of elementary education, specify- 
ing the BubjectB, treatment, ifcc. He pre- 
sented a report ou the 'Necessity, and the 
means of destroying the paloU, and of 
rendering the usage of the French language 
uiiiverBal.' In tliia he took what may bo 
called a Republican view of language, and 
on the strength of it the Convention 
passed a decree for a new grammar to be 
written, but the decree was never canied 
out. After this appeared his celebrated 
Rfport on F(infl(iH»tn. When he came to 
die, the Archbishop of Paris refused to 
give him the sacraments. Or^goire said in 
his will (hat he died ' a good Catholic, 
and a good RepuWioan." 

Oreeham College, Basinghatl ^'troet, 
Londtm, was founded in 1601, by Sir 
Thomas Gresham, with a view tfl providing 
free scientilic instruction to the people. 
He gave directions for the delivery of 
lectures by qunlitied professors. Lectures 
are still delivered by professors appointed 
by the Gresliam Committee at three diffe- 
rent periods in the year, commencing 


re»pectivp]y thn firnt MandAV in October, 
on thn flftJ^'tiUi Monitiiy nftp.r thnt date, 
*iind on the twcnty-nixth Mondiij- ai'ti^ the 
first MoiiHiij' ill Oi-toIxT, or on the nciirt»it 
Mondiiy to suc-li twenty sixtli MoiiiJuy 
wliii-li will allow of till! condition thnt no 
lectures bo ^'ven in Pujision Week lund 
Easter We^k. The value of the onKiixal 
bequest of Sir Thomas Gresliam bus. it is 
believed, enomioualy increased, and fireat 
complaints are made that the accumulation 
has not been devoted to the purpose which 
the munificent founder of the lectureships 
intended. In his will Oresharu prayed 
tlittt the curse of God might rest on those 
who misappropriiit«ii his liequest. 

Oregham Lecture. ^'": Piiklectioss, 
Orintm, Jacob Ludwi|r (h. 1785, d. 
1863), the distinjjujsheJ f)hiJoIo(;ist, was 
R native of Hnnuu in Hi'sse. He studied 
law at Mnrburg, and while Secretary for 
War lectured on tlio literature of the 
Middle Ages. He was librarian at Kassel 
from 1816 to 18:i9, and in 1830 be<.'ame 
professor in G<>ttiii|^iii, where he lectured 
on German lan<^age and literature and 
on legal antiquities. In ISil he was ftp- 
jioiDted professor at Iterlin. The G;rand 
result of Uriiiim's work was his effective 
traoiDf; of the (growth and cliaract«r of 
the Spirit of the German race as displayed 
in its language, poetry, religion, laws, and 
Oostoms. His chief works were Pmifgohe 
GrammaHi: (l«l9-37), DmiUehf RtfhU- 
alt«rthitiii'-r (1.S3S), and <.t-'»c-h'ckte dt 
d«ut»ch(n Sprarh''{\>fi>^). Along with his 
brother, Wilhelni Karl Grimm (6. 1786, 
rf. 1859), he edited in I8»5 Kirni-^- untt 
HautrMirrhi-Ti.anii in 1854 began his great 
dictionary DnUs^.heii H'ln-tFrlmfh, which 
has been continued by Wildebrnnd, Hnyne, 
and VViegand. 

Qrowth of Children. — A fair know- 
ledge of the physiologtpiil laws of health 
would prevent dangerous niistakes in the 
education of children. It should be re- 
niemlH^red that ttvery organ of the body is 
rnpidlygrowing.and that height and weight 
are bi-ing Et«a<lily increased. Cliildren 
not onlv have to replenish waste tisEues, 
hut also to build up new tissues. Hence, 
it in necessary that tliey should be supplied 
with an abundance of foo<l and fresli air, 
and that llieir rapidly growing organs 
■hould wot he over*exerted. This is espe* 
cially true of the brain, which in theetvrly 
years of life grows more rapidly than any 
other orfj^MU A periodical record of the 

height and weight of cbildrnn woiiM Wl 
gTiMt value in the prtw nation of 
nnd detf^oii of early discnee- If a th 
ceases to jrrow i>r increase in weight, i 
on the other hand he gruws too mpid 
he retiuires a coicpamtive cvsuatiun 
school-work and careful home attend 
One of the earliest s\'uiptoina of incipil 
consumption is a diminution in wag 
ami such loss of weight should at 
receive medical attention. Tlie follof 
Blntein(nit« of the average height 
weiglit of boyo of th« non-labouring > ~ 
are taken from Dr. Xewshohne's 
Ifi/i/imp, which may be consulted 
other tables and charts on the samo I 





i-Trmcr hdKht 

tn iQoh^ 

la pnnda 


at- 16 













60 27 














Dtiring th» flrat twelve years of 
boys arc from one to two inches 
than girls of the same age. At ab 
12^ ynars of age, girls begin to 
faster than hoys, and during Uieir 
teenth year arc about one inch taller I 
boys of the same age Atal>out H^ )'« 
of age, bo¥3 ngsin become the taller, i 
at this age having nearly completed 
growth, while hoys continue to 
mjiidlv till mnetpen years of age. 

Gniiot, F. P. W. (A. at Klmee, 1] 
rf. at Val Richer, 1874).— Tbis etnil 
French stategnmn anil writer bad an H 
portant position in tlie history of educ 
in France, on account of the reforaia | 
inatituh-d as Minister of Public Insir 
He passed uieasurea which have 
lasting honour to his niitiio. The ■ 
education was freely and fullv discu 
and G uizot undertook to estubliKh, at I 
priman,' education. Hp recommended^ 
being compulsory, and Umched upon 
question of free education, but the 


UieStateshoald offered uccition 

it could oaly j^ve it to thei children 

Ekmilios which were unablo to pay. 

:li Guisot's Lufluf'rtce ft decToe was 

fortminingroMt<>rii for dcmpntary 

Is; and with a. view to tiieir pensinns, 

banks n«ri> <!stal>lishe(l, and ia- 

KiKirtlffi fimnilpd. 

'6Qtt«r to Oatversity.' .Sm iNaTitcc- 

(CuiiifiE or). 

Oymniunm (Gnek, yvuvamav, from 

ji, imkeil) wiw origimiUy iimoiig the 

ka a Bpuc'B menaured out and covered 

saud, fur the exurcise of athli^tit; 

Afterwurda, &iuoiig the oka<ituiLl 

the gymaajoB. became spacious 

or schools for the mental as well 

tiw ootporeal iii»truction of youth. The 

gymnftsia were built by the Laceda>- 

iia.n*, SA Plato t^lls us (Nujuoi, hh. i.), 

kd afwr them by the Athenians. Those 

tthnimiaodifttoiMighbourhoodof Athens 

|e wrll known : the Acodemin, where, 

ttr»ctcd by the p!enj«int wiiLks which 

trmundfld it, and the concourse of people 

[ all cUsxcit who daily n-aortcd thither, 

!U(o hiJd conferrrucps with his pupita; 

kt Lywuni, t<> which Aristotle rpsorteil ; 

nd (hft Cynn£ir}c<ut. The ^yiniuisiit nf 

K Roman* wirm on a grimckT sciMe. and 

nsn thu (txtiMixive biithsuttiii^hed to thcin 

letn not un<Munnioiity ciillnd ' Umrmno.' 

lie QuiDeruuii vxerciai-H of tht? fry u ■">>''■ um 

|Breco»duct«d umlnrthn sijeuiiU direction 

I thfl Stale, and were superiii tended hy 

■rani ofBeerH at Atheu^ The chief 

kerwu called KyimiiLaiarchun, who su- 

rislended the whoh< i-ymnfLsium and its 

■caMS; the xyiUirdius superintended 

pattwolar the ruon^ iUhletic exercises; 

■ grmnaates, beiiie; skilled iu medicine, 

Mcribed the kind and extent of ex- 

iam of eaoh: the pradotrihes assisted 

Bd iostructod those exercising ; while 

iern were narapTous servaiits setapavt to 

tefa kind of exercise, ^ anoint, to keep 

|e bath, Jcc. 

I In Geftnany, tJi« Gj/mwutinn ure what 
f ihould coll clamical schools, the com- 
enial achools being callod Kk.m.xcitui.en 
Ir). TTui Oumntmen arc liko our l)P8t 
Mnfl xIumU. Thpn- is the samp pre- 
bdemocn of clasiics, vi^ry nearly the 
pe tncthoda of tmchin^, and to n cQnsi- 
■■Ue ext4!nt th<! nme results. It is 
ppcaoH that a lioy rntcrs nt ninn, and 
^lintlill ninrtrrr The school is diridftd 
|o fix dnWesL Titttin bn^^ns At thi^ bot- 

tom. And occupies ten hours of the wrok 
out of tweuty-eifjht till the head class, 
and than eig;ht hours out of thirty. Greek 
logins two classes from the hottom, and oc- 
cupies six hours a week throughout; Ger> 
man, two hours ; ftritlimotie and niHthemn- 
ti<s, from three to four; French, three iu tho 
lower clasps, two In the higher; gwjgraphy 
and history, three in the higher and two 
in tlie lower ; natural science, two in th« 
head class and one iielow. All learn 
drawing in school hours ; singing and 
gymiiaatioa out of school. This programme 
is fixed by the Govornmfmt, hut within tho 
programme the masters are free. In gene- 
ral the gymnasium is steadily to regard 
the formation of the pupil's wind, and of 
his powers of knowleitge. without prema- 
tureiy taking thought for the pruotical 
■pplicnbitity of what he studies. It is 
expressly forbidden to give this practical 
or professional turn to tho studies of a 
pupil in the highest forms of a gymnasium, 
even when he is destined for the army. 
In some places, where it is not possible to 
maintain a complete gyranaaium, n pi-o- 
gyninasium is substituted. A progymna- 
aium is merely a gymnasium without the 
higher classes. Most progyrnnasia haie 
four classes only, some three ; some again, 
five, that is, all but the head. All the 
gymnasia are supported by endowments 
and si^hoo! fees. Very little indeed is 
spent upon them by the State, though, 08 
in Engldnd. a few belong to the munici- 
palities. The Huhool fees are exceedingly 
low ; not only lower than in England, but 
lower than in France, the average being 
under 3^. a year for instruction, even in 
tho best sch'Kiis. The masters do not 
receive the fees, but are paid fised salaries 
out of the funds thus raiseil. The miuci- 
raum salary scarcely ever exceeds 300i. a 
year and a house. There are I H Ot/nLna- 
ai'^n, containing about 47.000 boys, and 
2H I'rofiym'ms'mn, containing about 2,(100 
boys. In England, the term gymnaaiuin 
is applied strictly Ia a school for tlis 
improvfunent of bodily strength, grace, of 
agility, or for gymnastic exercises. 

Oymnastica, A'™ ArrfT.KTrc.s, C.\li8- 
TfTKVII.W, and Prtsical Kouuateon. 

&yp (Greek yviSr, a vuHure). — A t«na 
appliful at Cambridge to the malo atten- 
dants on University men in their room& 
It is equivalent to /"•out. the name bv 
which the collegenttendantsBrodesignated 
kt Oxford. 



Habit is tho tmmc of the principle or 
law aecnriiing to which every action be- 
comes eitsier by mpetition. The resutt of 
such repetition or priwrticfi when the pro- 
ixas IB complete is culled a habit. lliCbitfi 
are thus iicquim] [Kissessions, and so dis- 
tinguifhed from original or instinctive en- 
dowmentE. The piinciple of habit operates 
throughout tlio whole of development, 
bodily as well as mental. Thus all uiub- 
oulur actions become perfected fay re- 
petition and habit, requiring leas and leas 
co-operatioD of the conscious mind. We 
thus SE« that habit, like memory, to which 
iodeed it is so closely allied, btvs its basis 
in certain properties of the physical or- 
ganism. In the region of mental activity 
W» observe the effect of habit in the way 
in which thoujrhts liecome Grmly ussoci- 
ated one with another in delinite groups 
or serim, as the conspquence of repntition 
or custom, and also in the way in which 
the thinking processes gain in facility and 
exactness through practice The emo- 
tional sensiliilities again are under tlie 
influence of the same law, though in a 
less obvioas manner. The operation of 
the principle here is seen in the building 
up of firm attachments and permanent 
nlfections towards the objects and persons 
in the child's environment, with their cor- 
relative sense of want and craving when 
these are absent finally, habit i-ules in 
the domain of voluntary action. All the 
higher exercises of will in checking impulse 
Uld oontrolling the thoughts and feelings 
become perfected by cuit^jmnry perform- 
ftnce, and in this way the so-called Moral 
Habits, as tempemnce, truth, kc, are built 
up. Habits have hanu divided into In- 
tellectual and Moral, and also into Active 
and Passive, habits. From this short ac- 
count of the nature and scope of Habit we 
may easily see that it is the great guiding 
principle of eiluoation. According to Locke 
it is ' the secret of instruction in all arts, 
and, indeed, in conduct too, to get what we 
would teach settled in thepupil hyprattiee 
till it becomes a, kahit. {Snu Mr. Quick's 
edition of tlie Thougku eonctming Educa- 
tion, Introduction p. Itv.J The whole 
training of the body and of the mind pro- 
cceds on the principle of habit ; and the 
grsMt objwt el moral education is to induce 

by steady practice in well-doing m fixed| 
position townrdsduty. fji nee the for 
of habit is only possible where the bn 
and the connected mental faculties hsn| 
certain plasticity or pliability, it is ot I 
greatest consei|uence in education to I 
the foundations of good habita in tbe i 
years of life. WTiile the law of bafcU i 
thus of the greatest service to the edu 
he must bear in mind tliat it tends to ] 
duce a mechanical and unconscious i 
of action, and he must seek to count 
this tendency, where it is injurioas, 
exercising the child in the pr 
reflection and deliberation. {Sm 
Mental and Mnral .SeirnCf, cliap.| 
Sully's Tene.kcr't tfandhook, p. 446 and 1 
lowing, 467 and following ; and P. ~ 
stock's Gev\ihnunff und iArn WieAlig 
filT dU Er-Liehum/.) 

Half-Timera. S<e School Boakc 

Hamilton, JatneB (6. London, 13 

d. Dublin, 1820), the author of tbe JTai 

Ionian Mfthod of acquiring Lar 

commenced his career as a merchant, I 

visited Hamburg, where bestudiMlFr 

under the direction of a militAry 

General d'Angely, by whom he ]>erfe 

the method to which he has given i 

name. This method consists in tr 

word for word short pieces, and ' 

mastery of a vocabulary before lear 

grammar. By this means he was \ 

read French authors vrith an oocasio 

reference to the dictionary. On the I 

plan he learnt German and Itaiiuk 

did this at first merely for selfn 

but owing to losses in* trade be deter 

to go to America, where he c«tiUiieBet4l 

teach languages. The nov^tyof Uil 

thod and tlie success of his pupils at 

great numbers. For a while he tan^lil 

New York and Philadelphia, th«n Iw 

returned to England and taught Unel^ 

Latin, French, German, and ItalisB li 

many thousands, both privately and il 

classes, till he realised a conKidrrabio (cT 

tune. He issued a number of bonks cam- 

piled on his method, and in which posMgB 

from the works of classical and foreign sv 

thors are given with interlinear Kngli^ 

translation. Some have crttic:i»id tbe IDS 

thod of Hamilton as addressed too mndl M 

mere memorj. Hamilton has bMn (d 



ty otiiera^ who have made t>T«at 

icnts, DOtablf W. Preiidergast 

I ilatUry .S>ri**. Hamiltoti's system 

, >f[<:r all, but 8. practical application 

rdie method recommended two centuries 

I him by Itngrr Ascliani. 

ultoniao Method. Sr.« Hauiltox, 

Hutlib, Samael. 'See Milton, und 

f, SlK WlU.IAM. 

Harrow. .SVe Pobijg ScnooLa. 

Harvftrd. S«t UNiTKBstTies. 

&Uy, H. &'« Educatiun of tbb 

Head Masttrs (Qnalifloations of J. Sen 
rflfKiL Management. 

Hecker, J. J. (A. Werdcn, 1707; d. 
168), a distinguished Uerroan theologian 
■d schoolmaster. He studied at the Uni- 
inity of Halle, and in 1729 became one 

tlie iDASten of the there. 
Ic thuK came under the inHuence of 
no W, who founded the lirst RuALitcurLii 
}.w.) at Halle in \Ti%. In 1735 he w>u 
■de Prafpwor of the Military Orphaniige 
iFMaduB ; thive yeiirs after he became 
ir of a church nt Berlin. There he 
givat XHtl into th« work of educa- 
Kot content with founding free 
encntary schools, he wished to create 
liutitution tike the Ai^t/^r-Au^atHaUe. 
Ua achool h« opnncd in 1 746. The plun 
'■tady einhracRd all tlie branches which 
vld be of any practical utility in life. 
ecker'a ambition wns to gire universal 
ebtical mstruction in this institution. 
any otbt-r schuois sprang up on the 
od«l <A this one, and Felbij^er went to 
Dlin to see it. Hecker received instruct 
MIS from Frederick II. to prepare a gene' 
1 ngalstion for the Prussian schools, but 
mUBStanoea provent«d the order from 
tine <«rried out, 

Hvdgt Schools. — Und^r the torribln 
tm] Laws by which Iroland was coerced 

the last century, instruction in the 
tUioIic faith, or by Catholic pripsts, was 
tihibitnl under pain of death. In spite 
the Mrrible porsccution nnd prohibi- 
vax to which they were subjected, how- 
*r, the priosta carried oti instruction of 
• pvoplo with remarkable courage and 
mtsm. *Thny wore active,' auya Mr. 

H. M'f^rthy, M.P., in his Iri'land 
not th*. Unirm, p. 13, 'in oBering to 
oErscattftrect flocks thut ednciition which 
» hanfa law* denied them. On the- high- 
ay and on the hillside, in ditches and 

behiud hedges, in the precarious shelt«3r 
of the ruined walls of some ancient abb(?y, 
or under the roof of a peasant's cabin, the 
prieatsset up schools and taught the chil- 
dren of their racei With dentli aa the 
pennlty of their daring— a penalty too 
often paid — they gave to the people of 
their persecuted faith that precious mental 
food which triumphantly thwarted tho 
efforts of the Government to brutalise and 
degrade the Irish Catholic off the face of 
the earth. In those " hedge-schoola," as 
they were called in sconi, the principles 
of religion, of niorahty, and of patriotism, 
were kept alive, and elements of educa- 
tion, which are the life-blood of national 
existence, freely dispensed. Eagerly as it 
waa given, it was no less eagerly sought 
for. The readiness of the priests to teach 
was only equalled by the readiness of the 
people to be taught. The proudest plac« 
of honour in Irish history belongs to those 
hedge-schools and their heroic teachers. 
But for them the national cause and tho. 
national existence would have withered 
ftwny iiniler the blighting cursu of the 
Penal Laws. From those hedge-schoola 
came some of the brightest ornaments of 
modem Irish history. ITjat great Church - 
mail who died a few years ago passed his 
childhood under the Jihadow of the Penal 
Laws. John Mac Hale, A ri'h bishop of 
Tuam, received at a hedge-school those 
early lessons which developed into that 
ecclesiastical scholarship and profound 
[liety which would have done honour to 
the proudest epoch in the history of the 
Church of the West.' The hedge*8chool 
master has also played a prominent part in 
the history of Indian education (ees Law 
(Educational), sect. ■ India'), 

Hegel, Geor^ Wilhelm F, {b. Stutt 
gart 1770; <l. Berlin ISSI), was educjitod 
at Wurtemberg and Tiibingen. He was 
a fellow. student with Schelling, who long 
exercised a great influence upon Hegel 
philosophy. After acting for some thue 
as R private tutor in Switzerland and 
Frankfort, he became possessed of a smat 
property by the death of his father, and 
was able to give up his tutorship, and 
take up his residence at Jeua, where he 
pitbliahed bis tirst work, and became ac- 
quainted with Goetheand Schiller. Hero 
also he was a lecturer, with four liBteners. 
When, however, Schelling left Jena, Hegel 
was appointed his successor. He only 
held the chair for oite jeat, iwc, ««V« ■«»& 


writing the clon; of his I'lirTwiirnoi/irjif of 
Hitii, Jiuia wiis j.lfiniinil hy the Fipncli. 
He <|uittisl Jrnn and w^nl to Bamln-T^, 
where Ih- ralitwi u iwtwjipupcr, Lili l.SOS, 
when h« was uppuiiitird rector of tlie 
O^uiliaiiium at Nuri-iiiljfrg. In IHIC he 
was called to llie i-hair ol f)hii(>«ii|i!j> .n 
Heideiiierg, and iii IH18 was invit'ii (<> 
the chair at Kerliii. where Ii« cunlinued till 
bis death b^ cholera. It would be out of 
place hcT? to altompt to give au account 
of the Hogrlitui philosophy — a kind of 
idealJKtin piLDtlieiioD— which has axerted 
«o powerful fin influence in Uermany. We 
havR only to refer to hiE work ns a prac- 
tical edutuitionist. At Nuremberg, where 
he was for BODir time rector, his rules and 
his disdpline still Inrgi-ly obtain. An ideji 
of his powtion may be gatherpil from some 
of the fragmentary espreesion.K to he found 
in liis writings, as: 'leathing is the art of 
rendering luuu moral;' 'It is eHpet-ially 
tb« mission of the State to render attend- 
ance at elemeulaiy Hchools compulsory.' 
Jn Hegel's eyes Iji'eek was the founda- 
tion of nil higher culture. He iuMsted 
upon a close study of Uie classics, and 
maintained that the study of theee lan- 
giin^'S nnd ihHr grnmniar was iu itself 
ftn instrument of high intellectual culture. 
He made religion thr principle of all edu- 
cation, and the foundation of all instruc- 
tion. Hegpl'H views on educ-ation and in- 
struction mny be found scattered unongst 
his voluminous writings, especinlly in the 
EncyclnpaiiU tier W%s»m»cliajien, wnd the 
6' J/711 tin rial rr tltn . 

Height of Children. .»« Growth of 

Herbart, Jobann Friedricti (6. 1776; 
d. 1841), an eminent Oemmn educationist 
and philosopher, was bom at Oldenburg, 
where his fatlier held tlio position of 
JuBtizrulli. and was educated at tJie Olden- 
burg gymnasium and tlie university of 
Jena, Vouu^ Herbart was intended for 
the law, bi.t he eschewed it, and gradually 
directed his atteution to the study of 
philosophy and the scieuce of education. 
Tlie works of LeibnitK and Kant formed 
liis introduction to philosophy, and at 
Jen/theliad personal relations with l'icht«, 
whose WUteiigf^ht'/ulfhrti (Theory of Sci- 
ence) awakened in him a spirit of opposi- 
tJou. as is evidenced by his critique on 
the first two works of Schelling. In 1797 
he a«c«pled the position of private tutor 
at Berne, in Switzerland. Ihiring the 

nejit four ycnm bo niade a itijdT 
pedagngicnl works of Fi.'ttt*l0Kii, vl 
risitnl kt Btn^cdorf iu 1799. In 1 
retunird to (ji-niumy, aiwl, after t 
residenoe at Bmneu, aetAledatGotl 
Hore, until 1809, when be fLCcept«d! 
['[-■im Kunigaherg as prt(fuavr 
>>t philoHophy and pedagogft he 
Uie tirsl results of his nuttvn 
Among these may b« mentioiMd 
fo:!^i'f Id'.a of thf. A H C of 
SfimfifaiVjf TnaUd (1»0|), G\ 
fedoffoffj/ (1606), ud th« Pri 
Hfli<}>hyW4 (ISOS). In Konigsl 
divided his time lietveen Ids 
searches, hut n4-jtd<!DUC duties, and 
a practical tntchi-r in directing a 
of teachers founded at his 
held nf t«r 1 ^ 1 2 in his own houae. 
unilingunder his own roof (lie 
of school and familj', Herbart 
to utilise the powerful influence 
by making them supplement aodj 
each other. His ideal was educaa 
the family, guided and asasted | 
counsel of an experienced and a \ 
sional teacher, and his ideal m' 
braced brevity and vividneas. 
he accepted a call to GottingPD, 
1841 hisstudiousaiid uneventful 
to a close. Shortly before his dcd 
published a /7(i» of Ltrlurei oh Pit 
(1841). Pedagogics is. according tj 
bart, closely connect«<l with etbli^ 
psychology, nnd really depends vpati 
He divides the complete work of ed^ 
into discipline (Hfgi^rvng), inxtt 
(&'nf<rrtRA(},and dialectic tminingfil 
These are necessitry since the chilff ] 
ability to concentrate the action I 
orgiitis upon one object to the exctoj 
the nst, and &iuce his individual 1 
the result of practice. It is tb« q 
discipline to keep order and tosul^ 
naturally unruly incUuations of to) 
viduol. Such subiection, how«vt4 
only be effected by a power strong ^ 
and actinfi; so freiiuenlly as to lie coidl] 
succassful, before indications of a S^ 
will persisting in wrong are eilubl| 
the child. But all discipllue must 
before training ceases, and should ij 
as possible be relieved by the lattei 
struction must be educative. Tbe] 
instruction should not be solely, q| 
predominantly, the amount of knoii 
□or shoidd it be the ncquisitioo oi 1 
technical skill, but ctdture of 


y. Dutlnctic tmining omhracrs nil 

•ction upon Ui" rfinftonitiion of the 

wliiuli in [irriiiipUid l>y thv intention 

.rity »)i<l SUjipltiiieiit hix rncrgiea and 

lead biiu tow«nla olijtwtivn librrrly. It 

thus to deal wiUi Dir cliiiriiotvr of 

Cluincter mttuifeiits itwlf by in- 

i] preferenwa aiiil in twofolc], eithor 

ave or subjective. The objective 

of character couaista uf the inili- 

'• |»rticula.r conslructioti of iiidi- 

I, indicRtofl bj'thorclfttivepi'oportioii 

■etton, nml the subjective in tlie eii' 

lent of comploini'ntnry oppoaites, criti' 

the individuul inclinMirins. Ill' 

the gn«it prcibli'ui running through 

lole of Ht-rbttrt'i writings on dducii- 

science is — how Ui riiilim^ thi- livi' 

<)i freMloiu. jwrfirtitin, riiflit, equity, 

benevoI«uce within th« province of 

in. Ht-rbart's phih»i'<pliy wna in 

part » pi'dlfdl uj"jiinst thi- idt^jilistic 

IS fouiiiied oil Kaiit by Fit'hte und 

His works have beeu collected in 

ToloiDPs, tind edited by hia disiripli? 

Herder, JohaQii Oottfriedvon {b. Mob- 

IT44-, d. ]S()^), soDiotimes called 

iitn I'lato, becanie in 1764 aasis- 

t««cher in the school of tlie cnthednil 

gH, and preached there. Ue subse- 

\y became acquainle<l with Goethe, 

1 1T75 wa* appointed professor* of 

tbRok))Qr at Oftttingen, He spent his last 

jMntkt Weiniftr. Riehtcr often saw him, 

•wl lw« Irft us soni« plonsing sketchrs of 

Urn. ncw»Bappi)intj'd innpi^t^ir of schools 

tl Wpimnr, unil i^ftrripfl out ninny important 

|«acl!cal n!fnrniH,nnd caused ni^w inslitU' 

tiani to bi; foundfid, so thut he takes an 

illi|)0rtnnt ptiM:<^ in the history of German 

fldoctttiou. In hi» /dral of a Hchnol (nn np- 

pndix Ui his Soj-hrim, nr Colhr-trd Sfhoiit 

iprrelif.t) ho idtBtcliud a plan of studies. 

He divided his id<^al unhool into two parts 

—the Mcbool prow-r or pmctical ifteid), 

tad the «obool of languugeii. Tim fonner 

he divided into thrL-«^ cIusstb. In the 

'Sefaool of Lttogiiagt! ' he r»si> n.)piiiist the 

WW rive iuii>urtunce att^iclietl to Latin, 

MMipiaced French very largt^ly in its pluoe. 

Inuualatt«ridna perhaps he BtiiiidK alone 

amoDgkl Gennan eduoHtiouists. He mode 

Uu«e dtrmoim of FrciiL-h, Hcconlini- U> the 

s|p of the pupil. He luiid I^itin ^lioukl 

foUow Freuch, wid Greek follow Latin. 

When, however, tn 1783 he wom requi)«d 

famish a ploii for the reorgauisutton of 

Bchools, he did not proceed according to 
this theory. 

Heredity (taw of).— By thisismiaint 
the tendency of peculiarities, physical or 
mental, to transmit themselves from pan-nt 
to offspring. This may show itself in a 
mori! general und uniform manner, us in 
the transmission of the typical cbaructers 
of the species, or of some variety of that 
species, iLa a particular race of mankind. 
Thus, the English child may be said to 
inherit ftll that Is distinctively human as 
well OS the more sfiecial traits, physical 
and mental, whicji distinguish our pnr- 
ticular race and nntionni tyjie at its pre- 
sont stage of development. More cora- 
tnonly, however, hcreflity refers to the 
blinding down of more special and rari* 
able charucters in particular families. 
Thus, children frct|uently inherit pecu- 
liarities of bodily structure, as features, 
of liodily iiction, as gesture, together with 
well-marked menbkl and inciral peculiari- 
ties. It is not yet known how far the 
action of thia principle extends, and what 
pr'oportion of the peculiarities which make 
up what we cull individuality are I'eforftbia 
to it. According to the doctrine of evolu- 
tion the results of habitual modes of action 
of ancestors tend to transmit themselves 
by lieredity to posterity {«m livoLUTiON). 
Viewed in this way heredity corresponds 
ill the development of the race to the laws 
of memory and of habit in the smnUrr 
domain of individual gvowtli ; it ia the 
conservative force by wliicli the race re- 
tjLins all useful acquisitions, organising 
them into perfect habits or instincts. The 
study of the laws of heredity is useful to 
the educator as helping him not only t« 
account for, but to anticipate, ^mily traits, 
and niso as nccustoming him to look upon 
his work as subserving not merely the edu- 
cation of the individual but of the race. 
(*■•■-■ Th. Uibofs work. Heredity.) 

HeoriBlic Method. Hr-i: Mrtiiodi 

Hibbert Lectarei. See Pbblgctions 
(ExTin AcAiiii.iiic). 

Higher Orade Schools. See Classi- 


Historical STotgIs. — Teachers have 
found that the history work of a school 
is considerably freshenr<l and enlivened if, 
wlien any period is beitig treated, care is 
taken to let tlie pupils know what are the 
best novels and tales which relate to that 
perioil, and to persunde the pupils to read 
them. The little vl\\c\i ^]^ ^a.v.^^'J 





and inTSntion ol the wrilar itiiiy do — tiole- 
wortliy jwrliapa in the cusc of adult stu- 
dents, but hardly perceptible in the case 
of ohildreu^-is amply compensated for by 
tile eztira brii»htne«s ot interest which is 
Hare to be gained. To interest beginners 
in the work which they are just entering 
IB, after all, the niftin thing ; a thoroughly 
soJentiHc inquiry may come aft^irwards — 
it certainly will not crrme before. More- 
over, the ' sportive instruction ' afforded 
by a novel does not absolve thci pupil from 
Uie necessity for real exertion. It will 
mther, when the interest hits Imen creatctl, 
not only faoilitatri, bat even neeessitjile, 
the strongest exertion on hia part ; par- 
ticularly if the teacher is careful to start 
with his pupils a discussion of one or two 
of tlie novels read. In ordei" to help 
tenchers in this matter a descriptive CAta- 
logueof liistorica! novels and tales has been 
compiled by Mr. iLCourthope Bowen.and 
pulilished by Mr. Stanford, 5a Charing 
CrosM, S.W.' 

History (the Teaching of).— In the 
teacliing of history, ns in that of every 
other subject, it ia necessary for us to 
begin by deciding why we teiK^li it. Do 
we seek to proiluCH a scientific, well- 
reaaoued knowledge o£ Inimanity — at len^t 
of civilised humanity] As far as school 
is concerned we can only create a desire 
for this knowledge ; we can render our 
pupils capable of gaining it hereafter ; 
and in the latest periods of Bcbool-life wn 
may even enable them to begin to acquire 
it. Are the facta of history in themselves 
of direct utility 1 We must answer. Sel- 
dom or never. Can the subject be used 
to train the mental faculties ) Yes, all of 
thum; but in rapecial the imagination and 
the higher sentiments. Prol-ably the most 
valuitbli? results of the teaching of liistory 
ut scliools are the love of fatherland, an 
interest in himianity. and a delight in all 
tliose noblpr feelings classed under the 
head of etliic or moral sentiment*. Then 
must follow questions as to choice of sub- 
ject-matter and method. Should wo begin 
witti English or with universal History 1 
The people about whom children are most 
readily interoated arc those with whom 
they come in contact — who in some way 
influence their lives; who bear names fa- 
miliar to tliem: who dwell or Imve dwelt 
at places they know, or know ut least by 
name. The ttiings Uiey care about are 
those which they can sec and touch ; which ; 

they can be enabled readily to ti 
which can be connected in somo way i 
them and their lives. For th€«e 
it ia beat for English children to 
with English history. But th^y sh 
not stop there. Ln the Inter stAg«a i 
should proceed to acquire * gennnJ 1 
ledge of universal, or at least of Eur 
history. On the continent alrnoat ec 
country be^ns with national liiHtory ; i 
otdy very few schools have followed 
example of the Seniinurr School of "" 
and started their curriculum with 
graphical sketches from universal histq 
Portugal and France are the otdy count 
whose codes recognise universal history. | 
ia set down as a subject for the later p«rio 
At the great public schooU of Engb 
English history is almost wholly nwl* 
— at least on the classical sides — cpit* 
of the histories of Orepce and Rome ) 
ing its place ; the modem side*, hoi 
generally add English history to 
and occasionally glimpses of contin 
epochs. The neit qnrstion is: Bhould' 
begin with the present and work back'1 
the past, or continue to use a plan 
reverse of this 1 There is much to be I 
for both views. This at least ia ; 
by all, that the teacher when planning 1 
lessons should himself work hack from I 
present to the past, and shouhl lie alo 
keeidy alive to the great questiiMU <d 
day, both at home and aliroait, and to I 
liearing of the past ujwn them. On I 
whole it seems that though the 
should always be the goal to be aimedi 
and reached by our pupils, it ia better f 
them to begin with the post and to ■ 
up to and into the present Events ol 
to-day are too complicated, too un6uish<d( 
too out of perspective for children to pro- 
perly appi-eciate their \'alue and meaning 
at first, Tliey want something less crowded 
and varied, willi clearer outlines, with * 
more decided beginningand end. Achild'l 
interest, however, is in the present, and 
the past is only interesting to him by iUi 
connection with the present, and as food 
for imagination and feeling. Should w* 
begin with skeleton outlines to be gisduaBy 
filled in, or take epoch by epoch I Neither 
plan is quite satisfactory. It ia waste ol 
time to learn tho outiin«* of anything 
which is tt«elf still unknown. At beU 
the memory only is exerasod, and that at 
considerable diaadvantaga. The study of 
epochs ia apt to produco ecra)>py and die- 



IS knowl«!dj[i>, whiln nttflntion ia 

to iDiitUuv of Mjcondary import- 

vithiii the ppoch inntBitd «f In others 

lary iuijiortJUiiin without it It 

ae«iD twBt toooiuliiiie the advuntagi-s 
Intli plans by cbooaitiK n. series of the 

reinArlMble peraoiiu;^ and evi-nls 
from aoiue polut in tho past 

to the prMent ; to treat these nioi-e 
more folly in successive singes, con' 
iBCting thnm in vach stAge hy a brief 
umUve; nod to fill in the intijrstieea 
bore ftnil more in eiich suFcessivc stfigo 
■tth pvrata iind persons next in import- 

th<^ continuity mid oneness of the 
vhole history being carefully kept up in 
■fay stage. Should the subject-matter 
be poUtJcal or social I Althouj;!] university 
pnnaAora may decide upon Uie forin«r for 
their adutt studeiiUi, school- t^aclurrs wilt 
answer, ' Botli.' Tliey will not eut^r muoh 
St first into treaties &n<l constitution - they 
vtQ be nioderat« in the use of ' drums and 
trampets,' and, while eschewing wide gene^ 
nlitfttions and vague abstractions, they 
•31 attend most to what illustrates and 
iCKals social chamct^ir and life. The de- 
latU of politics and constitutional matters 
lt»int<>resting to children in the last stage 
Wily of school-life. The teacher will find 
the following division into stages useful : 
In Ills 6nt eUj^ what interest children 
wstare: action, personal adventure, per- 
toaal ehkractistica. Leh everything lie 
Kriking. dmmatic, single — not compli- 
(ated with argumnnt or reQeclion ; with 
»« too gmat u viiritrty of interests. In 
tta second itage cliiUlntn will want to 
buw sonwthing ot why and wherefore, 
snd wQl be capable of muint^ining more 
tbin on*! interest at a time. We nmy 
b^ to criticim aeUons and uhtLroctcr, 
nd to look for causes and consetiuencea 
rf CTcnta. Individuals will cluster into 
e!uu«, aa classes will lierenfter cluster 
iato cite nation We may begin to sketch 
fle Sr«t ideas of a State; and to get first 
ideas of public duty; and a curiosity as to 
*hat oilier nations were doing and tliink- 
ii^ about at the time may be started. In 
l^tliird stage all this will advance a step. 
We may now treat of the nations as a 
*bole ; enlarge and continue the ideas of a 
Stat* and of public duty ; touch upon tiie 
|Nat«r tnatters of constitutional history; 
ntfflin more into the doings of foreign 
uUcms ; and gain larger and clearer views 
<f iKkl growth and progress. 

Holland (Vuiversitiss of). See Um- 

VERS I Tilts. 

Holloway College. Sm Protikcial 


Home and Colonial School Society. — 

The founder of this society was Mr. John 
Stuckey Reynolds, a, distinfiuiahed civil 
servant. After tilling in auccesaion many 
important offices in the Treasury, he re- 
tired in 1835, and thenceforth devoted his 
whole time to the religious and philan- 
throphio work which had till then been 
the occupation of his leisure. His interest 
in the establishment of infant schools 
brought him into contact with Dr. Mayo 
of Oheum (the chief apostle in England of 
the views of Pestalmzi) and with Miaa 
Miiyo. The result of their intercoursft 
was a determination on the part of Mr. 
Reynolds to introduce the principles of 
the Swiss reformer into English schools, 
With the co-operation of other public- 
spirited men and women, in the beginning 
of 1830 he established the 80<riety. Tha 
committee was foruiet) on February 23, 
and the institution opened on June I. 
The object of the association was indicated 
by its original name^'The Home and 
Colonial Itifant School Society.' The 
society wo^ at first unsectarian. Its aim 
was stated in the original rule ii. to be 
the "extension of the infant school system 
on Christian principles.' In 1S41 a more 
definite meaning was given to the expres- 
sion by the addition, after 'Christian 
principles,' of the words: 'As such prin- 
ciples are set forth and embodied in the 
iloctrinal articles of the Church of Eng- 
land.' The original rule iv. ran:— 'That 
considering it the province of the local 
committees of infant schools to select their 
own teachers, the society will educate 
teachers of diflereut religious denotnina- 
tions if holding tlie fundamental prin- 
ciples of the Bible, and of decided piety.' 
Though the rules were recast in IS48, no 
change was made in the wording of the 
two ijuoted, and no change has been made 
since. A change has, however, been made 
in the practiceof the society. At first, most 
of the students trained were Dissenters ; 
most of the applications for teachers, oa 
the contrary, came from Church schools. 
The committee, therefore, sent a circular 
to the clergy asking them to use tlieir 
influence in increasing the number of 
Coaformiug candidates, and also tried to 
attract sucli candidtitiea b^ \T\»b>T\,vcv^ «&- 


v«rUaem6nta in tho lurwxpaprmi. As a 
oouaequenc«, tlie (.■oinmittit! wnn ab!* to 
aunoimc«, in Oieir Teuth Annual Report, 
that 'nearly tlir«« out of t'uur now trained 
in the institution are inemberB of the 
£atablishnieDt.' The next sUrp was the 
introductioo of th<! present plau of iosist- 
ing upon (lanilidat^s for admission luid 
Htudcntit in training tnkingthe arch bishops' 
oxmuituition in n-Jigious knowledge. Tliis 
nia<li! tiio uollogH pmcticnily a Church 
iiistituliOQ, thuugh managod by a aoointy 
uomiually uii>H.H.'ti[riaii. From the U-K'n- 
niuj;; the Houie ami Colouijil in 
one important i«ape<:t fniui tlie Britiali 
and Foreign and Uie National Sot'leliea. 
The primary object of the oliler lioclies 
was the establishment of schools, and they 
only opened colleges because they found 
trained teachers essential to the success of 
their schools; on the other hftnd, the pri- 
mary oliject of the j'Ounjjer bo'ly was thn 
pnivisiim of teachers specially pi-cparcd to 
eduoute infantA, and it left the establish- 
meut of schools to the enlightenment of 
Tuaniigcrs. Tim society's students were 
originally male and fctnule. Single men 
were not refused, and married ci>uples 
were particularly invited. The number 
of single men trained was always insigui- 
fioant, and the eleventh report states that 
the supply of married couples was gnyitly 
diniiiiislied. Soon afterwards it ceased 
alto^retlier, since when only mistresses 
have been trained. It waa in 19 South- 
ampton Street, Holborn, that the society 
began its operations in I8M. Next year 
a house was taken in Cray's tun Road, 
with a large stable at the liack. The 
stable was converted into a school, and 
the house (the middle one of the nine now 
nccupiori by the institution) became the 
nucleus of a college. The society saw 
dearly that if training is good and neces- 
sary for the teachers of the poor, it is 
etjually good and necessary for all other 
teachers. The First Report dwelt on the 
desirability of forming a class for the 
instruetion of nursery governesses and 
teachen for infant schools of a superior 
social grade, and the Fourth announeed 
that an axljoining house had bc^'n tulccn 
and a separate de|mrtnient rstahlislii-d for 
this lirniich of the work. Thu two de- 
partmnnts have gone on side hy side ever 
ainc«, and it will thus lie seen that for 
nearly forty years tlie Home and Colonial 
Scliool Souivty was the only inatitution 

which offered even tlie rudiinents of 
fessional training to secondary teach 
In 1839, when tlw Education Departm* 
was established, th« society carefully i 
sideredtlioqaectionofStateaid. 'Withg 
entertaining any very strong feeling 
the ([uestioo of parliamentary int<^r 
with education,' the oommittiw 

* The nukjority of the nfltnniitti!e wo 
certainly have wiaht^ that thfitJovcmn 
alioutd have euitUliMl it.i plan to 
nianufacturiug districts until it bad 
ascertained wliat the public, inl 
it is now, could have aooomplisbed, 
they are more inclined to this 
from the doubt they entertain wt 
any government would be disposed to | 
to the people an education as de 
religious as this committee would d«M' 
indispensahle.' In IMZ the cam]iiitta>{ 
asked the Department ' to direct an MS- ! 
minatioo to be made into the )Qnrt«n((| 
education pursued' by the society, sad; 
Mr. Seymour Trenienlieere aceonlinglf 
visit«d the establish niont. His refOIt 
describes the stato of the institution, and 
speaks (generally with apjiroval) of ihs 
metliod of training, which, if not the bnt 
possible, waa perhaps as good as could be 
expected under the circumstancea. When 
the famous minutes of IM6 were i»a<d 
the grants to colleges induced the com- 
mittee to apply for tiovemwent aid. Tl* 
api>tication was preceded by mature con- 
siileration on tlie part of the society, and 
followed by considerable cumvpondein 
with the Department; but Uie Twelfth 
Report announced tliat thirty 'Govern' 
meiit students' would be trained foraysir 
or more. Tlie next Report stated that ^ 
plan wasworking well, and it was extended 
gradually till it embraced the whole of th* 

• Uovemment department.' TotlwKevited 
Code of Mr. Lowe the society offered long 
and uncompromising resistance. Of tb* 
Att of Mr. Forster, the society, on ll» 
whole, approved. The '(Jovcmment it- 
pnrtioeiit ' of the college at present provid* 
accommodation for a hundred and fort]' 
students. Connected with it are fout 
eeliools — a mmlcl infant school ; a moda 
and practising school for boys and girls ii 
Standards IV.-VII. ; an upper practisiiif 
school for boys and girls in Standards II.- 
IT.; and the Reynolds practising kIkmi 
for boys and girls in Standards I. -IV 
The ' Nou-Goveniuient department' oBen 
accoinmodatioDforan iodtiSnit^; nainberol 

Cnnneottsd with this dcpaitnif<tit 
middle- cln«t Bdi<K>l. 

e EducatioiL — By this trrm we 
till* iiistruotioti iin(] tniining of tlic 
I}; in iLb huufto of llifir [)inv.nt!i, liy tJie 
,U iheuiaelvea uud by tutor* mid g«- 
The MJvaulah'CB "i sucL u pliui 
_ ttegre&ter ioclividuul ultenliuu (us to 
<a<Ii(al powera, temper, pliyuuut liealtli, 
ic) which e«ch child uiay receive ; greuter 
neurit^ &om evil influence's, phyaicfil, iti' 
IcUectunl, emotional, <t«., wiuch may be 

ridwl ; grwitpr room and opportunity 
individunl riovcloptiipnt of powers, 
tjut«s, lie. ; IcM publicity, more quiet, 
,fton ^, uud the possibility of 
*doier and niorn conxtiint iiit<<rcniirsiir 
witli jMiVutii luul brullx^rs mid sisters. 
Xlw uisadi*iu)la(;«t, liowt^vcr, even in the 
fccst o( homes, VH ^'ent ; iiJid in ordinary 
hmeeuealiuoietciverwheluiing. Athome, 
v>tn wli*u liie (iiuiily is lar^'p, tliere is 
pMt danger of tliere being too much 
■■]>eiiut«ndeni:« aud interference. Tlie 
ehUd has lets incentive to exertion, leas 
mortwiity for measurinj^ himself or Ler- 
Wl thftn at »;hoo). The getiei'nl stiuiulu,- 
tioR of numbers, the mutual education of 
Ihoic of like age, is lost. The ethical 
Inining produced by conipanionaliip with, 
•nd tDte3T«ts and responsibilities in coni- 
mon with, those who are not related to or 
c(>iuiect«d with the child, and come from 
• diitanco— of all that may hereaft«r pro- 
dvet social and civic virtue^is missed. 
HiBmlfot the child is too prominent an 

' oljcct at home, and the (iispipline at home 
■ apt to lack «nund experience and to ho 
Mol and unc«iiain. The play of child- 
bood, which i* now recognised as a valu- 

' lUe part of a child's training, requires 

' mUDMTS for it* full, lic'jilthy enjoyment. 
Thu tiiaohcrx employL-d at home ni-e likely 
to be mudi infenor in skill, learning, and 
ttparienoB, Mid lew varied in n<>c^inpliKh- 
aonta. At school en'^rytlung i» arranged 
ud continuously conducted forthi'Kpecia! 

, Unefit and tniiuiiiK of uhildnm ; while at 
Itooae this can rarely or never lie tho ciiae. 
7W childreu at home are liable to too 
cnuuat iiitercourae with lulultx- ure ex- 
VmA to dissipations, distr.ictionn, irn-gu- 
UritJM of all kinds; aud are likely to be 
UlrowD too much with servants, who, 
wo^ kindly and worthy in uiauy ways, 
••* neither well-educat«d nor skilled 
''Wd'ts of the youn^!, and are prone to 
**pid' tbam. The peculiar prejudices, 

narrownesKPS, Aq., of th« home and family 
ore almriiit cprtain lo hr. left uncorrected, 
iinil even to b^ emphasised. Other points 

might be mentioned; but enough has been 
said to show tliiit true wisdom lies in tiare- 
fully apjHirtioiiing the tiuie of the young 
between school and honie; and that edu- 
OLtion requires the cooperation of both. 
(>Ve« Miss C, M. Masoii's J/ome Education ; ( 
Dr, Abbott's JiwUd on JIoim Teachinff, 

Home - Leuoni, — This is the nam9 
given to the work which a ilay-pupil is 
set to do between the final dismissal of 
the school in the aftirnoon and tlie hour 
of reassembling next morning. It may 
eonsiat either of written work or of learn- 
ing from a book ; and this work may take 
the form of either the practice, applica- 
tion, completion, revision of lesBons pre- 
viously given; or it may be preparatory to 
lessons yet to come. Kxcept when written 
it is maiidy an exercise of the memory. 
The younger tiio child the fewer aiid 
shorter should the bome-lessons be. and 
the less should they take the form of pre- 
pai'atory work. It is very doubtful whether 
an ordinary child under the age of nine can 
ever properly prepare new work except 
while under careful guidance aud super- 
viaion. Forchildren in a day-school under 
this age, therefore, it is generally wise to 
devote the last hour of aftemooti school 
to what would otherwise be ' home -lessons.' 
Few homes, except of the comparatively 
well-to-do. can provide the children with 
the isolation and supervision which home- 
lessons require ; and even when these are 
pmvided, if tlie lessons are not very short 
there is no time left for free intercourse 
between parents and children. Moreover, 
in schools where the teaching is really 
good, and where the boys and girls play 
heartily, pupils are generally too tired in 
the evening for much mental effort. In 
a day-school where the hours are from 
0.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m., home-lesaoaa for 
normal pupils under ten should never ex- 
ceed one hour, for those between tan and 
thirtccTi, one hour and a quarter, for thoao 
between thirteen and sixteen one hour 
and a half. The work done as ' home- 
[pssons' should be tested and corrected 
without fail on the following day. Its 
subjects sliould, therefore, be taken from 
tliose of that day, and the correction or 
testing of tlie home- lessons should oocupy 
the Urst part of the dimioiu at tvav% «^ 



down to those aubjeoU on the time-table. 
In the nuw of writteii work, tbu teacher 
wll], of course, have to inspect aud mark it 
afterwards as well. Exercises ahould bv 
ooirected orally in class as soon as possiMn 
aft«r they have been written ; the marking 
(with red ink or chalk) of the mistakea 
nifule may coiop Iat«r. In very large 
cloKe-s it IK easier to make eiirc tluit 
lOriUen home-work hai htxn done tliaii 
that los-sons have been l«umt. But, o-n 
the other httiuL, the corrtHjcion of this 
written work nmy become very burden- 
some. Tliis again points to tlie necessity 
of L-are as to the kind of work chosen and 
of moderation in the amount set. 

Honour.— The thirst for distinction or 
honour is a powerful motive in the young, 
and is directly appealed to in ednculion, 
not only by the whole system of soholastic 
rewards and distinctions, but by the or- 
giinised system of physical conUists thnt 
grows up in the playground, &t'. As an 
intense degree of the love of reputation, 
ambition to ^in honours is spMrially open 
to the objections that uiay be urf^ed against 
this motive in general. Tlie term ' honour ' 
has come to have a special ethical signi' 
ficance. In addition to the common rules 
of right and wrong which bind us all, 
special rules, known as ' codes of honour,' 
are adopted by particular classes of the 
community, or coteries, for the purpose of 
maintaining their dignity and reputation. 
As we see in the case of duelling, such 
laws of honour are oft*n mischievous, as 
overriding the plain dictates of morality. 
The formation of a standard and rules of 
honour by every community of school-boys 
is a vnluahle supplement l« the moral dis- 
cipline of the schoolmaster. At the same 
time the tendency to impose a code of 
honour in the playground and classroom 
must be carefully watched, lest it tend to 
pervert a boy's notions of moral distinc' 
tioua. The Kchool roaster can lielp to form 
a higher notion of the claims of honour by 
throwing; a iMiy on liis lionour, as, for ex- 
ample, when allowing him to go out of 
bounds. AuapfwaUothe feelingof honour 
in this way, which was often resorted to by 

Dr. Arnold, may prove the most eS» 
way of inciting a boy to moral effort, 
encouraging him to act wonhily throng 
another's belief in him. {Sex 8chinidtl| 
Enr.ficlnpddir, article ' Ehrgefiihl.') 

Honi'hook. See Caisd CftOKt Row. 

Hulsean Leoture. Set Phrlkctiox 

HumanitieB.— The Romans nve ' 
title ' humaiiitas' to t}i« study cl k 
and the liberal arta, aiuce by theae 
distinguishes himself from other anins 
and raises himself to the true digoiiy < 
his nature^ Au]usGeIlius(xiiL 16,qa 
in the DirtionnaiTf- cU Pidagogie) tayil 
' Humaiiitas, that is, instnictioa in 
arts, the which whosoever truly takf 
and seek after are in very deed tno 
human. For the caring for thi;( knon 
ledge and its discipline out of all livin 
things is given to human beings anlf 
and therefore hath it been called 
manitas.' The first and the chief ! 
of the Italian Kenaseence culled the 
selves * humanists,' and Uie nnma 
adopted elsewhere. Lat«r on the ter 
'humanities* was used in colleges 
universities to signify that part of 
studies which includes all that is, stnc 
speaking, literary and classical. In 
sense the term 'humanists' has ofteni 
used, from the seventeenth century downt 
our day, in contradistinction to ' realists '-- 
the name given to champions of the stod^ 
of tMngf (instead of teorda) and of physiiail 
science generally. The term 'Professor of 
Humanity' is still used in the univeraitiel 
of Scotland, OS e^juivalent to Professor of 
I^tin. •S'e; MiDDLB Anics (ScrnooLS or]. 

Hygiene of School Life.— The subject 
of health in relation toschool life naturallT 
divides itself into that of healthy fchoou 
and lu-.althy Hckolan. Under t.he former 
head the reader should refer t« articles on 


Tbmpee.vture of Air, Impckitiks op Air, 
Dormitohies.Warmiso Api-AR*Ttr»,S*x*- 
TORiUM ; under the hitter hnad refer t« 
articles on OvERPREssiTRR, PnvaiCALEDD- 
CATios. Rkck RATIOS, Sex,, Eyk- 
stoiiT, Epidrmic Diseases, Cohmunicai 
DisEASBs, Slebp, School SonaKaT. 



niostrulon in itdtmort oomprohensivn 
BODUig is tlin DtnilrTing of an iftcn or 
I biUt dcAT ta uiathi^r minil. This is 
bv sottitiK whnt is prenenWl in a 
: M li](«ii<!tui to xuni(! known thing, 
to promoting tli« process of mental 
an. Hence all iUuBlnttion pro- 
hj counectiiig by some UiiJt of 
i^, affinity, or analogy, what is 
4Dd obscure with whst is old and 
lUastration uay be employed 
I the description of some concret« object, 
I i& the ase of illastrative aattlogiea in 
■iBDg forth gmgmphical or historical 
hctt. It is chiefly required, however, in 
Kpoonding nil abstrMt ideas and prin- 
dple*. Hero intnlligibiiitj depends upon 
s atlectioR of suitAhIn pxampltw or in- 
. duces which may mrvn to cxhil>it thn 
ct idea ill a living concrrtn fonn. 
I illuatnition of tli« general ruin by tlie 
psrticuUr cuae may l«; rrgiirded us au 
tiUiusion of the iiiduttive method, whifli 
poeeeds by leudlu); a child to grasp a 
(tBM&l principle tlirou^^h u couipariitou of 
llrticalar inntAnoes. (.Vpa Method.) It 
nay be uldM] that illustration, though it 
CMBDMnly refers to bringing out poinU of 
snulsrity, iucludes the setting forth of' 
ogntmst aa well. (Sm Contrast.) 

Imagination is the name of that faculty 
or power by which we form or make a 
■Dental representation of a concrete object 
vbioh is not presented to the senses at the 
tinw. it may be popularly defined aa the 
power o< neoteUy picturing things, If 
Ikia pictnriDg means the recalling to mind 
of aometlui^ which we havi? actunlly seen, 
it is known M Reproductive Imagination, 
whereas if it meanR f,hc foriualion of a new 
■MdUU image it is knnwn nt (.'on struct I ve 
IlM^nation. It will be seen from this 
definition that imnginntinn is e^icrcise'I 
not mernly about tfic fictitious civationa 
of po«try and art, bnt about commoo 
realities. The cultivation of the imnginn- 
tion thus sobeerves two main ends, know- 
ledge and smthetic delight. The first is 
iUostiBted in tbe teaiching of concrete sub- 
jects, fta geogr«pliy and history, where the 
pnpil is required to reproduce the impres- 
sions ot his post experience, with a view 
to cautnetiiig images of the new objttcta, 
BSS,utdev«ntE,dM«cribed by the teacher. 

It is further illustrated, though in a 1ms 
obvious way, in science -teaching, the ab- 
stract principU'S of which can only be 
reached by preliminary processfs of imagi- 
nation. The cultivation of the imagination 
for (Esthetic pur|J06e3 is carried on in close 
connection witii the development of the 
feelings and ttie taste. Here the object of 
Uie educator should be to render the child's 
mind sensitive and respoiisiie to what is 
beautiful, pathetic, or sublime iu tlie poet's 
creations, so that bis imagination may be 
stimulated to a vivid realisatiou of the 
same. The imagination is commonly iii- 
clu del among the faculties which are strong 
or highly developed in tbe child; yet it is 
important to iliistinguiah between the ran- 
dom, unguided movements of childish fancy 
nnd the onlerly progress of a trained 
imagination (d CoNSTRrcrivR Facultit). 
{.SVe Sully, TVncAer"* Uandbuok of Pfycho- 
iugy^ chap, xi.) 

Iinitatioa is the name for tlie propen- 
sity (it impulse to copy the actions which 
wesee others perform. In a comprehensive 
sense we may be said to imitate or repro- 
duce the modes of thought and feeling as 
well as tlie actions of otliers, but in mental 
science imitation is regarded as a principle 
which especially governs the acUons — as 
where a child imitates a bodily movement 
or a virtuous action. Imitation is com- 
monly spoken of as instinctive or original, 
but it has recently been shown that the 
first imitative movements occur about tbe 
end of the fourth month. This fact sug. 
gests that in order to imitate another's 
action, the child must have prc^ressed a 
certain way in the association of the sight 
of a movement as eiecuted by another, 
and the impulse to perform a similar 
niovement. This association is brought 
about, first by looking at his own organs 
when in movement, and then recngnising 
I the similarity of others' movements. Imi- 
tation plays a very important part in the 
early devrlopment of the bodily powers. 
Children learn to use their limbs and their 
voice under the lead of others' esarople. 
The impulse to adopt the movements of 
others tends also to tbe reproduction of 
their emotional states as manifested in 
certjiin definite expressive movements, e.g. 
frowning. Besides such imitation ^ik« 




and simple, wliich dims nt nogmtification 
bevon'l itsplf, thern are. certjiin mixed 
forms. Of these we mtiy iiiKbincR mi- 
micry, whith, iiH now iindcrst/iitt, i:n|)U-ea 
tho gmtiliiratioti of tlic fpclinjt of tbe 
ludicrous, a i-Iiildinh profHmsity which 
needs to Iwt kt'jit, within prof*r bounds; 
aud thut emulative form of juiitAtioD 
which 18 a uaiupicuuua feature in uU kinds 
of youthful contests. Imitation takes on 
a more conscious and dignified form in aII 
deliberate attempts at copying what is felt 
to be worthy in the sentiment* and conduct 
of others, Thiskindof imitation, which is 
terrelaterl with what we call the force of 
example, is one of the chief aids to mora) 
educiition. The iollueniTe of companions, 
»nd of the piTsoniiltty of the pnreot and 
of the teacher, owes ita iiiorul stgriilicunce 
to tlie operation of tlm principle of imita- 
tion. This often works uncunHcionsly, as 
w)it>re a, child passively adopts the man- 
ners and even the feeling and motives of 
others without any conscious efTurt, Imi- 
tation, however, only attains its highest 
moral value when the child distinctly sets 
up another's niodo of feeling and conduct 
as an example, nnd a. model for his own. 
Such iraitfttive eH'ort plays a largfr part 
as years advance, and ought to become a 
powerful means of moral growth towards 
the eiid of the school period. It is in re- 
lation to the imitative tendency of child- 
hood and yoTilb that the t.e4icher'a per- 
sonality and character become a matter of 
the highest moral consequence. Know- 
ingly or unknowingly he is always acting 
ti])on this impulse, and moulding the ways 
of his pupil into cnnforiiiity with his own. 
(S'e Bain, Mf^ittil and Mnnd Srirnf, hook 
iv. chap, ii,; Sully, Teaoher'a Handfmok, 
chap, ix.) 

Impoaitiom. Se<^ Rew-ibim. 

Impurities of Air are more likely to 
collect in achoolroouis than in private 
houses, owing to the close aggregation of 
children. It has been well suid that 'our 
own breath is our greatest eneniy,' ami it 
is from this source tliat the most danger- 
ous impurities arise. The air e]cpire<l from 
the lungs contains a large excess of car- 
bonic-acid gas. Ordinary out iloorair con- 
tains four parts of carbonic acid in ten 
tJiousaud of air, but in expired air this is 
increased to four hundred parts. Five 
hundred children assembled in one room 
produce in an hour as much carbonic acid 
Afl is oquiralent to the solid charcoal or 

carlmn contained inSOfhB.oteoaL Expin 
«ir also contains volatile orgauic matter ifl 
suspension, which Uof a highly pulrelid 
nature, and givea to a crowded room il 
uhariict*riatiia,liy close and atuSV tn 
The carbonic actd is far from liarmless, I 
thiit organic matter is still more poJs 
and injurious to the health. The fact I 
expired air contains considerable aqav 
vapour is another reason whjr free veoUb 
tion is required. 

T'4l»jorA 'tin I Impnritit*, — Tlic i 
of gnwU is perhaps one of the \yail ; 
it must be exercised after ■ frw minnt 
exposure to the open air, ajid liefore it ] 
become blunted by staytngin a vitiated t 
On entering ii room of which tlie atn 
sphere is impure, it will be found per 
bly stuffy if the carbonic acid in it reaohl 
six parts in ten thousand of air, and T 
degreeof stufiineasorclosenesaaspercMt 
by the educated smell is a very fair indM 
cation of the amount of impurity pr 
The stuffy smell is not due to the car 
acid, but to the organic mutter fusocii 
with it. Inasmach as the two are in faiilji 
constant proportion to each othrr, and i 
quantitative tests for carbonic acid 
much easier to apply thon for 
matter, the amount of carbonic acid 
usually taken as a criterion of the xtat«( 
a given atmosphere. The following simp 
chemical test may be applied ; Take 
l>ott!e capable of holding ten and a 111 
fluid ounces, blow the air of the nwniii 
it by mejins of a bellows, pour in a i 
spoonful (hnlf an ounce) of clear lim^ 
water, and after corking tiglitly, shake ib« 
bottle well. If no niilkiness is produced 
— by the chemical combination of lime and 
carbonic acid producing chalk— tiieii the 
amount of curlionic acid is below what ill 
regarded as the limit of purity; vit «ix 
parts in ten thousand of air. 

Efffi'ti <if HntjAratrrry fmjncritifi.^ 
When these are veiy concentrated, bead- 
aehe, giddiness, and faintness are prO' 
ducenl. When the impurity is lees ex- 
treme there is a general lowering of the 
system, owing to tho excess of carbonic 
acid and the organic msttw preventing 
the oxidation processes of the liody, and 
poisoning the blood. A general lamitude 
results, and an increased prontme*B to fall 
the victim tfl rcupiratory and other diwtuira 
Drowsiness, languor, and yawning in 
schools arc an indication for thorough 
flushing of the rooms with frrsh air. 



work cnnnot he successfully iiarried 
hen thn blood whidj au}jplj<?8 llie 
is vitintixl with impure air, and the 
is t^cnifoiv kppt in it sort of mentAl 
'K'liRnt funiuccn und stoves ttre usM 
:tc-oxiiin ga« ii apt to get into tlifi 
produciii;; ttidctinrss, heiidache, and 
ot the guneral hailth. Thp use 
fnal-gat fur ligbling purposes it unotluT 
nniuoi] source of pullutcd iitinosphrri'. 
BmIi Qkrbonic acid aiid siilpliurouti nfid 
produced in the combualoon of tivJ- 
By the combustioD of 1 oubic foot 
of co&l*g)u 2 cubic feet of ULrbonic acid 
produced. A medium gaa-bumerhums 
Scnbic feet of gas p?r hour, and therefore 
poduoM S cubic itvt of cnrbotiic acid, i.e. 
■lout as much cjirbonic ncid as ten adults 
pradoct^ in thi- namfi time. 

Inattention. Sm Attevtion. 

India (Educational Law of). See 
Llw (Editcathisal). 

bman Atsooiation (National) was 
Wbblitlied uiidt^r iiifluentiut nuspit^es in 
IWO, for the promotjon of sociid and 
cdOMttonal pro};r««)i ia Iiidiu. Th» lu- 
■oeiatioD (in/fr aliii) givoB grunts in (■ii- 
aamgcnient of education— espei'ially if)- 
eddCation — in India, for pronKitiiiK 
fc employment of liidiu.n riiedu-iil wonn-n, 
fct lelMting English teafliers for Indiiin 
baiiJies, &nd for lielpin^ in<liiiii tvuuherH 
ud students in England. Thi<re urn 
■reral branches of the associatton ta 
IniiU. Hon. Sec., Miss E. A. Manning, 
V> Bloomfield Itond, Maida Hill, Lon- 
iaa, \V. 

Indian Universittes. Ute Univkb- 

IndiTidnility, to Enr as it needx to ho 
mmidiTrd hrrn, tn*y he defined as the 
niR nf mi^ntiil and moral ipirititips wliinh 
<iiu«ct«ri«e a particular (Kirsnn, distin- 
^ithing him from otlier jinrsons. t^iich 
iTidiTtdual pHculittritieH hfiv« llinir condi- 
lioos in the pbysicul or>;iiniMii, a fa(-t 
cWrly rtHniguist-'d in tht- dottrini' of Tem- 

IVniMrnt (tee TeMPERAMF-ST). AcL'oi-d- 
Uv Co the universal biuluf^iiu) luw, that 
vl livinf; furnis t^nd to differ oni? from 
UKitliiT (witliiu cerlaio limits), every 
child's bniin, together with its coiislitu- 
■iuiasa whole, has its own peculiar sl»mp 
frwn Uie first. And these physicul pecu- 
W)tieB,serv« to detenu! tie the special 
■Vntal ttuita, intellectual and moral. 
Vithijt the limits of the typical human 
d**«lopmeiit every child is impelled (o 

fnllow a line of dovda 
This impulse is much 
some childrt<ri than in otliers. A stron)^ 
individuniity is an inUrgrji.1 element in 
I.Jiiit Inter mnml product which wo call 
UiiAHAci'EK (q.v.). The educiitor is per- 
hnps niitunilly inclined to regard iiidi- 
vidualily as an olislacle and a limitation, 
since in extreme ea,ses it implies resistance 
lo his mouliiing influences. Here, how- 
ever, we must difitinguiah between indi- 
viduality which involves no deviation from 
the'normal type, and eccentricity which 
implies such deviation. Rightly con- 
sidered, individuality is not something 
wrong which the educator has to correct, 
but one chiei aim of th« work of educa- 
tion itself. The object of the teacher 
should be to make a careful study of every 
child's intellectual and moral peculiarities, 
with a view to develop all that is valuable 
in these, and so produce a fine individuah 
This furtherance of individuality has to 
be Itarmociised with the development of a 
typically complete human being. Tlius, 
in intellectual education we should aim at 
securing a certain general culture of the 
faculties by a common plan of study, and, 
at the same time, a special liuining of 
indiridual aptitudes byselecled or optional 
studies. The value of individuality as an 
element of personal and social well-being 
haa boon emphasized by a number of recent 
thinkers, among whom may be mentioned 
W. von Humboldt and J. S. Mill. {Set 
J. S, Mill, On Librrti/, chap, iiL, and the 
nrtiele 'Individua1ity,'in Schmidt's Ertcy- 

Indnction is reasoning from particular 
coses to a general truth or principle, and 
BO is the converse of deduction, which is 
reasoning from a general truth to a par- 
ticular case (aee. DEnncTlON). In induc- 
tion we start from eicperience, employing 
tho instruments of passive observation 
and active experiment. Children begin 
to reason spontaneously by passing frcini 
particular facts or experiences to similar 
ixincrete easesL. This may be called a crude 
or imperfect form of induction. Induction 
proper only begins when the mind frjJiiea 
ageneral proposition, as: 'All plants have 
roots.' The early inductions or generalisa- 
tions of childhoofi aro chanicterised by 
haetiC and want of a sufficiently wide com- 
parison of facts anci an adequate inspec- 
tion and analysis of the facts observed. 
S<Mentifio induction, which is cowiwrwei 


with the diacoveiy of Ihecauaeaof nKtnml 
pheuomena, proceeds by the employmrnt 
of a method which it is the special busi- 
ness of inductive logic to formulate. Such 
methodicftl induction is bc«t illustrntod in 
the 80-Cftllwl iniliictivc scienves and~so 
far M thfty employ experiment — -pjcperi- 
mentftl iciencpx, such ils ex peri id en bil 
physics, chemistry, Ac. The study of these 
sciences is, therefore, the heit trnining in 
inductive reusoniag. {.''!r:f Mill, Logic, 
bk. iii. chnpB, j. and n. ; or .Tevons, Ble- 
mimtary L(^»onii, xxv. and following; 
Bain, Ed'if^ntioyi. itg S'Mnc^, p. 154, 4o.) 
Indnctive Method. .S>r McTUoa 
Industrial Schools, ns del^Ded by the 
OOnsolidatiDg Industrin-l Schools Act of 
lS6fi, arc schonla in which industrial 
tnuning is provided, nnd children lire 
lodged, clothed, nnd laught, They are 
really schools for thfi rechinintion of juve- 
nile vngrnnts, ond the nrglfictiid children 
of criminal parents. Any child found 
beggin};, or wandering homeless or deati- 
tule — whether an orphan or having one or 
both parents in prison; or living in tlie 
company of thieves and prostitutes; may 
be taken by any person Ijetore a magistrate, 
who may order the child to be sent to a cer- 
tific-ated industrial school. Refractory 
children whether ui the workhouse or in 
charge of parents or guardians may also 
be sent by the justices to such a school, as 
may also children under twelve oji convic- 
tion for a criminal offence. Provision is 
mad« for sending the child, if possible, to 
a certified industrial school controlled by 
the religious denomination to which the 
parents or guardians belong. Tliere are 
also day industrial schools for children 
whom it is not thought desirable to send 
to the ordinary elementary schools. Pa- 
rents, if able, are required to contribute to 
the maintenance of children during their 
detention in industrial schools, whicli are 
mainly supported, however, by contribu- 
tions from the Treasury, the local rates, 
and private individuaiaandsocieties. (.S>e 
TftUAVT Schools.) 

Infant Schools. See Homb axd Colo- 
KiAL School SoasTY, and Classifica- 


Infectious Diseases of School Life. 
AVm! CoMMrNiCABLE l)rsEA8f:». 

Inspectors of Schools.— The appoint- 
mentof Government Inspectors of Schools 
in the United Kingdom dat«s from 1839, 
when Parliament votod 30,000/. to sssist 

in tlie work of erecting and enl 
schools. The duty of the inspectors] 
tirst consisted in SMing that this 
subsequent building gr»nts werv ^ 
nppropriaU^d. It wai not until 1^(6 I 
a regular system of examining nnd i 
ing upon schools receiving Govi-mmMitj 
was instituted. This was tlie yiair of 
celebrated MinuUis under which nu 
talion grants to teachers forpupil-t 
were made, and the Queen's Scholaiuh 
(q.v.) instituted. Still greater iiof 
was attached to the work of inspectiooj 
l>t53, when capitation granta (jtw Oi 
were first voti>d by Faiiiunent. Anoi 
memorable date in the history of 
inspection is 1861, the vear of the Co 
(q.v.) drawn op by Mr. ^we (aftem 
Lord Sherhrooke) as the result of the 1 
of the Duke of Newcastle's Commis 
The report urgwl that theonly way tos 
the efliciency of elementary education i 
'to institute a certain examination 
competent authority of every child in cv 
school to which grants arw to be paid. wB 
a view of ascertaining whcthrrthosi! en 
tial elements of knowledge are thoroug 
accjiiired, and to make the prospects 
position of the teachers dependent t((j 
considerable extent on the results of I 
examination.' Inspectors were appoin 
to carry out this recommendation. The 
the system of inspection under the i 
much more rigid than under the Miiiu 
of 1S4G, the inspectors under the for 
have been relieved of much of the resp 
sibility which was imposed upon the 
Bpectors under the latter, who were rvquirad 
to give their opinions upon the relJgioui 
as well as the intellectual merits of each 
school. It is now no part of the duty of 
the inspector to enquire into any instivc- 
tion in religious subjects. Various objec- 
tions have been raised, however, agaioA 
the present system, and espc-cially aj^i^ 
tiie practice which prevails in England, 
Scotland, ond Wales, though not in Ire- 
land, of appointing ins}:ectors, without 
requiring them to give conclusive evideoca 
of special qualilication for the duties ihiT 
have to dischai^e. In Irelnnd candi' 
datcafortheofljceof inspectorof tcbootsan 
required to give proof of their knowl«dgD 
of tlie theory luid practice of Mlocatios, 
and of school management, by exominatk* 
as well as by a subsequent courae of pro- 
bation under a chief inspector. In tlis 
rest of the United Kii^om, bow«rer, 


prMantJon in not tnkon, nni] oHicinl 
iritism »n(l pnlitii-jil nxi^nc-y liavo 
)jO ilo witti tlir- appoiiitmniiU of 
,rs nf srIioiiI.i. E!«tiiip(itttry ti-aaliim 
ilviMi on' not eliijiblp for iimpmrtor- 
thongli Hr. Mattliew Arnold, Dr. 
i,»nd (AhtM-iiiiportwit witneaswa before 
Kilucation Commiaaiou of 1887, f!fiv» 
lieacv in favour of appoiuliDg suocMsful 
Mr. Matthew Arnold expressed 
iou that the great hulk of insppc- 
if^tit with jtdcuritJi^ liti dr;twn from 
niilcs of eipnieiiijuy t«ii:h<TK, im thpv 
ia Fr*nop, I'Ominny, S\¥il,wrlimd, Bi'l- 
I, *ad Indeed nlmost fvrry F.iirujM'an 
mory. Mr. Arnoltl furtlinr (•xprt'ssi-il 
I frvart^ce for tho C'cmliimntat Kysl.P(n 
UUpoction BitHnra-lly. iiuumiut'li a& it ia 
1 90 mrehumi^nl aa our own. The Con- 
iKntal inx[vutorx merely ha.t'e to see 
thu law ia observed, that the school 
nRmmme k carried out, and thai the 
■dun do not neglect their duty, but 
tef have little or nothing to do with the 
tamiitttion of the chiklrrn. 

laitlUCtton (from thf Lntin iitgtrufr'; 
I build up or form} mi^mis the iiit'orming 
[ the mind by n com mun Jibuti on of kunw- 
!dge. It isconimoniydistingiiishmi from 
Ipcstion. whit^h aims not sn mucli iit thu 
iMrihution of knowledge as iit the dnve- 
lentof fiMtultyor power (m-n Intbllkc- 
Cu HpUCatiox). Instruction or tanch- 
is con«lut«d with leiiriiii^g, or tlie 
dquiHition of ktiowloilgi!, aud its iiietlioilB 
itut br dettTiiiiiitd by the cimditions of 
hil Uxt («-e TEACHI.vr. and IjE.MININo), 

Initraction (Course of).— It has been 
bted aodtr the article Class iFic.^Tt on 
gnatoonvenience arisen frotu defining 
liK aereml grades of schoots by the average 
^ at wbti^ the school life of the scholur 
aula. So ihaCan elementary school maybe 
nefally defined as one in which thi? course 
( iostraction is laid down for those whow 
chool life endsnt thii-l*:cn or tlicrnniiouts; 
tad a thint-griutc ncormdnry «chool, AS ono 
ia which the cour»n of inxtniction in 
own for thowi who Icjivo nchool at four- 
tea or thcmnhoutJC ; n second -gnwiv, at 
ixtMO or thcTniliouts ; n. fint-gcnde, nl 
i^te^n orninet«-n. Yet although age in 
iMpnncipal factor, thnrRumnthi'rfnntorK 
a be tnkfrn into account in dc't;<>rmining 
Mcounwiif itutructiou tn be- puiwui-d in 
1^ tehnvi ; aumf? external, a.x die nocial 
ins of tiie porRntK ami the futun- cariNTM 
r th« acholnnt; and nomti iiitnrual, lUi tlm 

number of hours each week, and the nam- 
biT of yenrs, for which a givpn subject can 
find a place in the time-tahle, having duo 
ri'gftnl to the claims of the other subjects. 
Tho ahief thing, however, to be borne in 
mind is tliat the average age of leaving 
•chool does essentially differentiate the 
curriculum of a school of a [uirticular 
grade, from the schools of other grudes. 
ThispotntneedDstrougly enforcing, because 
n popular fallacy has associated itself with 
the idea of the ' Ediicalional Ladder ' 
through the schools of vanousgnides, from 
the elementary achonl to the university, 
which requires to be disposed of in the in- 
terrtstaof the suholiirs for whom it is desired 
tlijit that liiddfir should be provided. This 
fulliicy consiBts in supposing that a tatotitt^d 
child 'from the gutter 'should be kept at an 
elementary school until he liaa jtiiislutd 
the course there, and should then lie passed 
on to a third- or second-grade secondary 
school till be has reached the limit of 
age for that school; and then, again, be 
transferred to a first-grade school to be 
prepared for the univpraity. The fallacy 
tn.krs another form, injurious to a tnoro 
numerous, though less able, cinss of young 
persons, when it is assumed — as it is by 
many parents — -that a boy who atftys at a 
tirst-grade school until he is sixteen or 
thereabouts gets the same kind of educa- 
tion, and has been as well titled for his 
tutun; career, as if he had been under in- 
struction in a. second-grade school up to 
that age. But the facts are that it isalmost 
fatal to keep a taient<?d lail at any gnido of 
school ill the ladder uiitU he has completed 
the course laid down lu that school, before 
pissing biui on to the next ; and it is 
highly prejudicial to the interests of an 
average boy to place himina higher grade 
of school than that which eorrespotids to 
the limit of age at which it is intended 
that his education should cense. Themis- 
conception has arisen partly from the 
impression that a scholar of a given ago ia 
doing very mucli the same kind of work 
in whatever grade of school he nwiy hn; 
partly from inability tn realise the fact 
that a widening of the course of instruc- 
tion, acconling to the grudo of school 
and increased length of scbonl life, tukM 
placo from the very lowest class in each 
school upwards. The curricula of schools 
of various grades cannot in fact be com- 
piirtid in HO many inverted frusln of coiMta ' 
pilcfd <me on the oUtM', ti\n Vimsr (A <»jr\t, «Jl 

rcnoN (coui 

which, u you asceiid, exactly fits on to the 
upper dde of the frustum im mediately 
lieltjw; bulruther to u series of (ruitii, ciich 
of wtiioli starts from a wider biise as the 
grade of tlie school ia higher. Some of 
the subjects niay be taught iii all tlie 
griulea of schools, and yet the luixle of 
ireatmeut of the subjects, the particular 
stage taught to ii scholar of a given age, 
iuid the extent to which the subject is ulti- 
mately carried will vary according to the 
grade of school Thus Bogliah, Latin, 
Kcietice, Loatheniatics, mny be taught in 
elementary schools ntid in all three 
grades of secondary aoliools. But a scholar 
in each of these classes of schools will be 
at an entirely different stage of Iciiowledge 
in these subjects, at a given age. Again, 
a hoy of sixteen leiiving a first-grade or 
second-grade school will, in either case, 
have spent so many hours of school life, at 
Latin, for instance; butr, in the first case, 
his knowledge, though wide, will lie in- 
complete, ai the curriculum contemplates 
his staying at school until eighteen or 
nineteen; in the other case, it will bo 
complete for its purpose, as the curriculum 
was laid down with a view of giving such 
acourseof instruction in that language as, 
thougli narrower, would meet certain well- 
dciinpd requirt'uieiils, pttssible of attain- 
ment by the leaving age. Two things fol- 
low from wlmt has been said ; lirst, that one 
suhject of instruction cannot be ilefinitely 
called an 'elementary 'subject, andiinother 
a 'HBconilary' subject, for a subject may 
be uomiQou alike to the curricula of every 
grade of school : only its treiLtmeut and 
range will be different ; secondly, that it 
is absolutely necessary for the eBectiveiieas 
of the educational ladder that the scholar 
who is to be pMsnd up it should leave the 
elementary school some years — ^probably 
two — before he has reached the superior 
limit of age for such a school, and should 
be transferred to a second-grade school, if 
it is proposed to pass him on to a scientific 
or engincpring course at sixteen or seven- 
ti-en, or to a (irit-gradc jichool, if oirciim- 
vt knees am favourable, and heshows signs 
of such literary or other ability as would 
promise Iiim a suci>essful can-er at one 
of the older universities. It is similaHy 
true that, if such a. scholar as this should 
be found at a nicond-grode school, he 
should have facilitiim given him for passing 
on to a tint-gntd'' school at tliirtoen or 
fonrtocn, nithcr than at »ixt(N>n year» of 

Tlie question of tha rvtoition of 
(are Latis ; Classical Cdltitbk) in 
than tii^t-grodenchoolH in England 
mooted ag&in and again, aa in ( 
in connection with tlie curricula of 
scuuLEN (^.r.). Up to this lime Urn 
general feeling has been in favour of tU 
retention, If this language were etclodi 
it is certain that boys of exertional 
would find a serious impodim«nt to 
rising to the highest education. 
generally upon Education as the 
bridge which unites all clasca o( 
in England,' some have avcrrMi tliat ' tis 
cement is furnished directly or iodti 
by the Latin language.' It is felt, too, 
the divorce of the second-grade schooli 
grammar-fichooU in small towiui (which. 
in reality second-grade) froui tlw 
and legal professions — both of which 
i]uire Latin in their preliminary e: 
tions^-and from the universities would 
a formidable price to pay for the abai 
ment of Iiitin. Up to the present 
tlien, Latin holds its own; arul, anhjeet 
the common-sense maxim ' Either ffoti 
latin or none,' has justified its positioit 
But whether it will do so always, in 
presence of the increasing cry for »d- 
vanced technical training, and for betMt 
and more colloquial knowledge of Fnnsb 
and German to 6t English pupils to com- 
pete successfully in couiioerce with yoatiil 
of foreign nationality, is doubtful. It il 
certain that the curriculum of siwonil- iiid 
thiiii-grade schools does not admit of mJ 
great exteuaion in either a technical or 
modern- language direction, without the 
dropping out of some other subject; uid, 
OS the cry for this gains in inl^^nxity, it 
looks as though Ivitin would be the subject 
that will have to drop out. But this would 
mean a great revolution in Euglisli mudr* 
of thought and methods of education ; ftnd 
as, in general, English movements do ont 
progress by revolution, the abolition nf 
lAtiu, if it takes place at all, will p>robat>lj 
come about very gradually. (For liic 
course of instruction in public elemeulsrt 
schools in England uid elsewhere «ee undir 

Intelteotnal Edacation is that bnineh 
of education which conccnia itsicif with 
the int^lectual fucultiea, aixl luwhs to 
develop thesB harmoiitoualy, and in tl* 
order of their development. Thi« ant 
only be effected by putting tho cJiild'i 
mind into an attitude of inquiry in ndatian 


'n mivtmaU of Icnowleilge which 
re prment«d U> it, either in the shiipe of 
bjects to be ol)!jl^rvM] hy the senses, or 
onU to be iiiterpreU^ iind unJerstooi). 
WU, is to B&y, faculty is devplofwd in and 
f tlieprocaaao[)(:iuiiiigknowWg<:t. And 
i> this extent Uie aims of instmutiau and 
dacatioQ are itietitical. 

laterGit {from inC«r-itt»!, to he of 

DDortance) drscribcs the effect of feeling. 

ad morn particiilnrly ploasorabi^ fej?1ing, 

) routine H-nd gusttiiiuug the attention. 

Tie feelingtnay U? the immediate result 

it liie iu:tion of ah objpft on the mind, aa 

riien a child is iittiuctnd by a, prntty pic- 

On; or way be due to-ii procKsa of oasn- 

■ktioQ Had saggcation, us when a, child is 

Bterestad in wfttchiiig the preparation of 

t» food. Interest is eluaely uoiineoted 

nth curiosity. A child desires t^ know 

hrkat can be known about objects that are 

otcrcsting to him, such as his pet animals. 

lii toys, *c- From this it is apparent 

lot ue intellectual educator has at the 

Waet to spfik to awaken in the child's 

Bmd a feeling of interest in the subject 

CMented to it. This he will do partly by 

bringing out all that is atrikinja;, pretty, 

kc^ in the subject, and partly by connect- 

itf it with known sourcca of interest in 

tbe diild's surroundinga. ■ One chief aim 

tf tlie instructor should be to develop 

WW iuteresti, answering to the ditferent 

hmi&iuB of ksuwiedge to he dealt with, as 

pistory and natural science. It is evident 

[that in order to awaken such a feeling of 

JntMQSt and study attention must be paid 

p> ittdividual differences of sensibility; 

•f. ATrBKTiOH, (.SVeSulIy, Tsaeh»r'a Hand- 

BM^ p. dT and fotlowinc.) 

Intermediate Schooli. S«c Cla^ifi- 


Intmition. IntnitiTe Method.— In iti 

original and prrjppr sense intuition is the 
npprohenaion of an object by one of the 
si-naea, and more particularly the senae of 
sii,'lit— in other words, the act of percep- 
tion {?.''.). In a secondary manner it has 
cume to mean the grasp or understanding 
of an idea in so far as this approximates 
in character to a perception of the senses. 
Thus the distinct imaginative picturing or 
realisation of any object, as a volcano, is 
a mode of intuition. We may thus 1>« 
sair3 to have an inluilivK knowlr^dgr; of any 
object or idea that we can distinctly pfir- 
eeive or imagine. 8uch intuitive know- 
ledge is marked off from ri/niholie knou>' 
Irilfff, e.g. that of large numbers, which 
does not admit of being reduced to a 
sensible or picturable forni. From thia 
definition it will be evident that the In- 
tuitive method in teaching consists in re- 
ducing abstract ideas as far as possible to 
sensible concretes, in setting out in tho 
exposition of any abstract notion, such as 
an angle, a verb, juaticp. with concrete 
illustrations addressed to the senses or to 
the pictorial imagination. It thus corre- 
ajHincU pretty closely with the Inductive 
Method (ice Metiioli). On the nature of 
Intuition and the Intuitive Method mn 
.levons' El. Lcesoiis in Logic, p. -'11 and fol- 
lowing ; Coinpayr^, Court df I'^dagiig., pp. 
365-69 ; Bitisson, Diet, dt PH., art. ' In- 
tuition ' ; and Schmidt, Enet/clopadie, art. 
' Anschauung.' 

Ireland, Education in. See Law 

IriBh Universities. St« UKivsitaiTiES. 

Italian. ^5^" Mopebn LANOUAnES, 

Italian Unirersities. .See Unitbr- 


JaOMnisti (The). — This was the title 
BTen to the reduBeH, b(>th men and women, 
irbosn chief retreat was the Abbey of 
tort-Roy&l, fifteen miles a.w. of Paris, 
^Dd wiM> Ixid adopted many of tlie views 
the learned Janaen, Bialiop of Ypres 
lied 1638). The women of this sect 
^wd chiefly at the Abbey aud in a re- 
. convent in Paris: tlie men chiefly in 
n^ghbourhood of the former; some- 
•■ on the farm of Les Grangett, or at 

Chesnai, sometimes at the Chiteau des 
Trous, not far off. The sect was never a 
large one, and suffered much persecution 
through the instrumentality of the Jesuits, 
who were completely triumphant in ItiSO. 
The last trace of a Jan.'senist house disap- 
peared In 1790; butmany of their religions 
views and most of tlirir educational prin- 
ciples are still powerful in France. In 
the petites /coh-.a, or little schools, which 
they established about the yeiivr \ft\^— V(»V. 

which were only Fully nt work bctww-ii 
Kilfi iitul 1656, aiitl ci^iisiiJ to f'xirt in 
l('if)0^tl«? /'ort-floi/aliKl* (at thf^- urn 

Ul'tlMl CBJl«i) BOUglll to rtfHlJBU ErUKIIIUK'B 

idcji of a [iIhcp i-f edui'atjou wtiicli should 
vuinbtue »!1 the jfood (iitalitieB, and avoid 
all the (liuwltaeks, tiolh of home and of a 
public wiiool. ITieir aim wa* rieitlier to 
proselytise nor to make profit of any kind 
iiy thpir little EchoniK ; but 'with God's 
blessing Ifl he of comn service to little 
children.' Never was n more earnest, 
tmveltish, laWng endeiivoiir iniide to put 
into pnicljce tJie most liberal and en- 
lightened views possible ul the time to 
edQcutioiial tliinkers. Into their reli(ftouii 
views, which were ascetic and gloomy, we 
cannot here enter. We sliall restrict our- 
selves to stating some of their most marked 
opinions or the education of boys. 

It ifl in the charactier of the t^'Jlchera 
and of tho teaching, not in any outward 
ndvnntAgCJt cnjnyed by the sch'iola, that 
wi? tnnKt look for tha explanation of the 
faiiiP of Ihu Port- Royalist Systran of etlu- 
cttlion. Tlie iimHtcr-niind of lli«? Port- 
Kuyulista was Hauramii- d« Verger, Abbot 
of at. Cyran. lie had hopetl to establish 
a church -semi nary, and had thought of 
I^ncelot a« » man who hiul tliat g^ft, 
■one of the rarest.' of fitness for the work 
of education. But St. Cyran fell under 
Richelieu's displeasnre. and an imprison- 
moot, to last till within a very few years 
of his death, prevented him from carrying 
out in persiin his scheme. The very 
int«ntinnti, however, of men like St. Cyran 
*r«! worth more than the dcods of ordinary 
men. Thnsip who had come under the 

3iell of his iiitlueiiDe Beldoin reeled till 
u-y found means of rpatising the ideas 
with which he had inspired tliwn. His 
hopes were to be realiswl in the prrtitcg 
fraffs, whose existence, curiously, dates 
from the same year aa that of his death. 
Of these sehoola, Lancelot wa? alw-ays to 
be, to say the leaat, one of the moving 
Bpiritfl. Both he and liis colleagues were 
men of singnlar energy, piety, and devot^d- 
neas> lAncelot writes to a friend, ' II faut 
quo Im pr^pteurs s'estiment heureux de 
BHcrifitir leurs travttux, leurs intt^reU et 
Iwr vie pour ces potits, que Dieu leur a 
confiAt'; and this feeling that their pupils 
wrre a Bncrxid charge lies at the rout of 
nil theirchamctrvrandccnduet as teachers. 
It IcndN them to Ktjirtling conclusions on 
thp srubjept of dint^flitf; it ni.-ikc8 tliem 

roemomble reforta«n in tuMete of in 
liijn. The Jesuits had subfitituted for I 
<ild monastic r^fpme of incessant pfliuj 
lueiit, luiunly oorponil, »n eUljoraw 
of rewfutls. Appeal to the spirit of i 
lation wfts, in fact, n leading prindj: 
the Jesuit school marter. The Port-1 
nliats, on the other hand, thought of 
spirit as a relic of the old Adiun. 
striking sentence in Pasai,Va Prruiat 
us how he was alive at onoeto tlw f 
of the Port- Royal tliwry, and to th« i 
ger in its pnu-tice: 'L'admiration 
tout d^ I'enfauce. Oli ! qne cela esC 1 
dit ! <]u'tl a bien fait I <|u'il est ssige I 
enfanta de Port-Koya.1. oux<|ae1s on 
donne point cet niguillodi d'cnvi* rt I 
gloire, tomlient dans la nondtalnnce.' 
ciplinr giipportfd hy little puaittuneiiH 
no rermrdt — this seeming like 
of perfection. Yet Piiacitl's hint at 
failure in practice is not, so £ar as we I 
borne out by the focU of the caM. 
estimating it,s probabilities, too, it ini 
renieiiil>ered tliat there were never at I 
time, and perhaps not in the whole sin 
or seven two years during which ihesol 
lust4-d, Diui-e than fifty pupils : that 
tesit'her seems to have bocn respnnsibln I 
only six jiiipils; and. above all, that 1*1 
RoyijJ-ist Bcboliira, as well as teaehen;, "i 
choice spirits: tlie pupils were sent to thcM 
schools on no conventional ground*, but 
because their parents fe'/MMii in the nysten" 
Yeleven more int«'re«ting than the dis* 
cipline is the instruction of tht'He teot-hel* 
Like the Jesuits, they treated Uie Huin»- 
nities as at once the root and the floww' 
of their education. But there was au iin* 
niensp ditrerriice in the uietliods pursuoJ. 
The Jeiiiiits twught the classical langungni 
mainly through liooksof extracts: the Port- 
Royalists preferred to read the «ulJiof« 
themselves, or, aJ least, large portion* of 
them. The phrasVbooks. which had Into 
introduced by tho Jesuits to help thrir 
Bcholiirs while str Iggling with the difi- 
cullies of t'oniposi'^n, were disliked by 
the Port- Royalists i For again, while tliS 
JesuitB cultivated composition at the ex- 
pense of trans lHti(»li, tlie Port- UnyaluiW 
iirKue<l thatfaniiliiifity with the Uin;pui(,'ei 
themselves should prrcnd« thn attempt M 
cmnpose in them, Cotuiisti-nlly with tlii^ 
they recognisiwi tUiAt while Latin tmt 
niakintr might li( I a useful and re&uB| 
study for a liniitivjl number of pupilB,thM 
muit also be n cnihwdeirabie nuiuberi 



DKVjual to Um! Usk— in Uiiii, again, unlike 
w Jesuiu (v-"-)- Tliesp, again, uaud 
wnioara written iu L^tiu, wluii> tlii? Port- 
(fjaJiats iiiUtxtueed ^TarnmiuH wrilteu iu 
nncli. WitJi the Jesuits, ouce more, 
inN or ttylf. wa« t)ie Graty and aJiiioEt the 
^ conKidrratiOD, whereast!i>! Port-Roy- 
bta ugurd that 'tho utility of things 
oulil be joined with tliitt of woivls, in 
nler to fomi thr judgninnt nf tlin young 
riii]e tlteir uiRBiory ii Htocki^d, iind nvcn 
eaw III* ineinorjr by lixing thn words to 
lings, whicli alwuyH inako a griuttir ini- 
nasiwi OD the uiiiid.' In hr'ivi, wiille 
Umt educators were putting wordii lie- 
bm things, tlie Port- Hoyaliats were put- 
ting things before words. This is thi> 
^onnd on which St*. Bouve assigns to 
liem tihn utino high rank among ediica- 
ttn ax \in iMKign* to Descartes among 

Tb<! [aL't Uiat I^itin had cnkst^d to be 
pecea^y as a WPiiium of [.■oin'orsation, and 
*i« eeasiiig to be u«;eBsary aa a literary 
iutnuuent, enabled the Forl-Kuyalists to 
Duty out reforms whioh could not hav»beeu 
loocted from the Jesuita, whose schools 
M hwa in full worldog order half a cen< 
mj when the pftitta tcokg were founded. 
loibelenchingof Latin itself, composition 
■d been eitipha&ised as the readier way 
Id conv«r«tion. It could now be subor- 
dlaafrd to tmoslation just because there 
Eifcilurlv, now that it was nut nijcpsaary 
.to gtive Ijitin no hirgf^ a pltii^c in tho Kuhnnl 
,CiUTi<nilum, inon- njom could be found for 
nwk. And ttiiiK thp greittur Jittirntion 
iT«u to tliia language! is tinioitg Port- 
refomis. It haa U-un said that 
Port-Roy*li!itii wriitu grumniar.s in 
'rencli, Tlw iuipurUini.'i\ indeed, attached 
tibe teaoliing of tlie inothiT tongue in 
TKhooIs is among the must memorable 
heir reforms. That Vreuchiiieii iu the 
A half of tlie seveuleeiith ceutury 
« to writ« true French, and Eiot^ as 
A kind of Latin -French., is, ac- 
ng to St*. lJeuv«:, largely to he attri- 
i to PoTt-Itoyalist wisdom. Otiier 
found a place in the curriculum. 
knd Amauld, the two men whose 
£M-oDtwcightpd that of nil others 
Port- Roj-a lint [Society, were hotli 
crtridanK. Amauld wroto a work on 
o/ Gtomrtry, on reafiing which 
ript PiUfco) burnt his own c«say 
Mk wlbio subject. Lancelot was ap- 


I iniuuDKir 

jioiiited to teach matheiuatJcs {and Gre<^k). 
So tlmt WB may reasonably conclude tluit 
geometry, at auy rate, had its fair share of 

Laucelot wrote lioolcs upon the me- 
thods of learning Italian und Spnnitli; 
and Racine, the most funious of Port- 
Itoyalist pupils, knew both languagcjt 
witlijn a short time of leaving schooL 
For promising pupils, then, the rungo, if 
we exciipt science, may well have hra-n an 
wido as tliat of the most wlvam^ed of 
modern schools; that is, it probiLbly in- 
cluded tlie elassicR, taught by methods on 
which, according to Br^al (Quelqtift Huts 
»ar rituitriictitin, p. 183), in France at 
least, no improvement has lieen made — 
moilern languages, mathematics, and care- 
ful instruction in the mother tongue, The 
bejit authoritipa on the subject are thn 
Port- Royal ists' own books, e.g. the Lnijif., 
of which there is a good English edition 
by T. S. Ifayncs, the General tiriinimnr, 
thrt Greek and Latin Griimniara, many 
editions of tlie classics, and the book* 
referred to in the course of this article : 
Ste, Beuve's PoH-Rui/al, bk, iv. ; C'oui- 
payrt^'s MUlainf Critu/wf iha Dontriites <i» 
V Ediij-Mion en Fi-anee, bk. ii., chap. ill. ; 
Koa-fd's Port- Hui/alislti; and Vcriu's Eluda 
mir Lii>H:e!'it.. 

Japan. Imperial Uiiiversity o£ S«« 

Jesuits (The). — Thoorder of the Jesuits, 
founded by Ignatius Loyola in l-'i.lJ, was 
formally authorised and established in 
l.'iW. It was an attempt — and a highly 
aiiocessful one —to check the progress of 
the ttcformation, and to bring Imck tlie 
wiindcrers to the fold of Rome. Tlie 
nnM>ns em|iloyed ware preaching, confes- 
sion, and educLition. Despite of strung 
and often violent opposition, the order 
rapidly increased, and spread its schools 
and houses all over Europe. At the end 
of the seveuttHtnth century It poBaeaaed 
180 colleges, 90 seminaries, 1G0 resi- 
dences, and its members numbered '21 ,000. 
Here weshatlcoutine ourselves to speaking 
of that part of their educatioual work in 
which the Jesuits most excelled — -their 
secondary schools. Tiieir universities were 
never very brilliant succ«flEes ; and though 
the teaching they provided was gratuitous, 
they never sought to make it primary or 
elementary. The school system of the 
Jesuit* received itKdclinit«nnd pcnnai\eat 
forin under Act^uav'wa, tW '^'Ou <u«x)ien& 

of ttie ordCT, who rul^ between 1S6I uid 
1816. In lfi99 the ^fi^to St^idiorum, or 
plan of stailieH, was proilupf<l ; And has 
continiird, wit.h vpry few atidititinB, to he 
the plan clown to the present iliiy. Tlie 
mont importiint udditious to the Latin, 
Greek, and roligion of UiB earlier period 
hiive been a little history, some slight 
attention to the uiothertonfrue, uud aouie- 
tiling in the way of modem lan^&gea. 
Latin and religion (a catechiam and scrip- 
ture history) h&ve, however, always be«n 
the most prominent subject*, 

Aa a. rule, no one but ft member of the 
society is allowed to be n teacher in the 
schools', nnd his watchwords muat lie kind- 
ness, thoroughnesis, repetition. It was an 
admirable, hut in those curly ilnys iin almost 
revolutionary, innovixtion, that niiistera 
should he direuted 'to unite llie grave 
kindness and authority of a father with 
the tendereesaof aniotlier,' and 'to become 
as tittle children amongst little childi'en,' 
BO that they might win the young to study 
with pleesui'e. The thoroughness was best 
set forth in the advice to seek to tench a 
few thingK clearly and distinctly, rather 
than to give indistinct and confused im- 
preuioDB of many things; while the value 
of repetition was ratod so highly that one 
whole day was devofijd to it every week; 
and in the second half of the year the 
classes generally went over again the work 
of the earlier half. At the liead of the 
school stood the rector, who did not him- 
self ti'iich, hutji.ppoiiit('dUieBtaff,and care- 
fully watched the progress of the pupils. 
Ho held his office (or three years. Under 
him were the musterB, who also were 
somewhat frequently moved aljout. Out- 
Bide boarding establiBlinientB were some- 
tibtes connected with the schools, in which 
tJic children of the rich and noble were 
received atamoderatecharge. Sometimes 
then? were diiy-schools, which, iimler cer- 
tain restrictions, wei« open to Pmtestjints. 
Otherwise, the children were 'interned' 
all tJie year round, and cut ofi' aa much as 
possible from their families and all other 
outfride intluences. This contempt for, 
and destruction of, the homelifeisprolHibly 
the most fatji] mistake of uU in the Jesuit 
school system. Its evil eflects are visible 
in every country where their Bchoi)!H have 
been numeroua The course of study may 
be broadly described ns follows. It occupies 
Bx y^nrn, usually tliose between fourteen 
and twenty. Thv jtrit year is devoted to 

the rudiments of Latin, viz. the forms 
correct sounds of the letters, and bow t»i 
read ; the KfcOTid to grammar in it« 
elements; the third to svntax. Then 
called the grammatical classies. The ft 
year is given to philotofjiy and verses; 
thejifth and rixih to rlielork. Theae 
two are called tlie Humanity dasaM. 
chief objetit ia to produce » uaatety onr 
littiu, aa over a modem languagei Ibt' 
classics are r«ad for their style, not 
their ideas ; and for this reason oonridet^ill| 
portions of them ar« committed to m< 
so OS to supply words and phnueesL 
ia also studir^, oa a rule, in every 
but it occupies a ver;- subordinate 
Of arithraeiic, geography, histofy, at 
we hear notliing ; and only of late 
. has attention Ijeen paid to tJiem at all, 
that very grudgbgly. The same may 
said with regard to the mother longM 
Religious instruction — that is,acatechiB^ 
and some facts of Bible histovy — it, 
course, a distinct feature throughout. 

The work has never been exorasW 
generally two nnd a half hours in the mod' 
tng, and the same amount in the nf trmoOft 
with an interval of about thrett hours. 
the summer there is gcncTully one lAd 
holiday a week. The masters air dirccUl 
to make the lessons as plensant ojt ponibK 
consistently with their being theroogk 
Amusements within the school walls Mt 
plentiful. The bodily health of the popO 
is carefully attended to ; and on holiday 
escursiona are mode into tlie ooubIiT- 
There is nothing iLScetic in the ref[ulatio» 
The punishments, too, are always mack 
li^ht as possible; only the graver ofSenMl 
being visited witli Itogging. Where icf- 
ging does not have the required vStct 0> 
oflendcr is expelled, l^mulation and 
valry of every kind areeinplofed toindi 
thn boys to work. Sometiinea mdiridal 
hoys are pitt«d against each other; aonff' 
times one half nf a clikfS ngainiil the otiiRI 
and prizes, praises, marks of distincticDi 
itc, are profusely distril>ut«d. To mannei* 
and deportment special attention i* fold- 
The boys are taught to speak diKtinctlf 
and elegantly, to write a clear and baiw' 
some liand, to walk with an erMt and m^ 
carriage, and to conform to all thw* 
external habits which mark a well-hni 
gentleman. To aid them in fcatmng 
and assurance of manner, and readiMM 
address, great use is made of the MtiBg 
Latin plays. 



We may ftdd that the miutter in 
esutt bvIiooIh is gtrnt'ruUy nittuir a, lec- 
Drer Uwn a tAadiur. He expuundn noiue- 
EnMS a piece of a Latiti oi- Gn-ek author, 
ometiiuee the mlee of f^muiiuar. He 
oc« uot aiiQ at de\' eloping anil training 
Jspapir« inWliflct. Tlie boys are required 
o grt up the substance of his IcL'tures, 
utd to Icnm the nile« of p^ramniar and 
kMtkgnii ^ni clns:iical nuthors by heart. 
Whfiti the young man," says Mr, Quick, iu 
excclli^nt occonnt of thene schools, 'had 
uirvd K thorough mnstpry of the lAtiii 
m^! for all purposes, when he was 
ll vented in the theological and philoao- 
il upiiiioiut of liis prBceptors, when lie 
sk-ilful in disputa, and could nmke ii 
irilliaut display froin the resources of a. 
'Il-dtofvd memory, he luul it-iuihed t!iR 
;beac point to wtiich the Jesuits sought 
lead him. Originality, independence of 
, lovp of truth for ita own sake, the 
of reflecting and of forming correct 
ladgnwtnta, wcn> not merely neglected — 
they wen- unppn-jwod in the Jesuits' sys- 
tem.' Thi-y have ftillen behind in t.he 
j ir o t cra u t of thn world ; and in nothing is 
thix !Hi tnurkcd iu the text-hooka used. 
In concluaio:!, wc niny note that the great 
hlic schools of England have takpn 
■ advici?, and copied freely the 
of thn iTRKuits ; but thfiy huve 
Koniowhat, and their pupils are 
ven n chanct? of a freer and wider de- 
rdoproeiit. But pHMiticnUy— even in tlieir 
tyxtitai of moiiitont or prefects— tliey are 
lBod«tled ou the outlin<« of tlie Satio 

Judgment. — This t«rra n-fers to the 
Uuital act by wliioh we datennine tlio 
Wiations of our ideaa one U> aniollier, as 
riwB v« decide that njereury is a itietAl, 
)r tlist an ellipse is not a circle. The 
rcanltof the act of judgment isa proposition 
vhich Aflirnu or denies something. That 
tt «hicb w« affifiD or deny is called the 
ntgect, And that which is affirmed or 
kniod the prpdicate. We are able to 
■ndgn jDiit in proportion to tlip varicly nnd 
iWmtws of the notions gathered by way 
)f olMKTviition and tradition, and etored 
Bp in thn mnrnnry, and also to the degree 
if tM-Tf. with which we reHcct on the-se. 
HiiUlren are wisnk in judgment, partly 
th«y locale experience and ideas, 
portly beotuxn they nre not capable 
that Huctajned eBbrt of will which ia 
.volved in coinpuring objects orideosone 

with another on nil sides, so tis to see 
exactly how they are related. Hence, tlie 
rashness and crudity of nio.ny early judg- 
ments. The faculty of judging re<iuirc8 
ciirefid tmining in special directions, aa i 
that of the probable in human aSuirs, tlia ' 
good and bad )n art, the right and wi-ong 
in conduct. Here the object of the edu- 
cator must be to help the child by careful 
observation and reflection gradually to 
build upa correct standard of truth, beauty, 
and goodness, by a reference to which 
sound decisions may at once be reached. 
Cnreshould betAken further bya suDicient, 
und yet not excessive, assertion of autho- 
rity, to restrain, without repressing, the 
impulse to form independent judCTnents, 
liiatly, Uie teacher should closely watch 
all the influences which tend to wiir{j or 
bias the judgment ; more jjarticularly tha 
eflect of prejudice and antipathy. Judg- 
ment is viewed by the logician as the second 
stage in thought, following abstraction or 
conception, and preceding reasoning. The 
three operations are, however, very closely 
connected. An element of infei-enco 
enters into most judgments ; and it should 
be the object of the educator in training 
the judgment, t« exercise the child in 
connecting hia decisions logically with tlia 
facts and principles on which they depend. 
In truth, to train the judgment is a part, 
and an important part, of training the 
reiiaouing faculty (sen Reason). (Ou the 
nature of Judgment *••« Bain, Education 
as Scir.ncp,-^. i'l'l; Sully, Tuarker't Jla'ad- 
boak, chap, xiv.) 

Justice,— The nature of justice has 
given rise to much diacusaion. The idea 
is closely j'elated to that of ei[uity or 
fairness, and ii has actually been defined 
as 'equality as between man and maji.' 
It refers, too, to tbe recogiution and satifl- 
fai;lion of all rights, which rights, so far as 
natural, are regarded as equal or alike iu all 
cases. The idea of justice isthusethicnily 
correlat*d with that of right, and of duty 
Or obligation. The feeling of justice in 
its crude form is the instinctive impulse of 
the individual to resent injury, an impulse 
that forms the prominent ingredient in 
the instinct of self-preservation. Children 
are keenly Nensitive to any invasion o£ 
their rights, and particularly to anything 
like an ariiitrary withdrawal of a cusbumoiy 
privUege, and tn all appearance of parti- 
ality. This feeling, however, is largely 
personal. The higher tnorol sentimeoit <k 



JuKtice preiKunpOiieit the dnvelopinL'nt of 
the aoviiLl fmlixij^ It in tlio rewntuient 
of ail iujury, not to oiie««lf, but lo the 
CODiiuuiiity of whicb oiiH fi-><>lti uiitiiaeJf a 
memtier. This liij^lier setitiuieiit Iuls to tv 
gntdutklly devotoped by a cultivatioii of 
sympathy and a habit of reBectii:>ti. Tiie 
parent and, io a more limiW ro'^ion, tlw 
teacher have much to do with d^termtning 
the chilli's ideas of whnt is just. Tlie 
ouGtoinaiy inuimer of dealing out fiivDurs 

anil rewards, as welt aa [>uDtsliiii«nU, I 
[■lit>^ to the youug luiud lis lii'Sl at 
of juBtitxr. Hi-iice the unporlaitceof i 
iiupnrtxiilttj, and of a dear (l«fiiutM>Bl 
the Liouudariea of individual liherty 
ohli^utiou ill ail our dM^lings witJi chiidrm. 
(.Sre ou the nature of Ju>itii.-r J. 8. Mm, i 
UlUitarinniem, chap, v.; ami I'rof. S*ig- 1 
wick, M'itKi/d* qf fithU-ji, \>k. iii. chap. »,H 
and on its (xlucational aspects, tScfastidA] 
£ncycl»p<idi4, article 'Sccbtsgjcfalil.') 


Kant, ImmanQel (1724-1804), the 
German philosopher who has exerted the 
wi(i(«t'aud most profound Influence on the 
thought of thifiueutury, has loft his mark, 
among other subjects, upon that of educa- 
tion. When Professor of Philosophy at 
iiiiiiigslierg he wiis reijuired by an old 
regulation lo locture publicly on Pedugogy, 
or, us thp'sulijct^tiippiiirediii one of Kunt's 
cuureea (1776-7), 'Pmcticul directions for 
educating children.' These lectures, U'lirr 
Piidoffoi/ik, were publislied Inter on (lS03) 
by F. T. Hiiik, one of Kaut's pupils. 
Kant's occupation with the prohleui of 
educiitioii was not, howecer, wholly due to 
an external ueceasity, Hu felt hiiiiHell' 
diuwu to the subject in more ways tJiaii 
one. fie had had considerable e.>iperieiice 
ill teaching, having been piivate tutor nine 
as I'rivaCdocmU. Not only so, he was led 
to think of education by Montaigne (f.i'.), 
who, for a time at least, was his favourite 
author, and still more by Rousseau (9.1'.). 
whose influence on Kant's mind in the 
(ULrlirr stugcf ol' his philosophic iictivity 
was very powerful. TIip LeHiiret untnia- 
tnkalily bclmy tlie intluence of Itousseuu's 
Emilr. Uow deeply <|Ucstionsof education 
intereslinl hiiniBattenti^ bytlipfuatthuthe 
warmly advocated the .schrniea of Haai-tlow 
and Ciimpe ill a Konigslierg journal. In 
order U> understand Kiuit's views one must 
eke thi'se out by references to some of Ids 
philcwopliicid wurks. Thus, his ideas on 
th<! moral e<iucatiou (}f tlic youiifc ure 
«koti:hed out in the second part of tJie 
Critic of Oie I'racliad Urimon, Itl tJie 
later period of liia literary activity, in 
which he fairly broke witii the teachlnif 
of Routtteau, he eeems to have j-iveu Less 
ftltenlioii to eOucatiou^ tilill, tii«re are 

evidences tliat he now and agnin rererttdi 
the subject,as,wheDhegivosusal 
of amoral catechi«u at the close of hisif<l<- 
p/iygik der SiU^n. 

Kant's general conception of edamlksj 
flows from his philosophic*! princ4pl«a, I 
more pnrticularly his idea i)f man and I 
destiny. The true end of man is moral f 
dom, that is, freedom frutii all extenial < 
trol, and a willing self -subjection to 
morul law. Intellectual development ill 
this view suljordiiiattsl to moral. Thoi 
tainmeitt of tliis nioiul freedom iathe 1 
of self -improvement. The self-dei'elop 
of the imiividuul is, however, coui 
with, and in a miuiner included in, the i 
development of tlie nice. Man, SSJS . 
at the beginning of tlie Ltrlare*, can < 
become man by education, TheeducaUl 
by each generation of its suoowsor 1 
viewed by him as a necessary factor in I 
upwaivl striving of the race towards | 
fection. Hence, he concuvea of the ob 
of the educator as the adnptntioi> of 
child, not to the world as it pxiitta nl I 
particular moment, but to the kIm o( 
hunmnityand to its destiny im a wliolc 
In lie-fining the scope of cdncntion, Kaot 
touches on the (question sin»! named * na- 
ture and nurture.' He would like lose* 
■ the great ' busy themselves w itli Ibe wolk 
of teaching, so tlmt we might know ho* 
much education can accouipliidi. lie i» 
also slmngly in favour of f rt^edoiu of «lit* 
cation from SUit« control, so that expfjn- 
mental schools may be eatabliaiied. Thiti 
itiul other remarks, clearly show liow fullj 
he recognised the dilticulty of the art 
and the need of illuminating it to th* 
utmost on the side of experience, as well 
as on that of science. He divides edu- 
cation into two chief biuQches, phyaioJ 


pradicnt. In illufitroting the first 

Luit, tikn liockff, dopK not djctlun to 

.t«r iaU) t}i(! homely ilntniln of childmnH 

t. Ha biut »i>ine gimd tJiin^ to »>}' 

t Uie tntinitig of ilic iprtKtM, nnd piir' 

■ly till) eyp, liy nii'ima ni Uiruwirig 

Ollll-r ^pUIM^S. He I'olIciWB RoUNKeiLU 

itaa^ow ill oiiipbu^iniiiK tlie need of 
l«ning r«giiueii iii pliysicul educatiou. 
ical education lin^ for iU end tlie 
development of personality. Under this 
btmd Kaot makes, nccordini; to Lis habit, n. 
numl>cr of HistinctionH of his own, It hiis 
4 n<!)i[ativr xidr, diHriplinc, which consJKtH 
in ktwjiiiig nwny faults, and n poHitivn 
ait, inntructian uicl guiduitcc. This Inst 
ia eitli«r KcholaHtic, aiming iit Hkill {Oe- 
tdicklieJikfil), prugiuiitic, ntwisdom ( Ktuii- 
W(), or monil, at iiiDniHly {Sittliclik'^it}. 
By die firtil (the work of th« In/umitUor) 
UiR child gvts worth aa iiidividuid; by (,he 
aeond (the work of the Jio/nufisfrr), worlli 
tiKcitiz^n; and by tiie third, wortli as u 

Kttnt pIncM tnoml tnuning or morali* 
bUiDti in strong contrast to culture, the 
PaUer of uhicli prcpnrcji for all sorts of 
kAm, w)i<-n»s the former prepares for 
good ends only. He di^viat^'S from Itoiis- 
tew in his nii'cliqd of roovftl education. 
DuHi^ ht-distin^ilisbi's a lower obedience 
iiritcd fmm compulsion, and n. higher 
ud ffH- obmlicnci: dt-rii-ed from trust, and 
«tbjih&.iiiHM thp gn-attir importanre of the 
lut«r in moml di^vi-lopmnit, he insists 
■ko on tJie niM."("!isity of tlip first in the 
■rtier yetn. He ik sU^iiRly opposixl to 
U iDdiMriDUiia.te indulgence of i^bildmn'ti 
*ish«, ajiil espet'iully to gratifying Ibcin 
vbeci (hey niakt? tlieuiselvi^s burdruHonu' 
■o others by crying. At tlit? Hunm tiiiiii 
tlip inllueuce of Kousseau is seen iu bis 
UmrralioiLE on punisliment. Aft^^f obe- 
dience to law, which Kant re-,'ard8 as the 
Crrt chief feature of moral character, thi^ 
■DamI educator has to develop Irutbful- 
nmt and sorinbility. As may be seen 
from these fitracia, Kant's chief contri- 
i>(it£on to nducatinn is thr elevation of ita 
tnd. Thr IjfTturrg Kfv the outcomo of a 
ttKnuotu nflbrt to harmonise the elairus of 
lorn and duty, and as such form a 
lUicorreetive to the nne-sideil theory 
iHtuau. With rr«pecl to intf-lleetual 
*JiiMtion, Kant's ri-mnrks aro very iin- 
MisEsctofy. Tlie hearing of intellectual 
"1 mural dcvt'lupiui-nt is not dealt with, 
Kt u there any wIc^jQate recognition of 

the disciplinary raluc of Uuntinfi;. The 
only approach to this point of view ia 

wh'-n he sets the lower facuUien. and 
more iwpiN;iiilly memory, in sulioriiination 
to the higher (understanding and rtsitton), 
iinri urjji-s tliat the forniiT stiouid only Ije 
exercised bo far as neci'ssary for the best 
discharge of the htitor. (-S'te Dr. Will- 
mauira edition of the Lecliiree, with in- 
troduction, Ac., in Karl Kichter's /'<i<i, 
liibtiollitk. Baud x. Cf. articlo 'Kant' in 
Sclinidt's Enci/dnjitidw,) 

Kindergarten. — Fi'ederick Fro«l»'I 
founded the tiret Kindergtirtfln at Ulank- 
enbnrg in 1S37. The name expresses tbe 
n.nn,li:igy between child nnd pliuit life, to 
which he constantly referi'ed. The syatem 
which he elaborated is intended for thil- 
dn-n old enough to s^ienk and to run alone, 
and was the practiual embiKliment of tlio 
pliiloBOphie study and exjiei-ience of years, 
devoted to the science of education. He 
maintained tJiat the mother »ihoviId ln'gin 
the child's training from the cradl(\ sbo 
Ijeing the teacher provided by Nature. In 
accordance with the indications of Nnturp, 
besought to develop the child's liody by 
wisely direet<Mi physical movements. Ho 
siiw that the child's inborn desire for aeti- 
vity niftnifesls itself in play, and that chil- 
dren love to play together. His system, 
thfirefore, guides this inclination into or- 
ganiai'il moi'emeiit, an'l invests the 'games' 
(unknown to the child) with an ethical 
iind an educational value, teaching, aiuoiijf 
other points, besides physical exercises, 
the habits of discipline, self-conti'ol, liar- 
niunio us action, and purpose, together with 
iMiine definite lesson of fact. Thus, the 
Kindergarten games develop the all-Mded 
activity of a child, of its body, mind, and 
spirit. The same method is followed in 
the development of its sensibilities. The 
child's eye is trained, its sense of colour, of 
size, pi'oportion, distance, form ; the ear, 
its sense of sound, articulate and inarti - 
culate, and in conjunction with its voice, 
as in music ; the hand, the orgun'of touch, 
of manipulation, of mechanical skill; ul] 
these are brought into play, both singly 
and in reUtion to each other, and also in 
co-opei-ation with the mental nnd moral 
faculties. The child's will, observation, 
perception, menioiy, thought, ingenuity, 
are nil considered in the properly organ iiii-d 
K indergarlen. The Kindercnrtcn training 
has, however, « far wider sphere thnn a 
mere systematic organisation of theautlvv- 

tiea and a^DsibUitiei of a child u regiuda the 
child individually. It reicogniseis Froebele 
principl« of the threefold rvlatjonahip of 
th^ child, that is to Ray, to Nnture, auitoate 
anil iDniiiinate, to M»n, and to God. This 
gives to the Kindergarten a high Gtnndnnl 
of iiioriil and rnligiuus tniiiiing. The child 
is brought, ill ei'ery g(»il Kiiidergurteii, into 
actual prncticiil (HmliR't with Kature, The 
careofplaiit^aadof animals, w h it'll Froebel 
designed as pari of Iits system, quickens 
^he child's syuipatJiiea, enlarges its sphere 
of interest. Tljis interest, this sympathy, 
will by wise direction be gradually ex- 
tended, and the child will recognise the 
duties which it owes to itsfellow-rnen, and 
hi?gin, ns it were, to pnt^r into il-a social 
duties. It will also see both in nature at 
large and among its fellow-uien, thi^ work- 
ings of the supreme power uiid wisdom of 
Gotl llie Croiitor, providing for and over- 
ruling Hia ureaturea, iind tliuB its religious 
insTiucts will be guided and brought into 
action. If the Kindergarten is to be worked 
out to its full, it has need of wise and ob- 
servant teachers to fulfil it« deuglU. Its 
virtue depends upon the ri^t understand- 
ing of its prindple-s, and also upon the 
proper amplication of them. Tlie whole 
Bystein may be turned by an ignorant 
teacher intoamero mechanical contrivance, 
its teaching vitiated, its spirit misinter- 
preted, and its significance lost. There- 
fore, teachers must themselves bo taught 
before they can Lope to carry out the 
^stem in its full, though simple methods. 
Not o:dy must they learn the games, the 
occupations, the songs, and the vari<jus 
methods of which each giMxl Kindergarten 
has many in its r^pifrtirir': not learnt from 
books, but tliey must study the child's 
nature, muat understand not only its phy- 
sical strocture, the laws which govern its 
health, but, also, tiiey must learn what 
they can of its inner life. For a child isa 
plant to be trainetl. not a piece of clay to 
be moulded by outward force, by the ex- 
temal will of the teacher. Ita growth, 
like a plant's, is from the inner to the outer 
world. A teacher muat therefore under- 
stand something of thai inward development 
of the growth, not only of tho body, but of 
the child's mental and moral nature, must 
actually be able to comprehend the reason 
of a child's action liefore that action can 
b«i properly dealt with. Not only must a 
tMichcr be able to understand children in 
goncral, but a good Kindergarten teacher 

should inahe a Kpecial rtndy of e»cb UMir^ 
vidual child, for, u planes vary in tht 
treatment they require, so also An childnoL 
For the purpose of obtaininggo«d Kia- 
dpfgarten ti^nchcra, training coUrgo hart 
lieen stiirted in many countrinx, atu) i( is 
principally because of the want of good 
teachers that the Kindergarten han not) 
until lately, taken a great«r hold in Eng- 
land. Further, though a t*«chep may ban 
leamt both t he mechanical and the theory 
tical part of the system, th« practical part, 
the actual teaching, has at tint to be dona 
under supervision, in order that nractiee 
and theory may caincide,and for tbis pur- 
pose training collc-gns have Kindrtgarten 
schools attodied to tlieni. In onler to otv 
tain a uniform ^stem of t«aching, aud (0 
avoid what may lie called spurioux Kiudw- 
garten teaching, the Joint Buard of lh« 
Froebel Society and the Kindergarten As- 
sociation, Manchester, hold exaininationi 
and confer eertlBcates on successful caadi- 
dates. Candidates for the Klemeotuy 
Certificate have to pass, among other nib- natural scienco,Kindei^u1«BgiAt ' 
and occupations : in the biographiea, ptiii- 
ciples, and methods of Pcetaloxxi aod 
Froebei ; in class teaching, and in mutic 
and singing. For the Highwp C*irtifi<«t«, 
they must also pass in geometry, in two 
out of four sciences, in theory, history, uid 
practice of education and hygien«. Itv3l 
thus lie seen that the teiuihors of the 
Kindergarten system are required to know 
far more than tlie mere occupation! sad 
games, and it ia hoped that t«ac}i«n 
thus trained may bo able to can^- out tho 
true spirit of Kindergarten teaching, tiA 
train not only the memories, braiiis, and 
mechanical and physical faculties of the 
children, but also their whole naturwi 
bringing into full and healthy activity the 
moral and religious part of their being, to 
that the development of tho whole may be 
harmonious and symmetricaL StudesU 
can bo trained at the rarioos eottogo^ 
which send up candidates to tbo «3tani]ia- 
tion of the joint Board. The following 
list may give the n-ader some idea of the 
methods employed in tJie Kindergarten to 
carry out the principles already mentioned; 
and it is well to remnnb«r that fonn, 
geometrical and symmetrical, and nurobms 
enter largely into tlieae methods. Kinder- 
gartfn potions may be gtinvntlly i^ 
scribed as below. 
I. Six Gifta, Let— 

Gift 1. Sis colourtil woollen ImiHk — 
WcJitUK colour, rouucitii!&s, softiiesx, tex- 
Mi*, ejtercifuiiK die Lody iti the gstii"", and 
M£Ltug denierily, ([uiukness of ojro, acuu- 
ncy of aim. 

2. A wooden ball, roller, and undividf^d 
nbe; Tenches corDpariaon of fortus, detail 
gf fbnns. i.c corni>rs, «Hge, sides, qualities 
tati motions of <»<ih form, difference of 
•ppcomnn^ whpn in motion. 

3. Oulie fiirmwi of eight wnall culjes, 
btiiiK bulviH] aoron eucYi of its fncr-s, to 
Mtrh nu[u1)(-r, simple exercist^s in the four 
tutea, and «u dentetitary idm of frudioiiH, 

4. 5, 6. Cobea still furllicr liividtd, und 
<MChiBg Dot only number, but deei^i mid 
ttnnetnca] forms, and tlie inter- rektions 
a nambers. 

II. The further occupations are stick- 
kpii^, IntliK, brad-work, drawing, rinj-a, 
•nring, bcttd-th trending, paper- twisting, 
pper-foldiiig, paprr-ciilCing (in tlic Hoard 
Bwookt weaving in list mid in cane are 
■b> practised), iniiUpluiting, colouring, 
tduMS of wood, i.e, tablets. To these may 
H added ainf^in;;, (Q'liintLgtic^s, which are 
nntl; used in the ^ttlt^s, and also object 
KmmB, ftlid stories illusti'ated by natural 
objects and by blackboard drawing. At 
llieend of the article uri; the names of soine 
Dfthe books which best illuBlmte Loth the 
Jtactioe and theory of Frui-lierK teaching. 
The Kindergarten has flouriabeil in many 
CDancrie«, nnd though in Gerniany. the 
kftd of it* birth, it has not been adopted, 
M in mtiuo other Continental States, \<y the 
Covemment, mill, in the large cities, there 
ire a good many ecIiooIh for the poorer 
lIuMS ouiiduotcd by cultivated and phi- 

puitlmpic kulie* u;>Dn the principles of 
yroebel. Among othera, may be noted 
(he Pestslozzi and Froebel House, of which 
Fras Schnider is the promoter and orga- 
liser, and which combines with the Kin- 
iefsarten industrial and cooking xcIiooIh, 
ud classes for Kindergarten students. In 
Bermany private training colleges have 
Uso berai started, and are exceedingly 

■ aofu l to students from foreign countries. 

pThe th«ori«« of Proebel have also found 
kany eipmitor* among his own couutry- 
■en, nnd the philonophical nature of his 
rork ia ftbly miiiittaini^ in treatises and 
Vtiodioal* which have grr^atly promoted 
be BpmMl and knowledge of the system. 
n Italy, whern i^lucation in i-losely allied 
itb the growth of a young ajid vigorous 
t*, Froebel's priniripIeLS have been carried 

out with great success and energy. Tlin 
Italian Government has recognised the 
work done by Mrs. Siilis Schwabe, und thn 
Froebel Institute at Naples, originated and 
designed by her, is now under the per- 
sonal direction of Madame de Portugall, 
The Govemmeiit has gi'anted a large build- 
ing in which a remarkable organisation of a 
series of gradc^l schools in Iw^ed upon the 
Kindergarten, and includes a normal school 
for Kindergarten teactiers. This valiiablo 
institution now forms a part of the public 
oducutioriul system, and, asa model school, 
its permanence and position are tlius en- 
sured : its name is to l>e aesooiated with 
thiit of the late King Victor Emnianuftl. 
In Belgium, lis in Italy, Fi'oeljel's pruici plea 
were adopted by the State at an earlyi 
periodof il8existence,8ndtheKindergarteQ 
is part of the public educational sysleiji in 
that country, and Government inspectors 
recognise the value and importance of tho 
'jitrdinii (Trn/unti'.' Ill Fniiier, tlie Cruchn, 
Salle* d'Aaile, in sonic degree fill th« 
ground which would be covered by the 
Kindergarten. But gradually Froebel's 
principles are permeating the soil, and 
have been more widely adopted in infant 
education. In Aiiilrla and Jhini/iiry thft 
Kindergarten system is looked upon with 
more favour tliun in Germany, and liaa 
been partially introduced into the elemen- 
tary schools. In Switt^rland it is also 
favourably regarded, and has been en- 
grafted on to the public schools in thft 
cauton of Geneva. In America, Brazil 
and the Argentine Republic have adopted 
the methofi in some degree — but it is io 
the United States that the Kindergarten 
has found, as Froebel prophesied, its most 
genial soil. Since its introduction there, 
some lil't«en years ago, it has become a 
popular institution. In Philadelphia, it 
has been incorporated with the State 
schools, and public schools in general 
throughout tlie States are more and more 
unresei'vedly adojiting the system. Free 
Kindergartens are numerous throughout 
the States, notably in San Francisco, Cin- 
cinnati, Philadelphia, New York, and Bos- 
ton. Training colleges have also multiplied 
very rapidly of late, and several public 
normal schools consider a KiudergarteD 
class a necessary adjunct to their practice- 
schools. Among tho nanie-s connected with 
the rise of the Kindergarten system in 
America are those ef Dr. Adler and Mrs. 
Qoincy Shaw. Miss Peabody, whose eivtUM- 


kiuni and Keiiorodty have fpveu the move- 
ment; jiuwHrtuI asaUtatice, has identified 
beraeU with the objects of tlio syBtem, and 
lias wi'ilt«ii aud lectured with gront. succeim 
on the subject. In C'liHt'd'i, (.)nt«rio hns 
adopted tlm Kindergnrtcin an part of ihp 
SUltosyitti<niiii many of itK«;hoolK,nntB.b]y 
in Toronto, wIuitp k Kindni^'arti-n fomiK 
part of a niodnl .ichoo] undi^rtlio Rduoution 
Dcpttrtniciit. Ill /lu/iVi tlie Kindfr^'artcii 
bus liueii introUuced inlnxuuK! of llieiH'licKihi 
of native cliildreii with great suw;«is. tlie 
nialerials fur tlit^ ul-cu patio as, the soii)^ the 
games. Iiaviii" l>oen carefully adapted t« the 
new soil aud to the circumstances of the far 
East. In Japati the Kindergnrten is a part 
of the school eystetn. The history of tlio 
Kindei^rtcn in Englnnrl is ns follown : 
In Iti'ii, two ypars nfl-fT Ffoplml'* dt^atli, 
the Kindergarten system wiis introdm^rd 
into England, almost simultanc-nuiLly in 
London onil MniniliPatcr, and Madumo von 
MarPiiholt* Biiluw puldUhed in that year a 

{aniphtct in Pjn^land on Inj'anla' (iurilf^ns, 
n lfl59 Frautein Heerwart and Madame 
de Portujjall were working separately at 
Manc.h«st«<r. Later Fraulein Heei-wart 
workwl at Dublin and Bf^lfast, and Miss 
I'raotorius and Miss Douck in London. 
But it was not till about 1874 that much 
energy was displayed. The Kindergarten 
Association of Slancheater had been started 
earlier, but from that year dat« the Froebel 
Society an<l the Croydon Kindergarten 
Dndf^r Mitdnme MichnehH. lu 1ST4 the 
London School Board iippoint«l thrir (irst 
lecturer on ttiR Kind<Tgarten system to 
the tnorihfrs in their infant KtJiuols, 
Bishop lifiiig tlio instructor. Intlie saioe 
ywir the EritiBh and Foreign Sthool So- 
ciety estiibliahed u KindergarU-n Training 
School at Stockwell. Since that year the 
BVtitt-ui hua made much progit-ss throughout 
England. The Froehel .Sofii_-ty, under the 
able prMJdencyof Miss^liirrell', aud aided 
atftndard of excellence for Kindergait^n 
teftdwrs who take its certificate, and seeks 
to diffuse throughout the United Kingdom 
general interest in and knowledge of the 
system. There are Kindergartens in most 
of the large towns, such as Itedfnrd, Oiel- 
tenham, Liverpool, .Mannb''ster, [iiveniess, 
die. The British and Koi'eign School So- 
ciety cstablishcrl a moxt atlmirable Kinder- 
gnrWin in connection with the training 
coilegq at Batfron Wiilden. The various 
School Boards throughout the country ra 

cognise more or l«e« the exeeJlenoe of 
system. The London School Board h*' 
continued to approve i(,aui<l bavaappoin' 
a Mistress of Method, who. with her 
sistant, holds classes for the elenieotair' 
t«achcrs, and instructs them in the prina- 
piea of the metbod. The system is nhn 
mlopted in the Jewish Fr»» Schools, nti 
in thi- schools for the dotf and dumb. On 
the whole there Kem* Co \tn good rouon 
to expect tlie furtlicr succtawftirappliaBtiuU 
in Englund of Ute win: and iiitiiph: pritici]^ 
of the aeriuun village 8ch<](>lmast«r to tin 
problem of education among tlw working 
as well as among Uie richer vUutaes. {Sf 


may he consulted : Fi-oebel's £dttealie* rf 
.}fan. Translated by MissJarvis. (LovtU 
andtV, New York, ir.ti..6».W.) TUt^ChOd 
nnd Child- Jfahim. BaroneM dr Miren- 
holt^-Biilow. Tmn«]atrtlbyA.M. Chriati*; 
(Soiineiischein, 3i.) TTin KimlTijtirlrn al 
Hopu: Miss Sbirreff. (HuglW t.aclicru' 
Library.) KijuiergairUn Eftaiit, MiasSliir- 
relFand othera. (Sonnenscbun, 3«l) Sd»- 
eatiiin. in t/ie Hoitie, ike Kindfrfforle*, W 
the Priiiuinj ScJioot. EUi. P. Fnbod;. 
(Souneuschein.) PrifidpU^oflhsKwJ"' 
gnrtfn. Mtas Lyschinaka. (lahister, <«. 6<f.) 
Tlf- KifuUryarV^ tnui Child- CiUun. 
Henry Barnard. (Hartford, U.S.. I-''*-) 
Frocbels AfiUler- uitd Eimlifdfr. Tran*- 
kited by Miss Lord. (W, Rice, «6 Fl«l 
Street, T*. M.) Kind^yarlvn Song* ami 
Gainft. Mrs. Berry and MadaiDeEkliobu^ 
(Myere, \'. erf.) 

Knowledge. — By knowWgo we uniler- 
stand the product and end of all intellM- 
tual activity. It is something more Ihu 
a niere subjective state of certainty, foc «« 
may feel certain and yet not know. It 
has an objective reference, and implies * 
correct gnisp of reality or truth, or, \» 
otlier wai'da,.a legitimate or Justified ow- 
tainty. In the case of the diwwl appn- 
heiision of objects by the senses (immediBtt 
co;{nition) knowledge tmpliM a canfsl 
method of observation, and a ooniparitOD 
of our ol>3ervations one with another mA 
with those of other persons. In the cms 
of all iiifcn^ koowlittge (modiatf* cogni- 
tion) the validity of the mind's oonvio- 
tion depends on a due oiuuTvanco of the 
logical condition.-! of correct thought. Itift 
now cotnmdnly admitted Ui«t the ultimate 
purpose of intellfH^tuol educatiiHi is niA 
so much to furnish the learner's mind wilb 

:nown to the unknown Vi 

> dHinite Amount of infornintion, as to put 

Ht in th<" w*y of gainiiic; true knowloiigp nf 

1 Mliy kin<). And to xupplj' it. with n ^'I'itcrinii 

by which it nuty dincriniiiiittji rriil knnw- 

Icdgn from dniibtful apiniiin. And this 

mnilt will Im maclini) in the mcAsiin- in 

whicli the ti'ucher nuccpeds in rouaiiig to 

■rtiviiy tli« diild'n (acuity of Ihoujjht iii 

til* pnKMS of com III union til IK information. 

The more dearly tlie jiupil think k out t? very 

new acquisition for himself, connecting it 

kgically with that he already knows, and 

to recognising lis inherent probability, the 

morvsfcillod will liclit'coniein thedet<vi?tion 

•f whj»t in true and what is falsft. Know- 

kd^ ha* hmm divided inti different kinds. 

Benidm thn diiilinctinn lietween iniinefliiite 

I mediate cognition alnmdy referred to, 

BiKtbecoiitriiat emphasised )>y l^ieitinitn 

re«n inluitiva knowlwlge, such as wb 

1 by the senses, aiidsymboHc kno«li«Ige, 

ithat of all va£t nuiutiers, wliicli cannot 

Ic clenHy iniapned. and are only known 

nbolically. (On the natureof Knowledge 

iFlwoing's Votinliii/nn/ of /'/i ilogo/i/i}/, art. 

owledg(t ; ontho distinction between in- 

itira and symholicftl knowledge, consult 

at'&tmmtart/ Camoniiin Logic, le-sson 

Knowledge- Values. — The expression 

'ledge- (ir education-x-nluea refers to 

I comparative worth of the vnrioiis mib- 

l of iniitruction. This may he iletpr- 

ned »?ither by the [iriictical utility of 

po«itiv« reaultK, lu by the infornia- 

&iii&liM8, or by tlie Kjinniuitic eliiciK!y 

* the study in training the iiitplleitual 

,as by the eduoatioualists or Uia- 

^Huarians. Commonly, both staudaivia 

Tslne are referred to, Thus, in the 

d*m dbcuasion of the contparat i ve worth 

llaogoo^ee and science, and of ancient 

1 mixl«rn languages {»ee Classical Cui,- 

IR Mid SriKNCB Tbaciiimi). eniphasiB 

I'kid now on tbe practicn.] usefulness of 

t particular information gninerl, and now 

Uic benefit oeeruing to the learner's 

aintt from tlu! disciplint! involved. It is 

not by any niisiiis nbvioun antecwlently 

that tiie two scnleif of vallll^ jis thus deter- 

Laincd will cmiwide. At th« samn time, 

, »e attempt bas li«.'n made, notably liy 

-Mr. H. Sjwnccr, to show that Uie sulijeiits 

wtiich are tieat for xuiiUnce ari' Ix-st a,l»o 

for discipline. (&f Spencer, Ediii-ituiii, 

diap. i. ; Bain, Ediieitliun im Scienff, chap. 

r. ,- Payne, ConXrifnUioiu to tha Setetux o/ 

Bdue^lion, chap, iii.) 

Known to the Unknown. — To know a 

thing is not merf^ly to be aware or con- 
scifius of its pxisleiiec, hut to perceive 
its fplations to oUut thin^p;, and of its 
parts and pro|(ertics to mie anotlier. Wo 
know a demonstration of Algebra when 
we perceive iJie relations of ils juirts iid one 
atiot.lHT uiid of it as a whole to other do- 
inonEtrutions and facts of Algebra— theso 
i-i4n,tions in their most general and eom- 
pi'ehensive form consisting of ditTt-rencn 
und agreement,, or unlikeness and likenexx. 
Knowing therefore means diBcriniuiating 
or detecting the differences of one iuiprea- 
aion, object, nr idea from another or others; 
and assimilating or detecting the agree- 
ments of this same impression, object, or 
idea witli yet another or others. It is plain 
that we cannot discriminate a thing from, 
or iissiinilate it with, another or othrrn of 
which we kiiow nothing. That with whieh 
we compai'e and contrast it, or to whieh 
we liken it, mu^ itself be in some meaxuro 
known In other words. Knowledge (l-v.) 
advances from the known (not neceasarily 
eompli'Irlii known) to the unknown ; and 
its growth depends not only upon tJie 
number of thiatjs known, but also upon 
the number and truth of our pereeptiotia 
of their rebitiona ir, one another and 
of the relations of their parts to one 
another. To know n [lower we examine 
and distinguish its parts and properties ; 
and further, we endeavour to learn in 
what it differB from and in what it re- 
sembles other flowers previously seen. If 
we are asked t« give th« value of, say, tho 
sum of the angles of a polyfron, we search 
amongst those iacta of geometry which 
we already know to find one or more to 
which we may att^ach it. We find that 
we know the sum of the angles of a tri- 
angle, and then by dividing our polygon 
into triangles we arrive at the kiio^Wlgn 
required. The fact that knowledge ad- 
vances from the known to the unknown 
has been recognised from the earliest times. 
The tirsl. to make it m.irkoflly prominent 
when dealing with practical school-work 
were Ratke, (.'omeniua, and Rousseau. 
The first to make it largely iiilhience their 
firacticp were the Jansciiists of Port- linyal 
(ij.r.) lint even at the present day there 
is no fundamental truth which is so widely 
and so jM-rsistently ignored in school-work; 
and in no subject Diore than that of lan- 
guage. Not oidy do we begin with gram- 
mar, or K^rncndisM aiul abstruMt i(Ln.X«AmnA« 


nooming what n atilV iguitn unknown, 
■ w« «vnn in the grnmmar itself begin 
flrith riHining what we have not ynt ob- 
aorvml. The true method in hinguufre, as 
in iiU knowl&lgo, is to Ix^gin with ohscrva- 
tiou, and prooi'i^d with forajmrison, dis- 
knimi nation, and aaBiimlattou in the way 
already indicate. 

Knox. John (b. 1505; d. 1572), the 
Scottiah iieforraer, was the piime mover 
ia the reori^nnisntion of the educational 
.xystcra in Scotland in the aixtoenth cen- 
itniy. Bom in East Lothian of weU-t4>-do 
' parents, Knox enjoyed ii litii-ral education 
nt the tirnmninr (School of Haddington, at 
, the University of Glasgow, and at Gflneva. 
Seifore 1530 he bf-ciime a regent at St. 
Andrews University in the department of 
scholastic philosophy, and subsequently 
entered orders, ilia philosopldcal studies 
led hiffito believe that the children of the 
people beloDjfed as much to the nation as to 
the family. Hence, he reosonpd, the State 
ought to SOP tliat every ehild hod the bene- 
fit of thi^ whole educational re.soujve3 of 
the country, if found likely to profit by 
thern. This was the first duty a State 
owed to its people, for Knox a theory of 
politicul liberty was not that all men have 
an e<jun! ritjbt to interfere with, to help, 
or hinder the uHkirs of the commonwealth, 
but that all men have an equal right to 
the same means of training and educating 
themselves, and so finding out and prov- 
ing whether they are * fit to rule in civil 
policie, or to live in godly reverence and 
•ubjection.' His scheme, therefore, con- 
tdined iu the Firti, Bookof Dif-ipline, pre- 
sented to the Scottish Parliament and sub- 
Bcrihed by the Secret Council in l.nfiO, by 
tuking advantage of the survey of the 
country which was then tteing made by the. 
au]H^rintendcnt8, was to plant a school 
wlierever lh«y recommended a church. 
* If the [uirish lie upland,' i.e. tliinly popu- 
lated, ' where the people convene to doc- 
trine but onee in the week, then must 
either the rt-ider or the minister there ap- 

pointed take cam over tbft childrmnl 
youth of the patrinh, to inirtract thm h 
tlieir lirst rudimnnt:*, and cepneiiilly la ifat 
catechism.' In all towns *nd popvloM 
p^riahcB there was Ui be a tburoughty goe4 
SL'hool taught by a m&Hter 'iU>Io to taui 
at least grammar and the I^tiu Ufagat! 
Such schools were meant U> be miaini 
grounds for the children of every dut it 
the community, whether noble or o(MI- 
moner. The scholar was to be ten^tto 
reod, write, and triphnr, the cat«chiRin *nJ 
Bible lessons, gmmmnr, I^tin, freqaeatly 
also French and musie—thoMc bnnelMf 
of mental training which voald Rillf 
educate and enablci a litd to showwhelhr 
there might !« ' a spirit of docititie in Uk 
or not.' The Usacliing must !«• thonra^ 
Each school was to be esamlued cmj 
quarter by 'discrete, learned, and gMW 
men.' If the examiners found any *»^ to 
lelteris and loamyng ' at the end of thdr 
school course, they were to dire<Tt them te 
'proceid to farther knowledge,' If net, 
they were to be taught some handiomfl. 
Education wna to be compnlsory, the pan- 
iHhment being visitation on the pannU 
with the ceoHgreaof the Church, a social 
puniflhnient deterrent enough in th(' dayl 
of Knox. Second-class schoolR were M 
be established in all the princ:ip(d towns, 
to fit boys for the university by being 
trained in logic and rhetoric, and aluo (lie 
'tongues,' i.e. Latin and French, probsWjr 
Greek, and also Hebrew. The Stottiw 
Universities were also to be retnodellwi 
in accordance with the spirit of the Re- 
formation, The several institutions wtre 
to be endowed nut of the surplus property 
of the Church. The grnat feature 01 
Knox's scheme was its thoroughly na- 
tional and non -ecclesiastical . chancUT- 
Foiled by the nobles, Knox appealed (9 
the people, and tliey answered hi:* <alL 
Within fifteen years after he had pre* 
pounded his scheme there was scarcely » 
town or pariah that had not its Bchoolsccl 


Labomtoriea. S«« Akciiitectcrb of 

Lacedntuonian Edncatioa. — Tradi- 
tion connects this system with the «emi- 
or whoUy mythical lawgiver, Lycurgus. 

The training of the ynung at Sparta wD' 
sist«d al most entirely of pAj/noo/iutercif*- 
If the new-born child was wetskly itvi' 
not allowed to live ; if healthy and rtraiff 
it wa« given over to the care of ita motbc' 

'010 Age of sewn. At Uiut age the 
vere taken frnin the niotlier once and 
I, Kill] sviit to a. lar^ boftrdiii^ eata- 
oeat, wh^re tli«y wi-ra placed under 
ictor app'.'iiitpd by tlie epliors. Ilpre 
vere kept atid trained at the public 
fle— being divided into throo classes I 
of trom seven to twelve, thowi from | 
B to fifteen, nnd thonc from Kfbvn to 
wn)— And th««r^ again xuhdiridtHl and 
vd hy the Uiy*. F.viTy uiti^tun had 
itlionty, and wns Itound, t» puitinh or 
nnnd any \n>y he found cuniinitting a 
[ iMrt. It is not to our purpose here 
erintodBtaiiBuoncprimi;? the military 
^ranastic exercisi^s, and tlie harden- 
roceiaes through which the children 
iKtng men had to go, with the object 
lung them fine hnmnn fLnimnla, imd 
Mihuigtliem obedience, cnurdge, and 
li^, Wemaymentitm.howcver, that 
M gyRumBticH the young were taught 
g Mid to play on the snven-stringed 
'o. Tliis muiiic wus used partly as an 
ipanunent to the diiiite (whioh itself 
in exercise <)r fereiiiuny ntther than 
ituemeiit), and partly under the idea 
K would exercise and train the mind 
fflaotiona m fie same way as K>'ni- 
» es«rcU«d the hoUy. Npt many of 
^rtAiis could read or write^these 
iplialunents oot being part of the 
-and some could not evon count. 
le moral side the children were often 
EUr the evening meal, to discuss the 
litjr of somo recent public deftd, or the 
i^fll some notiid fellow-citizen, and 
Bogged if tlicy nnswereit at random, 
hs age of ritfhttHrn the boys— iitiU 
rlJieeaRtro] of th«8tat<>— passed into 
uida of othi^r diris.-tors. It was only 
B age of thirty tliat a. young Tnun 

IcMve tht! (^taljlish lite lit, marry, and 
on utftive niilitary service. The train- 
t the girk differed but slightly from 
at the boys, and tlie two sexes were 

mingled in their gymnastic exercises. 
}tb cases the idea of a fumily life, 
imetlie influence, was wholly absent, 
[JiUd. the youth, the adult, all lived 
' under tJie guardianship of the State, 
or the !)late. 

Koeutcr. Joseph, educational ri^- 
fcva* horn in Kent Street, South- 
BT7H. His father was a Chelsm. 
Rer. When the hoy was about 
een ran old Cla.rkson's essay on the 
)e fell into his hands, and so 

impressed him that he resolved to ro to 
Jamaicu to leach tlie negroes to read the 
Bible. He walked all the way to Bristol, 
where he found a ship, but he was, after 
a few weeks, restored t* his parents. After 
returning tiO London. Joseph became usher. 
His friends (who were Cnivinists) destined 
him for the ministry, hut he destroyed 
their hopes by tiinnng Quoker. Before 
hp woB eighteen he began teaching on his 
own uL-count 'under the hospitable roof of 
an aflectionate' father. In a very short 
titue the young sdioolmaster 'had oocaaion 
to rent larger promises,' which in turn 
became too sniatl. Aided hy benevolent 
Quakers, he half maintained many of his 
pupils, and thus drew around him larger 
crowds of children than his skill as a 
t«acher would alone have attractj'd. His 
school grew too large for him to manage 
unaided, and yet he could not afford to 
employ assistance, so he hit upon the plan 
of setting the most advanced scholiirs to 
tejich the rest. One change led to ivnotlier, 
till in the course of four or tive year-i the 
innovations embraced a complete scheme 
of primary instruction. This scheme was 
at once religious aud unsectArtan. Ian- 
caster iield that from a school meant for 
the uiiildren of all denominations the pe- 
culiar tenets of all denominations should 
be excluded. In 1803 he published an 
account of his Improvement* in Education, 
and began to appeal for public subscrip- 
tions. The Duke of Bedford. Lord Somer- 
ville, and other powerful patrons responded 
to his appeal, and be erected a large house 
and schoolroom in Belvedere Place, Borough 
Road, on a site now fitly occupied by a 
Board .Sthofil, The new building wag 
opened in 1804. Next year Luncnafer 
had an opport.unity of explaining hia plans 
to tieo:^e III. At the end of the inter- 
view, the king said: 'I hi^'hly approve of 
your system, and it is my wish thai every 
poor child in my dominions should be 
taught to read the Bible.' To aid in the 
realisation of so pious a wish, he promised 
to subscribe a hundred pounds a year, and 
several members of the royal family also 
becanie subscribers. Thus encouraged, 
Lancaster began lecturing all over the 
country, and his missionaiy journeys re- 
sulted in the establishment ofmany schools 
on hia method. These schools could only 
be conducted by teachers familiar witli hia 
plan, and as early as 1805 he began to 
train the moat promising of his boy% aa 

masters. ' ~Bem^~l^^Hytaiprenticed to 
him, th«]r wn lorlgHMRK now house iu 
BftlvoHpro I'latv!, lioniwn ftnd clotliiMl with- 
out chnrgr, nntl, iifUtr n Pi-rtaiii jmrioil of 
instruction, Bnnt imt to xchunh. I,iint^iiit- 
t»^ii viinity bail ripvur bnt-n weak, nor his 
cliscnitiiiii ever rtroug. Suuniwl by tin- 
pn.trotia^'L' of th« weiillhy mid lh« uoblt-, 
liU viiniiy grew apace, luid lija diacrHtian 
ilitHl. Ttiere seemtH) t« be no ^nd to the 
number ui las projects, although he had 
not HulTicieut busioess tact to manage any 
oue of them succeKsfulIy. The result was 
that by the end of 1>107 hp own] n<-nrly 
6,riOO(., and he was nrrested for ilebt. 
Ifis arrost marks on rtpo^h in the history 
of Bnglish popiilnrnducntion, for, ini>r«or 
lens dir<«!t,ly, WR owfi to it the ratjitjlish- 
nient of the British niul Foreign Scliool 
Socinty (7.11.). William Curston tnil Jo- 
euph Ftix, believing jirofoundly in the 
poti^ntitilities of Luiicafitt^r'a &yatem, cnuie 
t« his rescue. On Jantiarr 22. ISO.S, these 
two, 'with a humble reliance upon the 
blessing of Lord <.!o"5 Almighty, ami with 
a sinj;te eye to His glory, and with a view 
to benefit the Britbh Empii-e, . . . unani- 
mously resolved' to form themselves into 
a society for the purjinsu of iwlvnncing the 
sdtication of the poor. They assumed the 
responsibility of Ijih caster 'a debts ami 
took the management of his pecuniary 
alTairs into their own hands. During the 
nest five years Jjancaitor was eiignged in 
euperin tending the cuntrat institution, in 
imnroTing his syntAm, and in lecturing 
KM writing about it, and iu iiiainta.intng 
uainst the supporters of Dr. Bell his 
claim to the merit of discovering it. Mean- 
while the society sta,rted by Corston and 
Fox wHsgrowingrapidly.butnot so rapidly 
as the pretensions of the man whose im- 
providence and enthusiasm had been the 
cause of its Mtahlislimnnt. He wished to 
control every department of the Soci^ety'a 
work, and to spend on a boanJing-Mchool, 
which he hail opened for his own benefit 
at Tooting, funds si)b«ciibed for promoting 
Wie education of the poor, and as he could 
not have his own way h? se veiled his 
connection with his old friends, jfilarr 
Imd roleaAid him from all liabilities in- 
curred by him in his public work, but by 
Ootoljer, It<l3, his priratr and pi^nonal 
debt*, greatly augmentinl by the failure of 
the Tooting ^-entuw, nmnunted t<> 7,500/., 
■nd ho was tnado bankrupt. Of his move 
montti daring tho next Rvn years little is 

I known. In 1818 he detcntii necT Uy 
I life afresh, and sailed to Plulad<dpiti« 
wtis well recMve<l in the Quaker eit 
rumoursof creditors unsatisfied soil fi 
e-ttmngedfollowiil hiniacrosa tlie Atll 
and .sent him a|^ain upon his trsvela. 
wandered through North and South . 
ricui, and wn tind him in OaraM4 
St. Ttiomas, in Santa Oruz, and in Cat 
EOinntimes li^cturing and sometimes t 
ing. On Octolwr "23, IMS, he mm 
over and IoIImI in ono of th« strv* 
New York. Tlie eharaot«r of l«no 
requires no subtle aiialyxis, HI* la4 
children, his enthusiwim, hU indiscn 
his greed of praise but not of goM, I 
the surface. He was not a gral 
altogether a good man, and tfaeperma 
value of the system which he made paps] 
was very small; but ho deserves (e 
renienilicred because he gAve a stra 
impetus to the education of the pec^ 
and showed how all sects and part 
could unit*' in advancing it, I 

XancelOt See JANaKVISTit ^ 

Languages. &f Ct-iasicAL Ocltoi 
L\TiN~. GiiKKK, and Mooebx LaxhcaOI 

Latin. — The position which the I^ 
langimge occupies in education dcpa 
partly on its history, and |)artly on itii i 
trinsic educative power. In Umi *cb(K 
of the middle ages (7.11.) Ijitin was H 
only language taught, because it tnt lb 
the only language used for lit«nry p« 
poses, and it contained all the itiforanatii 
on every subject which an educated m 
desired to possess. This stAt« of matti 
continued practically till the Iteformatui 
But with the rise of modern nationaliti 
and modern languages and literaturi 
Latin became gradu^ly less and lean 
vehicle of thout^ht. It ceased Blmosd 
tirely to be eiuployed for purely litM 
purposes, and was restrict«<l to trtalil 
which expounded philosophy, phitolog 
and science. Within this century e" 
this restricted use of Letin has radk 
almost the vanishing point, and it hub 
come the custom for philosophers, bcImIsi 
aticl scientific men to convey their di 
covi^rie.s in their native langoa^ Us 

refore now no need to learn Lai " 
onl^Cto communicate thoughts or 
otheiaV ^'""^ survivals of old pra«tii 
still to n( found in the educationat 
meutsofY»>"iousoountrifiii. Thus in 
schools ot\*-'^'''"'"iy pupils am tminnl 
speak Lilt if*' """^ *i ori^nal 

obligatory &t tlM final I^^HBM ^* 
ination ai tlie Hchularti. tt^^|Hp ^'<^ 
bli^tion ItAs bt«ii reoeutly ndBOTed, tlie 
iaeiuwou!* whiuL )mv^ followed on ita re 
loval Tcndtir it not improbable that it 
>T be rvplac^d at soiup futur« tiiue. In 
Eof^kud.ou the other hnnil, great nttonti on 
b««n p»id to eompoRition in Liitin 
utd in tho piitilii; K^'honlK nii enor- 
■UMU amount of timi^ )ins Ui-n xpRnt on 
llne»-rci»(i, though within the? Iiul cjiiiirti'^r 
tt ». ciintoiy strong pn>tcsts huvn bi-fn 
DttfTMi agninNt th« ]>routi(H!, uud much 1»sb 
timo i* now given to it. 

lAtiit, thon, fa no longer learned that 
il any be spoken or written. This change 
In Uie object of teaching tlie la,iis:uaK« has 
illetcd Uie (juration of its expediency. 
th* fiiwaul «tat« of the qaestion may l>e 
otiibited thus. A boy has to \m trained 
in (ome iut«l]ectual pursuits from the nge 
of ten or eleven to that of »rvpntfen or 
nghteen. Wh:it are thr purNuitx that are 
tat cslcdlat'vl to produ<:i' n iniin of vigor- 
Mt int«llm!t, of Nound hnart, iind of pruc- 
lisai power I Has liUtiii a plaee among 
tlwi! Bubjpcte, and if it has, what is this 
|iUeet A» tulei|uate disn-uxKion of this 
matter would involve a Ireiitise ou educa* 
tirm ; but in dnalin^ separately with Ivttin 
UasubJAct of itistrui-'tion, it hux alwaya 
tt be remembered that no Just view con 
btlKkeu of il uuleas it be viewed in con- 
uetioa wiih the other subjects that ought 
tobeemployed in education. The reasons 
vbich detennine the place of Latin among 
(dawtional subjects may be stated thus. 
(he euenti*] part of the education of 
bnoan beings must I>b training in the 
lliiHi^ts, interests, actions, and all that 
"racwms the welfare of men. Tliis train- 
inj MI) bfl given only through language 
•iiich is the nOiiclc of human thought, 
•adliti-mturrwhiph isllieexprBSaionnf tile 
I'M and n<ibli'xt hunian thouglit. What 
ktffnage, tlien, anil wliat IJU-rature are 
%Hj to be mciHt Kuece&sful as iustriunents 
tM tmining of a boy from ten or eleven 
(osenDteeti or eighteen, not apart from, 
htalougnde of, the other subjects which 
lBim8tl«amt Tbeanswerof educational 
BffriODce up ta the present day is unques- 
mafaly that the Latin language and the 
Utiii Uleralure are the best for the piir- 
I^raof education. Arguments have been 
•Uncod to show that other languagna are 
Iwier adapted for the purposi-. Some 
^<* loggMted English, some have aug- 

goKtpd French or Oerman ; but as yet no 

experiment has been tried iu schools with 
any of these languages wliteh Iibb proved 
a success. These langiia;:;es ought to bo 
learned, but in teaching them the teacher 
has not the same materinlsand opportunity 
for developing the powers a« he has with 
I>atin. Both the F^atin language and the 
Lfttin literature are apprinlly suited to a 
boy of from rleven tn scventi'pn. The lan- 
guage is such that the connection of ona 
word with another in a sentence is indi- 
cat«d by the terminations. There is thus 
a clear, visible sign of the connection of 
the words. The words themselves connote 
things and ideas not tixi familiar to tlie 
hoy, and he thereVjy rises from a state of 
routine and almost unconscious knowledge 
to a clear consciousness of his thoughts 
and their bearing on reality. The boy 
from eleven to eight**n is at the stage 
when it is his work to advance from the 
concrete to the power of dealing with tha 
nVistriicI, from the individual to generali- 
sations more or leas wide. Thr Latin lan- 
guage and the lAtin liter.'iture afford him 
thr most varied opportunitieE of tliis pro- 
cess, as the Komans were at that stage of 
mind when the tJ-ndency to the coneretft 
was powerful, and abstraction and genera- 
li.sjLtion were only pirtiully employed. Tha 
lit*>ratui'e of the Itomaiiv is thus to a large 
extent within the comprehension of the 
boy of sixteen or eighteen. Roman histoiy 
also presents simple characters and simple 
problems, and exhibits few of the com- 
plexities which cause action of the highest 
kind in modem times to demand great 
powers of abstraction and generalisation. 
These and various other considerations 
render Latin peculiarly appropriate as the 
dominant language for teaching purposes 
in the case of a capable lioy who has time 
to spend on the complete education of hia 
mind in all directions. Both language and 
Uterature are well adapted to his years; 
tlie lessons can be so arranged that he shall 
always havediflicul ties, but suchdidicul ties 
aa be can overcome. The teacher can 
alvays employ the lesson to make the boy 
think, and a teacher is always needed to 
help the boy out of the difficulties or un- 
certainties which lie across his path. And 
in the end Latin literature confers on him 
a k nowledge of a civilisation on which our 
own is based. 

Various methods of teaching Latin, 
have been advocated. At the earliest stage, 



tlm boy !t'iiriii-il it in liis futlier's liouae 
from ooiivi-raiitioii, aud his traluiiig in it 
wua carried ou by menus of conversations 
ill Ltitiri. To him nnquaint^i:! with 
all the forms of the laiie;Hftgi>, grammar* 
had Wen prepared long hrforri thu full of 
the Boroaji Empire. ThPsegruninmni Wf^ri- 
baiieH on phili)aopliicji.l iiieiis ilnrivcd frriin 
Aiistntlpand tlieStoics.and with itit<-nci«l 
t<» co-onliiiute uU the gmmnrntical fueia of 
tlv(! liingUHgH. When the prat-tioe of Iratu 
ing in laliii hy couveraation oeasetl, tliese 
gnuDiuai'H Btill remained in use. and the 
Ijitia grammars of the present day 
loaded with terms derived from the meta- 
physical idens of th" ancients. Pupils 
were expected t:0 begin their course with 
learning these grammnrB, which were 
usually written in Latin dpwn to u recent 
time, and them aro Ktill s<:hoi>ls in whii-h 
boys ure d rilled solely i n grain matical forms 
and rules for a considerable period before 
they read an author. A reaction against 
tliia method took place, and it was ui-jjed 
that pupils should learn Latin as they learn 
their mother tongue. School books wem 
prepared in harmony with this ido-a, and 
in order t« curry it out easily the nnmea 
of all objects faniiiiar to the pupil were set 
down for committjil to memory, and con- 
versations including them wei'e to be dili- 
gently studied. But objections to this 
method were soon strongly presented. 
There were few teachers that cnuld them- 
selves talk Latin fluently and accurately. 
The boy's intellectual jiowers were not i»d- 
Tunctid by leivriitiig the euuivalents in I^tin 
for thn common inalerial ol)jw.'ta wliich he 
met with daily, and they were of little or 
no use in helping him to read the Latin 
authors, the comprehension of whose ideas 
was to form one main instrument in bis 
culture. A kind of medium way wiiji sug- 
gested, especially by Locke and Hamilton 
(j.w.) The language ought t-o he learned 
by induction. A Lntin sentence must be 
pU<M?d before the pupil. The teacher must 
tr'll him the mntning of the iietilcnce. And 
then the pupil is to discover what forms 
inaicato t)ii« ennnnction in ii stenti'nce, and 
what fonni indicate that, and thus he 
lrarn> to form a grammar fur himself, and 
by n Kimilar prot-uss in regaril to words be 
funnK a dictionary for himself tracing the 
variuuH meaniiigs of the words to some ori- 
ginal iiuUon. Jaeotot. added to this that 
tJie pupil must be coiitla«d at first to one 

book whici) he iiHimHiumt to neiBOij. 
He must know every word and sontencs 
of it at his ting«rs' «uds, mid hariog mui- 
t(TWI this ho will bo able to find wiihin 
iiome part of it the KoliltJOD of all tlw dilS- 
culties which he may cncounti^r in Ui 
further reading of books in the lanstmne. 

In more reoi^nt timi^ u furtiier ciuuige 
has takrn place in tlie tniching of iMim, 
It is now genendly rec<igni.-ie<l, as s r«8ilh 
of comparative phtlulugy, that inlle«tic«S 
are the remnants of wordii. There is that ID 
an intlect«d language like Idtiu no simpli 
word in « sentence, but every word coiv- 
tains at legist two portions. The tirit i* 
the root, the other )ndicat«s the rolation 
of the idea of the root to the other id(M 
expressed in the other words of thft »ta- , 
tencc. Th« pupil, it is nrg;urd, sbinld I« i 
taught to distinguish from the vtiry fin* 
between these two portions of the word, 
and he should learn as soon as possible the 
radical idea of the root and the oiigintl 
meaning of the inflection. A knowledgi 
of the radical idea of the root U the b»a* 
of all lexical knowledge. Aknowledgtof 
the original meaning of tike inflection it ■ 
knowledgeof syntax, and thereforea know- 
ledge of the inflection should not be mftr 
rated from a knowledge of its meuun^ 
Many of the more recent lAtin gmmma ' 
have carried out more or lesa ni00e«fpl|7 I 
this mode of trenching Latin, basfld oocOBl* 
panitive |)hilology. 

The greitt point of discusdon in MB- 
nection with the tencliing of lAtin i* bfl* 
we should bpj;in to teach Latin. The wb- 
Be«|uent stagiK of the process admit ftlsoc' 
iUscuBnion, but there is no seriouK dift^ 
ence among educators, except in rej^anJW 
two poiiita mentioned already, the wiitiag 
of Latin proM and the wriliiiK of lAtiu 
verse. Speaking generally, the onnclunoa 
to which most educatioidsts bai'e comn b 
that Latin prose sliould he employed mItIv 
as a means of impressing the gnimmatirv 
fonusacciiratelyandlinnlyon themmrnorf, 
and that Latin verse should bs loft to thW 
who have a taste for it. 

The literature on this subjwt is iv' 
mense, very ninny discussions of thr laf*- 
ject appe/iring in pamphlet form. I> 
regard to the value of Liitin as n nxiMiiaf 
edm»tion, mention may be made ol Hc- 
biirt, Boimke, Schmidt, Kewnuui, Schndf, 
a verygood pamphlet by Joiies, uid StMfi 
on a LibTol Education, edtt«(l by Fansr, 
and on the other side P&uben, Hodg»<i> 

nd Biiin. On tb« teAchini; of LAtin a 
Kid hktoricAl Account is to be found in 
kAuntRTK drjKfiirht'' drr I'lidnijii'/ik. Dritter 
Titril, p. Jilt. iMost of books on thp 
'ftluc of I^tin nlnn iliNciixK mrlliodH of 
Baching. Morrnnoiicrn eliortji cnnbesPBii 

tfae irorkx of Wilhelm, l«ttniiiiin, Pttf- 
bae, and Et^kiU-in. Bonk-t on Uymnnxial 
USioffOffik, such Its Niigelshftch's, Rotli's, 
IdiDudt's, aiu) Thririg*s, dtBouss the qnts- 
tinn. Dr. Docialdaon, s'liiur priiii.'i[)nl of 
tbt tJniveruty of St Andrews, hiia (im- 
Imttl s now method of t«aijlu[ig Lutin 

kn tttnbodiment of the ideas of tills 
Kn in his KUm^nUtrj/ Lalin Gramnuir 
0dtan, ISJ^O). S«€ also Classicu Cub- 

LfttiB (Pr«nanoiation of). — Thfi (jum- 
tiOB of Uie projinncifttion of Ivitin hna 
«me into ^rwit promini-nce Hincc thu 
^liabus of Latiu proniiiioiation pnipttrud 
at the r^uest of the hi^itd niustiTs of 

iblic schools of EiigiiLrid »ppe;ired lii 

The need of ti chttnge in tlie En^- 

pronunciation of Latin had come to 

*t»«ngly felt. Each nation is inclined 
to follow in the pronuneintion of Ijatin 
tte Buno method which it follows in the 
prODiiooiAtioo of its own htnt;ua<ro. Thus 
til* TtAlJAns pronounce ci as eld, tlie Oer- 
■Dtot ru ns 01, fttid the French Articulate 
"Wy tijrllabln with a sh'ght aeeentimtion, 
1W nMuIt of this pmctioe in Englnjid 
*M a wider diwrgence from whnt wiis 
•cknowledjted on all hnnila to In; the pro- 
BimmtJon of tbu RomnnB themsdves in 
ttn time of Cicero thiin wiis to b« found 
in anr oUier country. All other nations 
Wained th« souuda of the vowels a, <-, », 
f which were ^ven to tlit.-m hy Uiu 
noniaas ; th« Enfjlisli alone pronounced 
s. e, i, u, ns a iny**''. e in meat, i in piris, 
«tii! u in hum. They also uniformly 
nitndcd c and ff before -f- and i soft., as in 
«tly, fin. Tbiww pronunciations create 
"^ ■ d w to * rw«Hy RppreJiension of nin-ny 
sf the fivcta luid principles of compjirative 
lAilology, and luimo scholars rcsolvt^ t« ' 
Bile an effort to n-Htorc in EngliKh schools 
ftp exact pronutipintion of vowoU, consn- . 
■Uta, ana diphthongs practised in lh« 
fine of Cicero, For the ncttlenicnt of 
w. iiaevtJOR ampti^ mat4^rinlB were sup- 
jW oy the musterly work of Corssen, 
PAw AvMprac/ie, Vokalinmuf imd Brtn- 
•Mjf der iaUinigehfn Spraclie, 2nd edi- 
-Hm, 18^. Tlie task WU8 iissigni'd to 
FMnkmts Palmer and H. A. J. Munro. 

The principnl points in their scheme are 
that the vowels should be pronounced as 
by nil ContinpiitAJ nations, that e and jf 
should always be pronounced hard, and 
thnt « or i> should nlwnys he pronounced 
lU IB. Thus vivi jiorB and vicwijii, are to 
bi- pronounced ipj'ipa urokr and tpikiMi/ii, 
and Cir.iro as Kiknro. This mode of pro- 
nunciation, though recommended by tho 
greatest authorities, has not succeedwl in 
gaijiing a permanent footing, and has Iteen 
adopted only sporadically. The innova- 
tion is deemed too great. It Is easy to 
dftprmine broadly what was the pronun- 
ciation of Latin in Cicero's time, but there 
nre many points that still remain un- 
settled, and all that can bo done is an 
approjcimu-tion. A new attempt, how- 
ever, is to be made to hring the pronun- 
ciation of the Augustan agu into vogue. 
Tlie Cambridge Philological Society has 
issued a pamphlet entitled Thf. i'ranun- 
ci'Uioit of Latin in the Augualitn Period, 
which has received the general approba 
tion of nearly all the classical professors 
and lecturers in Cambridge University. 
It ia expected, therefore, tlia.t this pro- 
nuneintion will be widely adopted in the 
lectures of that University. The pam- 
phlet was submitted to the Oxford Plulo- 
Ingicnl Society and obtained its approval, 
anil accordingly it is lihely that its pro- 
posals wilt be carried into practice in the 
University of OxfonL And if the pro- 
fessors and lecturers of both Universitiea 
employ the suggested pronunciation, it is 
probable that schoolmasters will follow 
(«•« an article by Mr. Postgate, in Clit^i- 
tal R«vi<^w, April 18S7). But there are 
diSIculties in the way. and the success of 
the effort cannot be predict«d with cer- 

Uesides the pronunciation of the leU 
t:er8, teachers have raised the question of 
pronouncing according to tlie ((unntities. 
These qunntitie-s are ordinarily neglected, 
: except when the Roman accentuation 
' compels attention to thp.ra. The general 
taw of Roman accentuation requires that 
if the penult is long the urcent must be 
on it ; if the penult is short the accent is 
on the antepenult. Thus Romanes has 
the accent on the penult, noiiiles has tho 
iicoent on the antepenult. But ordinarily 
lioth tliese words nre grossly mispro- 
nounced. Romnnos is pronounced RS- 
indnti», whereas it shoald be R0nin.n6», 
and nohUfis is pronounced nil'>ti?«,'Hhtit%»B 


it should be nAbllrii. Our proiiundntion 
is thus gfrtieniUy very far wrong in i]Uini 
tity, iiDd it in likely tliut u RomiLii would 
not huve iiiii]ifi'!i1uuil ua, evtii if we IiJid 
Bpokeii their laii^uit^e (guile uccurulely us 
rea[H?ct8 (^rauiiuar ntid cbciioe of words. 
A fullier proposal wa« made by Kitsclil 
that not only should ^1 syllable? that ai« 
Iftng be proiiouiicpiJ long, but an efl'ort 
should V>e tnnde I« diEtinguish in the rase 
of words long Iiy position, those that are 
natumlly long iind thiiEi^ thut owe their 
length to ponitioii. TIius iis the a of 
*/uUKr is long anil the a at jmler is slinrt, 
a in malrit should be prououm^ed longer 
than the a iu palrtn. For the sanie reason 
«W, to eat, should .m pronounced louger 
than ftse, to be {Opureiil/i, vol. iv. p. 760), 
The age of Cicero is adopted as the norm 
for the pronundntion. There can be do 
doubt that alike in eurlier and 1at«r times 
the pronunciation, both in regard to the 
acceiituntinn uiid individual Iett«ra, differed 
from that whidi prevailed at the entl of 
the Republic. Corssen's wock is the 
great work mi the subject of the pronun- 
ciation and accentuation of Latin. The 
subject has also lieien discussed by Munro, 
Ellis, Roby (in his (irninnmr), and on 
accentuation Henri Weil and Louis Ben- 
loew have written a treatise. 

Latin Verse. ^>b Vbbsk Wbitino 
and PvBuc SrimoLs. 

Law (Educational). — In this article a 
summary is given of the Education Ltiw 
at presi-nt in force in Enghiiid and 
Wales, fiootland, Imland, Austrin, Bel- 

fitim, France, Holland, RuEsio, India, 
l»ly, the Stat* of Maasachusetta {typical 
of the United Stat*B, where ejich State 
has its OWD education law), the Province 
of Ontario (typical of the Dominion of 
Canada), Saxony (typical of North Ger- 
many), the Province of South Australia 
(typic-al of tho Australian Provinces), wid 
the Cant'in of Zurich (typical of the Can* 
tonx of Swit;ierland ). 

Eni/lmui ajtd H'atf.s. — The develop- 
ment of popular education, nide hy s^e 
with tilt! rslension of the franchise, oc- 
oapien a most prominent placv in the his- 
tory of England for the last fifty years. 
Pr«vi(mB to IH39 Parliament exerciswl no 
din'ct control over any of the <'duciitJoiial 
institutions of the coucitry. And even 
now, though several Acts of Parliament 
have be«u passed am en ding and remodelling 
iho "institution of the v&rious corporate 


bodies which provide superior itnd 
dary education^ the nnivp.rsitiPK, coIlt<gi% 
endowed public and gnunnuu- ochoolt — 
yet the Legislature Iws stopped short <4 
actual interference in tho educationtl 
work done under the control of iImm 
bodies. With regard to elementary (Va- 
cation, however, it has gone a step furtJbtr. 
In Ii<39 it found this branch of educs- 
tion entirely in the hands of private 
individuals or voluntary assocsatiiou. 
Prominent among thpse latt<tr w*re 
' British and Foreign School Societ 
founded in 1808 as the rpault of the i 
cational revival initiated liy JoBrph 
caster, and the ■ National Society (or 1 
moting the Education of tlie Poor b i 
Principles of the Church tA Engb 
established three years later (1811) 
give aid in money and books to 
elementary schools in which the Ckl 
Catechism w^os (aught. In that year 1 
liaroent voted 3O,0U0i!, for the purpote U 
elementary education, and fortn«da Com- 
niittee of the Privy Council to adminilttr 
and distribute the sum voted. This l^ni- 
mittee at first restricted its gmnti in kid 
to the erection of schools which wen in 
connection either with the National Sodrl/ 
or the Bi-itish and Foreign School Bodrij. 
Some years latf-r it extf'udnd its gnuitt lO 
Roman Catholic and other denoniiiuttioDsl 
schools. The principle upon which ihtii 
grants were administered was that of sop- 
plementing local effort in tlae building df 
schools. They offered 10c. per ImskI It* 
every child to Im accommodated, and r* 
[|uired that the n^st of the cost should be 
provided by local subscriptions, la ra- 
turn the Couiiuitte<> insisted that tJief 
tures should be read daily in the i 
and that the schools should submit 
spection by ita officers. In 1M3 
were made towards the erection of school' 
masters' houses and training oolli^;o«. In 
1)^46 minutes were issued by the Ccn 
mittee providing for annual p«ytni^t« is 
augmentation of salaries ol toichcrs Ja 
charge of schools which obtaiuod ccrtii- 
cates of merit by examination. The next 
st«p taken (in 1H46) by the Committee of 
Council was to recognise pupil- teocbeititf 
thirteen ycjirs of age and upwards, and ta 
make payments to tliem on oondltMn tt 
tlieir parents conisenting to an appremiof 
sltip of four or fivn years. Substa&tiaJ i " 
was also granted to the training 
which reeeir«d these pupO-teachcn > 

uiuon V 



\A of th<Hr apprmtticpsliip. In spite of 
encourngcmnnbt it was found that 
nuui^F (li«trict« vvm unnblo to tako 
vantage of tJio UmnfiLa oflVrod by thi; 
Cotnttiittee of Council. By thci principle 
:0|>t*<d the Coinniitt»« only lielpL'd thoxu 
ho were able to help tliemselvtiB, and in 
y pcx>r dialriuU the Mohoula wure uii- 
il« to maiutain themaelvea in t<tliuieiu'y 
-vrant of ulequate futtda, Aucordingly 
IK5.t Pi-rliameiit increased its annual 
t so OK to onnblo a capitation grant to 
ramM hy ntr.i/ schools on each scholar 
duly iivfmjj:^ ait«nclance who should 
e a minimum of 192 uttenditncea in 
sebool-y«ar. This grant was extended 
tmon schools in 1856. In 18t>0 the 
tuntit^rsof theComuiilt««of Coumril wcra 
digested into a eode ; and in 1862, ufter 
RKlsidershle discussion in the country iLnd 
in Furliamenc, the ' Revised Code' became 
Jaw. Under the Reviswi Code direct pay- 
Inenbi to t«icher» were abolisiied : the 
{isnt ratmrd wfts to bo paid directly to the 
kana^rs, who wnrc left to appoint what 
IcMcbers they plensed, provided that the 
|nquircm«ntii of the Code were complied 
%itli. Grant* wore to be paid ns hcreto- 
tan upon the uv^rage ntteiidauce, and, 
tot the first time, u/mn the iiviivitlnai r.r.- 
Untinatian of thr nr.holarn. In 1870 the 
attm vot«d liy Purliatiiciil had reachod 
640,000/. Tho schools under inspection 
fctd aceoramoJation for 1,878,.''81 scliokra, 
■nd 1,693,059 scholoTBon the boohs, llinre 
Vere nearly 15,000 certilied leucliers, iLud 
2,500 students resident in tlie tiuiuing 
(K>U(f{M. This takes us down to the year 
1870, the dose of the purely voluntary 
Vraof clementaryeducation. In February 
Of that year a bill was brought into the 
IWIi-imcnt elected on the extended fran- 
aloM by Mr. W, E. Forster, and. aft^ir a 
lon^ and animnti^ dUcilsxion thrnugliout 
that M-Minn, bncnmi; law (on August 9, 
nnder thn titli; of ' an Act to provide 
Titan' Kducation in England And 
r,' Tho proviniona of this Act have 
further amcndi^d, supplementiul, and 
■t(«nRlli«ned by Hubse[|uent Acts passi^d 
la 1873, 1876, 1879, and 1880. Tht.i .\rt, 
^liUe reoogiiUtnK thfi existing schools 
iDMfeT DenoniiRalionul Budiis, and giving 
hcOitiee for their further developmunt, 
BlMed side by aide with them ' Board ' 
BchooU, managed by publicly - elected 
School Boards, and supported by local 
*iiUt, school fees, and Qoveriuneot gninta. 

This piece of lej^lation has resulted in 
very largely increaaing the supply of 
schools under inspection, so that they 
had in ISBfi accommodation for i,9S8,71H 
RchoIarB, and 4,412.14>l scholars on tho 
hooks. For the leading provisions of thn 
Elementary Education I^w ns at present 
(lKB7)in force wn articles i^cuooi. BfiAKiifl 



Scollatui.—PoT three centuries prior 
to the passing of the Elementary Edu- 
cation Act for Scotland, the systeui of 
parochiftl schools, which were born of tho 
impulse given by John Knox (?.i'-) to 
popular education, and were established 
in every parish by an ordinance of King 
Jumes in 1696, sufficed fortheeducjitioital 
want* of the Scotch people. The Act of 
the Scutch Parliament of that year re- 
(|uired a parochial school to be opened in 
every parish under a school [uaster, who 
was to be chosen on the advice of the 
parochial minister ; and the proprietors 
were bound to meet and vote the sum 
■ necessary for the maintenance of the seliool 
and for tlie salary of the teacher, and 
to furnish the tejicher wirh a suitable 
dwelling. But the split, which took place 
in the Church of Scotland in 184.1, and 
the founding of tlie Free Church by the 
side of the national Presbyterian Olinrch, 
brought two rival ministci-s into each 
parish, and thus created insuperable dllG- 
culties to the harmonious working of a ays- 
tem which depended largely for initiatave 
and efficient working u|K)n t/tf iiiiiiist4.'r of 
the parish. Rival schooU were established 
ill many cases, and education in i^cotland 
lan;>uislied from lack of means and divided 
interests. This stale of things continued 
down to 1872. when the feeling bocarae 
general that the time had come to put an 
end to a system which had had its day, 
and that an Act on similar lines to the 
Act which had been passed in England in 
lfi70 was necessary to placR public educn- 
tion in Scotland on a proper footing. 
Accordingly the English Parliament 
[Kissed the Education (Scotland) Act, and 
placad its administration under a Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council for Scotland 
(commonly called the Scotch Education 
Dfipartinent). This Act eatabliabod a 
School Board in every parish, with mo<l« 
of election and general powers similar to 
thoee laid down in the Engll^i AcL Tho 
School Board was to hav« the vn).>.ta\ eft. 

«ll pftrot-hiftl Echools existing at the paas- 
ing of the Act,, wliether they were ele- 
TDentnry or town GchnolE, itcad^dies, high 
Bchoole, or gnimiDiirEchonU ; and in Addi- 
tion hud tho [lower of erecting ftjid nifLin- 
taiiiiiig new Boliools whcrs tlie need of 
BUob vras proved to tlie GallEfncUon of the 
Scot^'h Departiueut to ejuEt, ProvisioiiB 
as to lil)erty of conBcienoe, coiupulBory 
school at t«iiil Slice, payujetitcf fees of m- 
digC'nt chilijren by the ' parochial board,' 
an^ tnndo ; regulations for the inspecliou 
of schools, pnyment of Government grants, 
the qunliticntiniis of teach e m, A'c, on the 
BAine principles ng those laid down in the 
English code, which 'm also nnniin-IIy laid 
OD the iJible of liotli Houses of Parlia- 
ment by the 8oot*:h Edui^ation Dcpiirt- 
menl, and beconiPE pa,rt of the i-ducution 
law fur Scollaiid. Grants are paid on 
behalf of ail schools ouder School Boards, 
except the ' higher claas public schools ' as 
deijnetl by the Act. It will be noted then 
that, in contmdislinctioii to England and 
Wales, School Boarde arp universal in 
8(^tland, and turthtr, that they have the 
nianngemcut of schools covering a wider 
range than mere 'i-lementiiry education," 
OS the term is uudcrsl^nd in England. In 
other resfject.5 the Scotch and Engli&h 
education laws are practically identical. 

Inland.- — Thr syatein of national edu- 
cation is bused on the principle of conj 
hinrii literary and inonil, and arparatc 
religious instruction to children of all per- 
euusions. The system is administered by 
a board of twenty eomiiiiGEioners, called 
the CoHimt»«('nfr* o/ A'ntlcriul E'htraliun 
in Jrrlattd, incorporated by Royal charter. 
Ten of these must be Protestant, and ten 
Boman Catholic. Appointments to vacan- 
cies are made by the Lord -Lieu tenant. 
Tills Board administers tlie Parliamentary 
grant, and reports annually to the Lord- 
Lieutenant. The Kchoola eligible for the 
grant are first, vriirii trhooU, i.e schools 
TMted either in the CommiBsionerB or in 
trustees (or the purpose of Iming niiiin- 
tained as Niiliuiiul schools ; and secondly, 
non-vmled tcJumlii, the property of privat* 
individuals. Both these cliisses of schocils 
are under the control of patrons or local 
BianiigerB. who must 1* eitlier clergymen 
or peraoDB of good pi^ition. Tliei-e are 
also model sohooU, of which the Cominis- 
aionera are themselves the patrons. The 
Oommiasioners award aid towards the 
payment of t«achen, aud supply of books 

and school requisite*, and (in th« e*»t 
I rcsti^ schools) towards buihliog nkI fur- 
I nishing school -houses, and (in Rom« cum) 
I towHr<:s provi<ling teachers' rmidrttcM. 
The iiid grunted to non-vestiid tchooli 
consists of salary, results fees, grataitif^ 
I books, and sdiool rMiuisites, and tin 
, benefits of inspection and training. Be- 
aidea the ordinary scIiooIe, vcwtedaud non- 
ve»ted, there are (1) tliree kinds of mo 
schools for the promotion of united i 
tion, to exhibit to the surrounding e 
the most approv«d tnothods of lit 
and scientific instruction, and to «liio 
young persona for the office of ten 
In these schools thi? CommissiotMn 
point and dismiss all tfnchers and offiwn 
regulate the course of instruction, 
exercise all the rights of patrons, 
are also (2) Agricultural National scho 
to which fanua or gardens are attache 
and (3) a few schools in which specisJ 1 
dustrial instruction — principally in 
broidery and other advanced kinds of i 
dlevork — is given. Special regulatio 
are in force for providing tlint any clii 
may be withdrawn (roni any rr.ligiouK i 
struction of which his parents or gm 
diane di^ipprove. Only larnirn nui 
recognised as teachers. Tmchemmuitl 
persons of Cbristian sentiment, imli 
with a sjiirit of obedience to the Uw< 
loyalty to their Bovf reign ; of good bu 
and must hare been examiiied and 
nounced competent by the inspec 
The Commissionens have under their* 
elusive control a boarding training colli 
entirely suppc'rted by the Governme 
grunt. I'he salaries of National teadie 
are regulated by n fixed scale, ace 
to the class of certificate held 
teacher. In addition to their 
teachers receive ' results fees,' according I 
a fixed scale for each class and eocfa 
ject taught. In one particular the 
missionera exercise a powpr unknown I 
the law in England and Scotland, and I 
is in exercising control over the I 
used in the schools receiving aid. 
Board has itself puhlislied some at 
books and sanctioud others. The ua 
the books specified in the Board's 
whether published or sanctioned by 
Coniniissioners, is not compulsory, but tbf' 
titles of all otlier books which patroDiir 
managers of schools intentt to uao vmA 
be notified to the ConiQitBianen bnftf" 
introduction, and muctnot beusMl if thif< 



Gnuik ot ttook* nri! mndi'. by the 
A pnifcruiuiiiii nf inKtniTjtion and 
iuutiiiii u iHBUed, nccontiTi); In whic!i 
ta feed «re paid. Tim Ktundiinl ot at- 
lemts r«actied a.ud re<)utrecl in euch 
of school life in coiisidtirubly lower 
for chB corrospoiidiuK yeur in Eug- 
id itnd ^cotl»nd, as mi^bt naturally be 
sprcbnd from the condition of tlic [wpu- 
ktion. thr nhMtnni of any law of coui- 
olMry tchool nttondiiiiM', nnd tbo coTO' 
mtivelj loumr ' avtrnigii uttondance ' 


JtMfn'a. — Pulilic Hlr-mnntnry icIiooU 
n of tU'O Iciiids, priuiary ki^IkhiU and 
Wg^iersolioola. Tht? public kw of Auntria 
Ptqnires that there aliall Iw i\ primary school 
•herever there are forty cliildreu of school 
1^ within a rodiuR of an hour's walk, and 
> hiiTgher»chool .oniuperiorpriui^ryschool, 
b mA school district. Tho 8exes are, as 
■ rulp, mixed thnsughoiit the primnryand 
the lownr clniinMi burgher schools, but aro 
M•nt(^d in thi? Iiighcir clnjuHts of thf lattif r 
•mooU. I'ri tnarj' I'd ucntion is f rue til rough - 
mt botli«Unic!ntnrj-iind supprior^iulesin 
Mttit of Um> proviucps of the Austrian cm- 
JMB, but in u fnw jirovincKS only the ele- 
WQtuygruilAtKfrM!. Schools are claasitierl 
■ceonltng to tht^ nntiitH-r of ulnsse^ into 
*hich they nre divided. A uonipleto ele- 
tufcl^rj' ttfhoiil, fomprisiuK both a i)ritiiury 
tod burjclHinx-'hodl, should httvoeightclusses 
<t[ about eighty Hc'liolurs tiich, but many 
•thoola liav« fewer — seven, six, or even 
Ei«— L-laMes. Att^jidanve is uonipulsory 
(rom seven yeftn of Bjtc. It is the custom in 
Hiuiy parts of Aoxtrisfor amaster to take 
tillM^ of a class of scholarB on their en- 
Inaee into the school, and to carry them 
Ibragh aU the clastteK of the school from 
belaiw«rttotb«' highest.. The piemen (ary 
k^Ir an- utipportfd by a local authority, 
■bicfa htm alio control ovnr the snl)jccts of 
iutraction and the methods cniployrid, hut 
ponxlly anwpt* tho guidance of the State 
WllturiUat. Uort burgher ecIiooIb have 
Monedcd with thnm cnntinuation schools 
hr tfane who tin not attimd tho hi)'h(*r 
Wide Mchooln, at which attvndunce is coin- 
lf»l«»*y tili the age «f lifUM'tJ. Hmiill fees 
n ckaised, but, in ciumi of povtTty. thpy 
remtRad. Tli« continuation schools 
W WpportMl partly by the Slate and 
tU^ hy the local auUioritien. Kelow tlie 
■incntary scbouls ttio Kindi-r);urteii, or 
Wwt Bcliool, is fouDi) ill vpry many places, 
MduofficuJly racoigniscd, tliough not aided 

hy Stale grant. In these schools the 
maxims of Froelwl are carriod out with a 
thoroughness and suoce^ which hna niodo 
the Austrian infant schools tlie modols for 
nil recent improvements in the methods of 
instruction of childron under seven years 
of age, Aliove the elemenWry schoola 
stand the secondary Huhoola, ulassil)eil,asiu 
Saxony {q.i\), into Real schools, Ro;il gym- 
nasia, and i"yninasia. Alwve thesf ngnin 
are the polytechnic schools and the univer- 
sities. There are also normal schools for 
teaehfira, supported by the Stato, of which 
the Pa'ttagogium at Vienna liasu very high 
reptitalioii for the excellence of its train- 
ing of teachers for the public dlcmontary 

Jir.l^um. — The elementary schools re- 
co^fiiised ill Belgium are either public (l.^ 
Oiitfernmeiit) schools or private (clerical) 
schools. Thij dual system of schools is 
the outcome of the long and BUcci?saful 
struggle of tho clerical authorities against 
any control of primary education by the 
Slate. Ah a consequence of this the law 
perraits any person to eataldish, or tcuch 
in, o school without control or inspection 
of any kind. The result is that illiteracy 
alinunda loan extj-nt unknown in any Oth^^r 
Stat*^ of Western Eui'ope. Attendanco 
at school ia not comptdsory. On the other 
hand, the law reiuires that there must 1>6 
at least one jmblia school in each oom- 
uiune. These schools are under Govern- 
uient inspection. About 60 per cent, of 
the child population is being educated in 
public schools. The cost of the public 
education is defrayed to the extent of 
about 60 per cent, by the State, 1 7 per 
cent, by the province, and 33 per cent. 
by the continnne. Many of the communal 
(public) schools and clerical (private) 
schools are free, part,ially or entirely. 
Secondary school education la largely sup- 
plid hy the Uovemment in schools of two 
classes: {a) higher elementary or middle' 
class schoola, with a fee of about W». a 
year iand(A)socondaryschoolRor Atheni^, 
with a fee of about 80jf. a year. The build- 
ings are tiaually erecltd ut the cost of the 
town, anil the expenses of maintenance 
over and above the schoid fees are de- 
frayed by the State. The Athenee at 
Brussels contJiiiis about 900 pupils. Thei« 
are four universities in Belgium, but no 
polytechnic achooU. The normal school 
for the tiiiiniiiK of teachers at Brussels is 
justly celebrated. TheTO at* a.\M> ^iovwi^- 

meat normikl schooU at LiJ^ge and Ohenti | 
the former for teachers of elnssiea, the 
lattor for tenchersof science, in aeconrfn-ry 
schools. All the schools nideil hy Oovem- 
ment nre subject to Goverametit Uispec- 

France. — The education of Frfiiiee in 
in tlie hands of the State, repnweiitBU by 
the Minister of Public Inalrucliou and 
the Pr^fets of de))artments. The Minister | 
is assisted by a ' superior council.' which 
consists of memberH elect«d by various i 
university bodies, and representatives of , 
various other intereaM— the ffteultie«^, the 
lyciies, primary education, Jic. — ninety- 
eight in all. The members are elei:t«il 
for four years. They sit in general sessions 
twice 0. year, but an executive committee ] 
of fifteen sits coiiatuntly. Subject to tliia 
superior council the allaim of the schools 
nre managed by acidemia councils for 
secondary aud superior eilucation, and for 
primnry educatiou departmental councils. 
All the schools are under the iniipection 
of ft staff of inspectors, who are directly 
under the control of the Minister of Pub- 
lic Instruction. The duties of these in- 
spectors is limitiHl to seeing that the law 
is Iwing duly olwyed, Subject to thu 
gpnenil laws and regulations issued by 
the Minister, secondary n.nd sup-rior 
schools may be conducted by person.i not 
in the jitiy of the State. Hut the whole 
power as to aiipointmont of teachers, pro- 
gramme of studies, iiisp'ction, die, of 
primary schools, is in the hands of the 

For the purposes of primary educa- 
tion there is a School Hoard (law of 
March 1H81) in every commune, com- 
posed of the raaire and others, and the 
iiiapeclor of primary schools. Attendance 
at school is now (since ISW*} compulsory. 
Exemption is obtained by examination at 
the age of eleven. Primary instruction 
is gratuitous (since ltS8l) ; higher ele- 
mentary, which includes technical instruc- 
tion, is aim gratuitous in Paris and many 
of the large towns. A sum e<]ual to 4 
per cent, of the four so-called * quntres 
contributions direcles,' vix. ; (1) real pro- 
perty tax, (3) window tax, (.1) movable 
property tus. (J) license fees, must lie pro- 
vided (by Uie law of January I, 1881) by 
svery commune for the service of primary 
instruction. Besides this sum. every com- 
mune (except Ui« poorest) must devot* to 
the aervioe of iU primary achooU, before 

it is entitled to di 
aid, one-Rfth ot the loiMft'ttSnd fruu 
the following lo<uil sourcfa* of rev«iiiM: 
(I) income from iLi real property, (2)iU 
share of horse and carriage dnty, (3) th« 
dog tux, (4) the net incum« from the octrai, 
{^) income from highways, markeU. and 
fairs If the total amounts thus roisnl its 
insufficient for the servioe of the schnnbi 
tlie State provides the deficiency. Tb* 
ordinary elemeDtary school age in Fr»iiM 
Ls from the beginning of the snvenlh to 
the end of the twelfth xrnr, and is divii!«l 
intfl three courses. Th« ordinary com- 
pulsory school course comprises moral snd 
' civic ' instruction, reading, writinfi. arrth' 
metic, gmm war, geography, Ibe history of 
France, drawing and music, gymnastics, 
military exercises (boys), needWorfi 
(pirls), and it is strictly carried out in 
the large towns. The element* of scienM 
are also taught asobject lessons. InstniC' 
tion in manual work has latJ^ly boen intro- 
duced into a consideiuble nnmbrr of til 
primary schools of Paris. Thn hijtiiw 
eleniontary schools, complementary, SM 
ttpprenticfship schools are rntitlc<l (linos 
1880) to share in the subventions Dw4e 
for public instruction. Corporul puiuA' 
ment in nit French sctiooU of cverv t^A* 
is forbidden, and is absolutely unkiiuwn. 
The salaries and allowancrs of the tencJicn 
are determined each year by the MiuitW 
on the proposal of tlie pr^et, and by tb* 
advice of the <lcpartmental oounciL Vvti 
the fact that the funds for priinarj edwA- 
tion are raised by the commune, it will bl 
seen that the power of the purse nSU 
with it and not with the pr^fet and tl>* 
departmental council, and conse<ju«Dtly in 
the larger and more public-spirited com* 
muiies the real controlling authority vnl 
primary education is the communal coun- 
cil. Secondary and superior rducation 
is usually subsidisi^ by Imprrinl taxs- 
tion. In this cose the local contiol \t 
very slight. 

Hnlland. —Here, as in IMgiuin, the 
law permits any comjietent pervon tO«l*- 
blish or tench in a school without control 
or inspection ; the sole provixion fof ••■ 
suring |>riuary instruction beinjt thalthw* 
must be at least one elementary scbwd 
in every commune. Altendatioe it w* 
compulsory ; school-feea may bedemuxM 
but it is calculated tliat about SOpfTMot 
of the schotars are exctised fees. TlwBl*** 
contributJOB to the cost of primary iiMtn^* 



■on mnj rea«h 30 per cent, of Uie total 
ki*t. lIoUiuKl,aloiieofContiiieatAlniitioii!i, 
■Dploys tb« Papil -Teacher Sj-st^m in staff- 
pg its teboolt. KociliticA for gecondary 
Idneation «xiKt, but the educiitioii aDbrded 
hr tlttt nmjoritv of tbc secondary s<-hool8 
k tiot of th« highvt gmd*, most of the 
(sbools contenting thcinMilv^ with the 

feTiouJuIIl of th« (iurman Hrn\ HviwoU. 
ere are about tliirty gyiniiiuiiu for a 
^opolatioii of four iiiillioMB. 
I /iMJui.— Kdacatioit forms tli« subject of 
■> apecial departmeut iu «verf province of 
Britinh India, but there is uo eorreapood- 
big df^gnrtiDent in the Goverutueiit of 
India. Thi; hrnA of poch provincial de- 
IfHTtment iR itylod Dirpctor of Public In- 
ttmotion ; snbnniJTint'' to him are a staiT 
p{ incpecton uf varioux gi'odrs, and a staH' 
ftt t«ac)iers, riuiging from prinoipnis and 
profesaurs uf (.■ollHgua to aiouKtunt masters 
to primaiy hl-IiuuIb. Gotli thn iiiapfctin^ 
knd leachiijg staff are dividod into a su- 
Mrior and inferior Uat. The Education 
iVpartment, aa at present i:oiistitute<j, 
IDwca ita origin to the fatuous Despatch 
|of tliaCourtof l>ir^tors of the East ludia 
OiMBpanjr in l^rit, which has been called 
Ihtaisrter of education in India. It re- 
■HniaeiMled : (1) the coustitutiou of a 
Hpu«t« rlf^parttnent of the ailuiiiijstra- 
tioii (or ndiicatioTi, (2) the institution of 
Utvcrsitioii at tho presideucy towns, 
(l)tbo eatabliiihmnnt of institutions for 
tnining tttochirn of ail classes of schools, 
(1) the rnaiiiti^iuiici' of tJin existing (.io- 
VNUiient collc^ii nod lii^li schoolit, and 
4BiDcr«aae of their numlior wbrn necps- 
■ffi (K) tbe e»tubliiihnii-nl of nnw middip 
■AmIs, (fi) iucrvuKtsl attention to ver- 
Mcnlar schook, indiK'-'ious or othi-r, for 
riementar; education, (7) thii inlroduution 
of a system of RraiitB iu-aid. The atten- 
tini of Uovemuieiit wua upt^ciully di- 
tected to the importance of placing the 
BmiM of acquiring useful aiid practical 
kMwledgt! within reach of the fireat [uass 
clttapeoplc. TTic»«recoiumeDdations were 
CM£nDM by a despatch of the Secretary 
o(8tfttetn It^fi!). The English language 
i* tbe median) of instruction in the higher 
twa di Bs, and tW vcmncular in the lower, 
^■lliili b taught wherever there is a de- 
nud for it, but in not substituted for 
th« vernacular languages of the country. 
Tb ^Bt«m of granCn-in-nid is l>a«od on 
A* principle of perfect n-ligiousneutiality. 
&U U giren («o far as tho requiroments 

of each particular district ns compared 
with other districts and the funds at llie 
diapoaal of Government naidi-r it posaible) 
to all schools imparting a good secular 
education, provided tlipy are uiider ade- 
quate local maiiAgeinent, and are subject 
to Oovemiuont inspection, and provided 
that fees, however small, are chargod in 
th"m. Grants are for specific objects, and 
thoir amount ukI CDutiiiuauce de|>r!nd on 
tho periodicid mports i)f the (.iovernmiait 
inspcclon. A comprehensive sysU^ni of 
mholariibipii connects lower aclioois with 
higher, and higher scliools with coUiTgea. 
At no time known to histon,- were tlie 
tuhabitauts of India an uneducated people. 
Their indigenous inNtituttons date from 
an early antiquity, anri may be divided 
into two claiwcx :' (1) the Hindu (<i/« or 
seats of Sanskrit Inaruing, and the Mu- 
hamniadan madrdMUi and fii'tiitai)^, at each 
of which the iniitrucljou given was mainly 
religiouji ; and (2) the palmitu or hedge 
schools, to bo found in almost every vil- 
lage, wliere reading, writing, and arith- 
tiietic were taught to the childmn of every 
clusB but the very lowest, Ths religious in- 
stitutions were supported by endowments 
in land, and it was a point of honour tliut 
nit teaching should be free. The village 
Bohoolmuster received fees, generally in 
kind, from tlie pupils. The first European 
impulse towards secular education came 
from tlie missionary Ixidies, who had eala- 
bliahed themselves in Southern India to- 
wards the end of the eighteenth century. 
In 1781 Warren Haatiugs founded and 
endowed the Calcutta Madrasa, with the 
special object of oncour-iging the study 
of Persian, then the language of courts 
of Justice na well as of iliplumacy ; and 
ten years latrr tbe Government fiiundcd 
the Sanskrit College at Benares. The next 
stimulus came from the Act of Parliament 
which renewed the charter of the East 
India Company in 1813, In this statute 
it wiLs Epecially provided that ' a sum 
of not less than one lac of rupees (iO,000([,) 
in each year shall be set apart and applit^d 
to the revivul and improvement of litera- 
ture, and the encouragement of the learned 
natives of India, and for the introduction 
and promotion of a knowledge of the 
sciences among the inhabitants of the 
British territories of India.' At about 
the same time English began to take the 
place of Persian as the olKcial language 
(though Persian was not toim.uW'} vi\i«t- 



•edcd antil 1837), ant! a dRmanil urimt ut 
the pr(iwd«nry towua for inirt.ructi»ii m 
Eu]|;lis)i inatcad of in the vt^nmcuUr or 
the ulaaaival lauguages of the Kust. For 
many years & hot controversy wus waited 
between the partisans of either view, 
known afi the Anglieists and the Orieu- 
talist« ; and the two were fnirly hnlnnced 
until Mncaiilny (then Irgnl member of 
coiinuil) lent nil hix infliiMici.' to the muse 
of English i-docation in IWIiri. The ques- 
tion WU8 fiimlly si'tths! in lt*39 by a 
minute of the flovpnior-Gruenil to the 
followiiig purport : aithouf,'!' Engliali was 
to be retatneil as the luediuiii of tlie higlier 
instruction in European literature, philo- 
sophy, and science, the existing OrientAl 
iiwtitutions were to be kept up in full 
efficiency, and were to receive the same 
eneniumgement as might Iw given to the 
students at English institutions. Vemft- 
culnr instruction was to be combined with 
Englisli, full choice bting allowed to the 
pupils to attend whichevL-r they might in- 
dividually prefer. The usual division of 
educational institutions in India is five- 
fold : (1) universities, (2) colleges, (3) se- 
condary schools, (4) primary schools, (.^} 
normal schools and places for technical 
instruction. The universities are pui'ely 
examining bodies. Excluding the newly- 
founder] Punjab University they are three 
in number, at Cnlculta, Madras, and Bom- 
liny — all incorporJit«d in 1X57 — their cnn- 
atituiion lieing modelled upon the UoiTer- 
Bity of London. 

Though in their origin independent 
of the universities, the arts coUeges of 
India may be regiLnled as their teaching 
branches. They were founded, whether 
by the Goveniment, by niiasionaries, or 
by private eiitei-pi-ise, to promote liiglier 
education generally ; but since the esta- 
blishment of the universities in 1857 tlie 
colleges have been affiliated to them, and 
have been obliged to adapt their cur- 
riculum to the university examinations. 

Itcsides the arts colleges, there are 
Oriental colleges, of which the principal 
tire the OalcuttA Madrosa, the Canning 
t'otlege at Lucknow, the Oriental College 
at lAhnre, and the Muhnmnmdan Anglo- 
Oriontnl College at Aiignrh in the North- 
Wcsl Provinces. At some of these in- 
Btruction is givpn in English ; Itut thu 
main object of tln-ir existence is U> pro- 
mote tJie study of tliB Oriental cluBsics 
according to Oriental methodK. ClaBses 

in law are nsuaUy dejMirtinecitsof tli«^i 
coUeges, but Calcutta, Madras, (utd 
bay each possess a medical college (1 
medical schools) and an engiuocring i 
lege. In this connection abo tuny 
mentioned the School of Arts and r>« 
at Calcutta, the Madras School of Indu 
trial Arte, and the Sir Juasetji Jijih 
ISchool of Art at Bomhsy. 
schools are those intermediate bet» 
colleges iind primary schools. The liig 
limit is fixed by the matricoJauoii 
dard of the universities j the lower lii 
de|>ends upon the definition of priiDtryi 
struoliou, which is not uniform throng 
out India. Secondary schools are da 
fied into (1) High Schools, whoce 
culum is framed upon the examinatio 
required for mntricuhition nt tlie univ 
sities ; and (2) Middle ScIkkiIh, which i 
sub-divided into Middle Enjiliith 
Middle Vcniucular. The middle school*' 
miiy be rpgu.i\led either as a developoient 
of the |>rimnry schools, or as an introduc- 
tion of the high schools ; but their «c(mI 
position between the two varies greatlyb 
the several provinces. It is impouiU* 
to institute any trustworthy compaHton 
between the secondary schools in tlit 
several provinces, owing to differenCMof 
classification. In liengal and AHam tb< 
pupils in primary departments of Ito 
secondary schools have been included, 
while in the other provinces tht-y h»T« 
been excluded. Primary schoola an; no 
less dithculttodeline than secondary. Hit 
lower limit, of course, is elementary in- 
struction in reniliiig, writing, and arith- 
metic ; hut the higher limit pius«« impfr- 
cejttibly into secondary education, tlie li»< 
being drawn differenUy in different pro- 
vinces. Tn 1879 an attempt was nUdt 
by the Government of India to enfotw 
greater uniformity by prescribing a siaa- 
dard, known as the upper primary exaiD^ 
nation, which should mark the boaniUiT 
between primary and sncondary inslrW' 
tion. This standard, however, was ob- 
jected to, partly OS introdiH^ng an sHu- 
trary and nota real uniformity, and partij 
as identifying primary instruction «itli 
the lower stage of a coanf ending in, wJ 
determined by, matriculatinn at the du- 
versit.ies. As a matter of fact, the l** 
i vinces still retain wide diver^ncM* I' 
their system of primary inntructkia- T^ 
methods of Bunnorting primary Mhoolt n 
the provinces differ reb tnore videlv tbw 


stuidnrdK of inttructinn. Thi; mont 
ijnrlwit duttinvtion ilrpf-ndii upon the 
Mount of encouni)iFiD(Mit givi'.ti in iiidigp 
uxuttdiools. Ill ISitd^ilI, sincftlic! ri'foruis 
at Sir GpOTxe Campbell in \&~2, tlm clonii- 
hut ptilicy of the (■uveriiiuunl liaa Iweu 
to incorpomte the uutuei'dus piitniUin or 
tiU*g« schools iuto the educatiouul sy&teui 
^■UODS of moderattf ^jiunts to the yvrut 
DrtchooltutisWn. In lioniWy theGovern- 
ntnt bna always favoured the oppcieite 
policv of foiiTniing rfepartnientftl schools 
tut of thn lornl men, ninl trusting that the 
ndigonoas schooln will bmrfii hy their 
niinpl«. Till! Norl.hW'i'st Proviners 
Uil Uii? Punjab Iiavi', on thn wIioIp, foU 
loirtd tli« nine tiynlem. So aluo hnw tlie 
Cntnl Provintea, though wiUi i;icrcaeing 
rfbrto to encouriige the few iiicIii{<'iioua 
idiootB lliat eidat. A&a&m, on the other 
had, has imitated the nei^hbourin^j ex- 
lB>{ileof Bengal, with this difference, that 
tin Gorernroent in Assam has liad to 
aimulnui |>rivat« schools into existence 
ij mDch more Uhcral gi'antA. Madrna 
•njojs a Kjxtcm of its own, which it owph 
UrgKly tu tlin *i]cc<i)iKfiil growth of mis- 
■ioiiary eiilerj)ri«i' from an early dnte. 
the nioNL jinisperoiiH st^hiiols are 
ly those main till ned by miisioiiary 
and aidi^d by thi- liovfrnirient. 
The iiuDil>er of <hr[iartirieiital 8irhtM)l8 is 
DDsJI, but these, as wi-ll aa Um missionary 
Kbools, have iudirectly done inuuli to raise 
iie standard of the indigenous schools, 
(hicli arfl both numerous und flouriBhing. 
Q>tn remains to mention the profesnionaJ 
ati technical schools which aro attached 
n prinAiy or secondair schools. The 

rtnajority of these nre normal schools 
tntning mantrrs or mistresses ; but 
Ibse are &l»o a fnw indnKtrin! schools and 
Ipea&l cLuiu>n for mjiinffring. Tho sys- 
•Wb ol tminin^ ti-nchrrs for primary 
mImoIs varies greatly in the several pro- 
■•Intee, A cerUficat*! does not everywhere 
JMmi Uie same thing. In Bonibjiy and 
^ CflQlt^ ProvinctB it is awarded only 
''^tbose who have passetl a course of two 
* three years ia a nomial school. Else- 
^iMra it is given lo any one who has Ijren 
P<HHl-t«tt«her in a primary B<:hool fnr a 
"napanitively short time. In Bengal, 
■noe IS75, the policy of the department 
"*■ hma to discontinue normal schuob, 
'*d to racogiu'se ns a qualified teacher 
4; jwmii man who had lieen trained in 
!■ midilk or lower vernsicular achoola. 

Female education h&a madn eonsiderablo 
progress in recent years, mainly through 
missionary efibrt ; but it still remains in 
a I'e.ry backward condition, us compared 
evftii with the education of boys. Th» 
I Government of India, properly aa called, 
has no concern with education, which ia 
! entirely under provincial admiuistratioii, 
' It rests witli each provincial govemmenb 
I to allot to education as much as it pleases 
out of the sum assigned to it for all pro- 
I vini-iiil expeliditure. Local rat^s or cesses 
j for education, as well as for other loc-al 
purposes, Lave been leiied in moat pro- 
, viiices for many yeors ; but the sysl*im 
of appropriating local rates to education 
is not uniform throughout India. In tlio 
Xortli-West Provinces, the Punjab, aiid 
the Central Provinces, the entire proceeds 
of the local rate are ti-edited to provincial 
revenues, and then a portion is allotted 
CO educ-ation. In JModras, the local rate 
is administered by bodies that are to soma 
estj?nt independent of tiie proiincial gov- 
ernment. In Bombay alone is a propor- 
tion of the local rate appivipriated from 
the first to education. Tlio extension of 
district and other lot^al biiarils Iiils aug- 
tuetit«d everywhere the importance of 
local rates in educa.tian linnnce. ThecfiD- 
trihulions of wunicijialitii-s towards edu- 
calioo are entii'ely voluntary ; but it nmy 
be expected that tliey will increase with 
the recent measures of municipal reform. 
Jlfiiy.—Thff present system of public 
elementary education in Italy dates from 
the passing of a law for free and com- 
pulsory priniaiy education in 187". This 
law requires all those who are not under 
efficient instruction at home or in private 
schools to 1* sentto a communal elementary 
school from six years of nge till tliey have 
completed theobligatory(lower)eleinentary 
course. This is generally piissed througli 
at nine or ten years of ago. After <;om. 
pleting the lower course scholars are ex- 
pected, tliough not compelled, to attend 
continuation evening schools where such 
exist. The sexes are taught in separate 
schools. Good Kindergarten schools on 
the Troebel plan are to be found at Milan 
and elsewhere. The State authority con- 
sists of a Minister of Pubhc Instruction, 
assisted by n Superior Council of twenty- 
one members nominated by the King. A 
subsidy from the SIaI^*. or from the pro- 
vince, or both, is accorded to those com- 
munes which conform to the Lawa&iltLVvim 


grounds for such relief from tlie h«&vf 
incidence of locul burdens. Seconding 
eduMtion is either' classical, provided in 
syniDnKia and /yeAg, or toctiniml, provided 
in tochniani xcliooli and instituti^s. l>ny 
(waondary) Hchools for girls have Iieen 
provided in Home towns, notably at Milnn, 
but moat of the girls' s<itioi>ls iire boarding 
BL-hooIa. Tliem itro snventecn univt-rsities 
iu Italy, eight of which are of the liiet 

lifigxachiumtU (.Staff </).— The State 
educational authority ts a Bourd of Edu- 
cation consistinj; of the governor and lieu- 
tenant-governor, and eight persona ap- 
pointpd by the governor, with the advice 
and consent of the State council, each hold- 
ing o!Mc<? for eight years, onu rrtiring ench 
jeur. Alt viu;Hnc'ii>^ are Ulled the siitne 
W«y, The liourd holds all grants of lands 
or bequests ill trust for eitucutional pur- 
poses. The bound prescriliPB forms of re- 
gisters for all Bchifols, and ca,!] require 
statistics of officers of schools a,iij others 
respecting the condition of the schools. 
It also has the gener&l management of the 
Swtp normal schools. It also arranges the 
holding of 'teachers' institute*,' and de- 
frays to a certain extent the necessary 
expenses for procuring teachers and lec- 
tures for such institutes. The school fund 
of the commonwealth — arising from sales 
of State lands — ^is administered hy the 
board ; one half of the annual income 
arising from the fund is distributed among 
the towns complying with tho State law 
for the support of public schools. Each 
town is re'iuired to knep its acliools open 
for at least six months in eacli year under 
teachers of competent ability and good 
morals ; a sufficient nuuiljer of schools for 
the instruction of all children who may 
legally attend school (five to tifteen years 
of age) in orthography, reading, writing, 
English grammar, geography, arithmetic, 
drawing, the histoiy of the United States, 
and good behaviour. Algebra, vocal music, 
•griculture, farming, physiology, and hy- 
giene are re<]uired to be taught where 
etpeiiient. Every town of five hundred 
families must also maintain a high school 
which must be open for ten months, and in 
every town of four thousand inhnliitnnts the 
high school curriculum must l>e wiiknod by 
the introduction of the Greek ami French 
languagiis, astronomy, logic, moral science, 
wid political economy. Any town of one 
Uiousund inhabitants must provide free 

instruction in iudostrial and me 
drawing to persons ov»r fifteen yt*n\ 
age in cither day or evening schools, 
several towns must tax themselvrs in j 
port of their schools, on pnin of forfriltt 
of twice the sum over voted by the St; 
from the State fund. Every town nH 
annually elect a school couimittco, to I 
the general charge and superint 
alt the public BchouU of the town, one! 
tobeelecte4:launually,tohold office fori 
years The appointment and dwrnianlj 
teachers, of thesuperiuModeataod 
choice of boohs, course of studies, 
rest with this committee. The lJil4n wB 
be read daily in the public schools witha 
note or comment. Alt public Kchooli t 
open tree, and when parents are unaUs 
pay for t>ook3 the hooks are suppUed I 
thecostof thetownsi. Attendanc«ati 
is compulsory between eight and ton 
years of age. Every person liaring oond 
of sucli childreu is required to cauK tbcni 
toatt«nda public school for at least twmt^ 
weeks annually, on penalty for every ni^ 
Icct of such duty of a fine not oxeMdin^ 
twenty dollam ; but attendance at certain 
! private schools is iicceptod under condi- 
tions. Truant oHiccrs and the school oom- 
roittec are responsible for inquiring inU 
all cases of violation of this taw, proMM- 
tion, &.C. The school committee aim de- 
termines the number and qualtficntton (4 
the scholars to be admitted into the lii|h 
school. No child under ten yean of vg» 
can )>e employed in any man uhcta ring or 
other establishment in the Stat«, nndf^s 
penalty, exacteii from parent or gnnnUaa 
permitting such euiployment, of (ton 
twenty to fifty dollars. No child und«r 
fourteen years of age cau be so emutofM^ 
unless during the preceding year M bM 
attended for at least twenty weeks, twdtf 
a penalty, exacted from the owner of ndl 
establishment and from the pareat,o{freiii 
twenty to fifty dollars. Towns may msfcr 
provision for habitual truants by trusnt 
schools, and for thespccial odocationof ueg' 
lected, destitute, and abaiadoned childRO. 
Ontario (/•ro«ii»iwo/).J— Eachpaxwin* 
of the Dominion of Cauttda haa axoliilt** 
Jurisdiction over its ovijs school syatatt- 
The ud ministration ott the educatioml 
system of Oiitjirio is in llJ>e hands of a D^ 
pfirtmttnt of Eiluciitioiti,oonsiilingof li" 
Executive Council, or an commiUee thCT*" 
appointed by the lieutt tisnt-govemor, sn* 
one of the executive uoi Bocilt nTrntiMtr* ^ 


ivemor, holdn thn office of 
df Eaiuaition. Titc cdiiRittional 
intitutioiiK iu Oiiturio Kulijec't to tliR Edu- 
Mioo Department embrace both priuiury 
mi Beoond&i7 education, and are (u) ele- 
BflnUry schools ; (i) luodel and normal 
Khools and teachers' institutes : (c) clas' 
ncdorcounljy high schools ; (t^) technical 
■diMla ; (') schools for de«f and dumb and 
l£iu); (/) the University of Toronto. 
^Mt! aro a fow inKtitiitions, principally 
■itschools, nnrUy aided hy (Jnvemraent ) 
ind MMDti univpnititw, collegps, Aiid schools 
Icluefly medical) Dot under Government 
rnntrol. Tim proviiico of Ontario pos- 
a «yat*m (if luuniiripil welf-govern- 
zat "Wch is unifoi-ui tliroufihout the 

CTwtx. In each luuiiicipality or unit of 
l1 govemmect. rui'al or urban, school 
tnut«cs or school boards are elected by 
ll» ratepayers, who ar« liable to support 
Ike pnbUG schools in their respective lo- 
olitic*, anil arc practioully the owners of 
tbeni. The truKf^^s appoint the teachers, 
*bo must pomFis th^ i]Uallti cations re- 
<fand by tin: dcpurtnipnt. They arrange 
«nd pay thu aalnriiii, jnirolinse thfi school 
lite, Miitd Uie ncliool-housi', und »;stitnato 
the nlrs for cnllKclian hy the township 
CMULcil for all funds which are retjuireil 
purpom-a. Tlivy are lH>un<l to 
adequate Kchool uccoTntnodation, 
iploy the required number of ijuaHlied 
tecbera, lo permit the childrmi of ail resi- 
sts between the af>es of tive and twenty- 
tne to attend school /rre <•/ cluirye. They 
Ur. required to visit their schools, to see 
tliatthe lawiscarried out, and may appoint 
b^ceton. A sum of money is annually 
SniiUdl^thoLegifilature.and each muni- 
»ij»lity is mquimd tfl raise by rate at least 
>n «i|nnl sum. These two suios constitute 
fteuhoolfuiulof thcmunicipnlity. School 
(nnts «rc apportioned to each scliool by 
liwiupect<>ni a^.x.-Drdiii^ to the average at- 
'ndsDce of till- KclHiUirs, jind may be with- 
Mdln certain c«»«b. A cciitrul committee 
*( namiopri is ap{ioiiit«d by the depart- 
"wnt to examine teachers for their certifi- 
««*. First- and seiwiid-claaa certificates 
•ftrslid throu^iout the provuice. and are 
^ durin;; Kood behaviour, whilst third- 
<•»« certificates are limited to a period of 
)kRe yean, hut are renewable by exaroi- 
W i>. Ever^ public and hi;;h school must 
" opeued with the Lord's Prayer, and 
tluMl with the reuling of the .Scriptures, 
^iibjcct to a conscience clause. The clergy 

of any denomination or their authorised 
rejiresentJitiveis have the right to give reli- 
gious instruction t« the pupils of their own 
church in each school-house at least once 
a week after afternoon school. Schools 
called 'sepaiate schools' constitute an ex- 
ception to the general pubhc school system. 
Tlie rieht to maintain a ' separate school ' 
IK chiefly conceded to the Roman Catholics, 
but Protestant faniiiies may combine to 
support a separate school if they reside in 
a district where the teacher of the public 
school of the district is a Roman Catholic. 
Fatnilies of coloured jjeople may also com- 
bine to have a separate school. Tlie prin- 
ciple of these schools ta that tlie Roman 
Catholic. Protestant, or coloured ralepayer 
may eiectto support a separate school, and, 
upon givinji the prescribed notice, ho is 
exempted from the public school rales ; 
but OS long as he subscribes to a sejiarato 
school he is not allowed to vote at the 
election of any trustee fnr a public school 
in his district. The separnto schofils are 
subject to the visitation of the Minister 
of Eilucation, the judges, members of the 
Legialature, the heads of the municipal 
Ijodies in their respective localities, and 
the inspectors of public schools, and to 
such inspection as the Minister of Educa- 
tioii may direct They are entitled to » 
share in the annual grant from the Legis- 
lature of the province, but not to a share 
in the local assessment. General courses 
of instruction are prescribed for all schools 
in the province, elementary and higher, to 
lie followed hy the teachers 'as far as the 
circumstances of their schools will permit.' 
Hygiene, drill, and calisthenics, moral in- 
struction, and. in rural schools, agriculture, 
ure provided for in the general ilirections 
fnr courses of study. The salaries of the 
teachers are determineil by the school 
trustees, and are ' lixed.' Attendance at 
school is not compulsory. 

/iiMwriu. — Elementary education htui 
only quite recently been organised in 
Russia. The social conditions of that 
country made common action for the edu- 
cation of the people difficult of accom- 
plishment, either as regards secondary or 
elementary education. The aristocracy, 
the cWgy, the military and naval profes- 
sion, the trading community, live entirely 
apart, and each class has provided its own 
educational establishments, not only (or 
what special training is required after 
general e<lucation is completed, h\xt, iJats 

for thn gcnfmil etTiicntinn itself of tho 
chiWrpn of thnt cliua. Evpn miiniliHrs of 
iho tlipjitricnl pfvifrMiou hiive thnir own 
schooln for lioth till' general Juicl sptwiiil 
iniitrm:tion of Uisir fliilcireii. Tiie soliiMila 
of tli«itc)gy nre enlirply uiaiiageil Ijj' the 
C!i--<;lesi)iflticiil auOioi'itiefl of the Oreek 
Church, hut the anuy, iiftvy, and theatri- 
cal schools are controlled by the several 
Gofferrimeiit departments. The orgnnisa- 
tion of all piMic inKtructimi ia in the 
hanils of a Mirriiitrrr of Public Instruc- 
tion, who has iincterliimnniulvi.iing council, 
with a st^tF <if insppcloni. The public 
elementary sph(i<il!i v/htv. orKiiniseil in IS74, 
to make c.liitiii^nliLry tHlucation uuoessible 
to both Gexes of the workirig classes 
tJiroughoot Russia. They are supported 
by the cumhiiied subsidies of the SlAte, the 
x/'nistvoit {tit territorial popular councils), 
and either the coiumuneH or private bodies. 
Attendance is practically compulsory. In- 
struction is given frPe of charge, and in 
ta&nycoses even books and npplinnces are 
provided gratia. Succnss nt an examina- 
tion on leaving thcsi! schools entitles the 
boys to a purtiul reiluetion of the compul- 
sory term (sis yKMira) of niilitary service, 
Infiint seliools are also found in the more 
important towns, taught on Froehel's me- 
thods. The machinery for secondary edu- 
c/Ltion comprises j:yiiLiiasift for both sexes, 
and Real Schools. No important town 
in Russia is without a school of the latter 
kind, where the three obligatory languaf^s 
are taught, viz. Bussian, Oerman, and 
Freiieb, Iwsides mathematics, commercial 
geo!*raphy, and drawing, Rusiia has n ine 
universities, of which that of Moscow is 
the niost ancient (founded lT^-'>) and the 
most renowned. The education of the 
girls of the upper classes is i)rovided for, 
and is carried on, to a much gn-uter ex- 
tent than in nlinost any other European 
country. CoursMs of instruction for women 
simitar to tho University courses for men 
llBvn iM'eti laid down since 1872, and are 
tnuglit hy the profeHSursof the University, 
n movement wliich has its parallel in 
Entflnnd in the recent facilities for the 
higher uilucatiiin of women by means of 
Girton and Newnhaui Colleges at Cam- 
bridge, and Somerville Ilfili at O.tford, 

tiaxtmy. — The remarkable impulse 
which has made (irrmany, as has lieen 
said, 'a land of schools," arose from the 
inftu«iice of the Protestant reformer Lu- 
ther, as tliat of Scotlanrl did from that of 

his fellow-evangelist, John Knox ff.f 
It was Luther who snid : 'If I wore not') 
minister of tlin Gos|m>J, 1 should wish to I 
a schoolmaster.' Lutherdiod in li)46,i 
the first outlines of the Saxon systc^m 
national education appeared in ft U«f 
January, 1680. From these outlinu* 
whole present systeru has )>e«n develo 
following through the centttries the 
velopmeiit of the social life of th« [ 
and receiving fresh extensions as the i 
of the vital importance of intellectual fo 
as a set-off against the physical iffKth 
the nations arrayed against t)i«ni, 
tjuickeiied hy the defeats of tho 
years of the century. It was in 1 80S I 
attendance at scliool was made compula 
in Ssxony. Successive reorgaiiisatioRI^ 
the school system liave takeit plooft 
ie3r>, 1848, '1851, and finally in 18Tl 
The fundamental idea of the new law > 
|S73 was that the whole system of edo 
tion of the country shouhl be placed nt 
the sole control of the Stntj?, and that 1 
management of the schools shoidd bel 
out of the hands of the clergy, as cli 
But this action of the 8t»te did ikot n 
that it was henceforth to he in ttnt 
with the Church on thesuhjeiH of educnt 
On the contrary, it is distinctly siAtwl 1 
the 'Volksschule (Elementary School) I 
for its object the religious tmining a 
part of universal human education.' 
religion taught hy a particular scboo), 
the religion of the majority of tJie par 
but the righta of the minority are pr 
It is in the power of the minority (aa 
Canarl.'A) to eslsblish a school (or It 
provided it can find the means to Eaaint 
it, When the minority cajmot afford 
do so, the children receive their sees" 
education in the public school, and 
religious education from their own de 
niination. Every child is reqnirml 
attend the elementary school for at 
eight consHcutive, from six to 
teen. This is the cnse lUl thros^i 
CJermany, but in Saxony, aa in taa» i 
states, children who have not nutd« i 
factory progress in tlie elenientarv i _^ 
at the age of fourteen are obliged to i 
tend a Forthlldungsschule, or ouiitinu 
school, held in the evemugsaud od Sniid 
for two years longer, t^renta and 
dianaarereqiureflto see that their chil 
attend regularly. In general, only 
ness or infectious complaint* are : 
as a reasonable excuse for absence. 

itc r<-nclnr thcmttnlroii liable to a 6ne for 1 

ni>n-ntti'ii<l;iiic(! of thrir childroD at 

clcDMUitAry Kchncil, nnd both pnmnts 

Cinpk^ren i>f labour incur ii similar 

Dent ill t)iR emu? of nnti-nttrntlnncc^ 

I«Bobolar at& FortbililuriKiuchuli'. Tlio 

jMmli (StbultiBiiieinJp) is rmjuirtMl 

rfuniisb ihe reijui'^U? Sunila for the pnit:- 

i tad tuaiutenance of tlie ^ebuulH at tlie 

ThosB parishes wliicb iire not in a 

to meet the whole expense receive 

k'fTMit from th« Btfttc. The ptiymeul of 

.school im is ilcTnandod of all children 

ending Muhool. It in Ir^vii^rl by the ma- 

vlio aru bound t,n udnpt it to tho 

1 of th<? piireiil*. It tJicrofom vnrii-ji 

er»blj- iu oinomit, from 'Ai. or 4*. n 

r, iutowuscliooU, to.1^. orU. Cliildrt'ii 

parenta are very poor huve thi*ir 

I paid out of the local poor-ubeat. Tliere 

tm few tr^m scbooU In Saxony, but Ihey 

foundation sghools. or schools main- 

I hy charitable soneties. Throughout 

Dfttiy the sooondary schools consist of 

atlntiK'ntnry schoolii, and secondary 

dspro^K-T. Thnm are three kinds of se- 

nduy (choobi : the Gymnasium or classi- 

Itchool; tlieR«u)Gytnnnsiuiii, answering 

ewbat to the 'luodprn side* of an En- 

ipublicMchool, in which Latin is taught 

I tiot Grvek, additional time beinj; given 

IwieDiv «nd matln-niatios ; jind tlie Oher 

acbool, ill which neithiT Ijitin nor 

ia tau^'ht, but grt-alj-r attention is 

! to modern languages, science, and 

nring. The complete voursti in ajiyoiie 

IfiieeeauluKiUoccupiesten years. Pupils 

the grmnanum who luive obtained 

tlnriDgoertificAt^ are entitled to enter 

'of tbe {Mniltjos of the university, or 

) polyt^ohnic wihooL The leaving certi- 

of the IWl (iymnasium and the 

' 'Real schocdx carry with th«ta sunilar 

inotNuclif^xtt^nnivcpriTilegos. There 

I aba Lownr Roul suhonls receiving hoys 

iUk elementary schoola at twelve, and 

through a four-yi-ars course, in 

i Dort^ of the country. Tlic spiiondiiry 

l«eU as the elementary schools am under 

)supervi&ion, and ihe course of instruc- 

ptnctically the same in all schools 

I aaoke grade iu the same State. The 

naotan schools are supported entirely 

tbo pftrish or munici[>allty in which 

r arw sitiint«d. Willi regard lo the 

: of aivonAiury schools tlie practice varies, 

mrtit of thiim are supported by the 

litjr- In aome cases the local authority 

erects the buildings and the Stat« dfl^ys, 
in whole or in part, the current eitpenses; 
ill others, a portioD of th9 cost is Imrne by 
the province, Kome f«w, hnwi'vpr, are 
wholly or partially mpportcd hy ancient 
iMidowmenta. The school fees in the se- 
coiidury schools are rjttrcincly moderat«, 
and thus secondary instruction is ]dnc«d 
within reach of pan^nts of limit<^d nwiMia , 
to an extent altogetlier unknown in Eng- 

South Aittralin (Province of). — 
Previous to 1875 the control of elemen- 
tary education, subject to the supremo 
authority of the Legislature of the pro- 
vince (i.e. the Governor, the Legislative 
Council, and the House of Assembly) woa 
in thn hands of a council of education. 
But by an Act of the Legislature pus!i«I i 
in that yi*ar the functions of the council 
were placed in the hands of a member of 
the executive council of llie province, 
who, under the title of tlie ' Minister 
controlling Education,' was constituteil a 
body corporate for the exercise of ail the 
powers in educational matters placed ID 
his bands hy legislative enactment. Un- 
der this Act of 1875 (as since amended) 
this minister has the power (!) to decide 
oa to the efficiency of any school not being 
a public school ; (2^ to take a census of the 
school population ; (3) to appoint an in- 
spector-general and insp'.'ctors of schools, 
whose duties are to make themselves ae- 
(juainted with the general condition of all 
BcliiMils in their districts, by two visita at 
le^LSt in each yeai-, to advise tlie teachers 
as to tlie best way of making improve- 
ments, to ex.s,mine the scholars, and to 
report the results of their inspections to 
tlie minister ; (4) to establish and main- 
tain public schools; (5) toappoint t<?achers; 
(f>) to define the course of instruction and 
ehnractj-r of the schocjl Imoks ; (7) to esta- 
blisli scholarships open for competition 
among scholars at public and other schools; 
(B) to make regulations for the training, 
examination, ap|iointnicnt, and classilica- 
tion of teachers, and for fixing the sahxriea 
and fees to be paid to teachers, itc. The 
minister is also entrusted with the ex- 
jietiditure of all the sums of money appro- 
priated by the Legislature for elementary 
educaltoii. No money can be appropriated 
in aid of building school premises unless 
tlie site has been vested in tlie minister. 
Ac the commencement of each year a sum 
of money is placed to the credit of ea«li 




I oi«ikni 

■cliool vQat«<i !n tbe minister in proportion 
to tilt! uvi-ru;;« uttpudaixw. Tliia iui)ii<-y Is 
placed ill tlio liuiiilsof th« board of advice, 
and is available for the purpose of repair- 
ing And improving the school buildings. 
The province a divided into diatricts, and 
t>oardi< of advice Bro appointed in each 
di«trict hy the governor of the province, 
to cxiTcim- giiiinrul siiptTvision over edu- 
catioiinl matters, oiul to rpjiort to tlie 
iiiiniat*T on iiiiy iiiattent afftwtliig the 
general welfare of tlin suhools. A board 
of advice consists of uot less tliau three 
persons, who hold ot&ce foi* three years. 
Children of not less than five years or of 
more thnn thirteen mai/ attend school, but 
att-endnnce is compulsory for not less than 
thirty-QvQ days in each qunrt^fir upon nil 
children lietween seven and thiH«en yeara 
of age; and a pnr«nt who neglects to send 
such child to school is tiiihlc to hv sum- 
moned, at the inBtarii-fl of the iHiurd of ad- 
vice, before a justice, and on conviction 
t<^pay a sum not exceeding 5s. (or a first 
offence, and 20a. for every succeeding; of- 
fence. School fees are fixed at Oii per 
week for childi'en above eight years of 
age, anrf id. per week for those under 
that ago. They are paid to t.hp treasury. 
In thn case of parents unable to pay these 
foc-s the hoard of advice has power to re- 
duce the fee to 3rl. per week, provided the 
reasons for the reducl.ion are clearly atnt«id 
to the minister, whn shall have the right 
of veto. CJiildren of the following classes 
are entitled to free education: (I) chil- 
dren wliosi- parents arc disad, children of 
widows without sufficient ni«aiis, (2) oliil- 
dren whose fathers ace incapacitated, (3) 
children boarded out by the authorities 
having control of deatifcute or orphan 
children. But applications for free edu- 
cation must be siijued hy the diairuian of 
the board of advice and forwarded to the 
inspector general, and lie subject to the 
»eii) of the ininist«r. The mode of staff- 
ing the schools is similar to that adopted 
in England, and monitnra and pupil- 
t*achera are recognised. Tiie head teacher 
of n public school must he certiQcated. 
The course of instruction, which is laid 
down by the minister, fi>ltowit ilta lines of 
the English code, but is drawn up with a 
grenti-r rc.g.inl to the training of tlie iii- 
t«llig(!nce of the children ; the learning of 
definition!! hy h(3irt is depnvcated until Uie 
dtildrtin havo formed clear ideas of the 
meaning of llie thing delined. T)ie Holy ' 

Scriptures in the Aothoriaed or 
version may be read, but the atteni 
at such reading is not compulsory ; 
no sectarian or dr.nomi national 
tj'aching is allowed ; tho t«acJi«n 
strictly confine themselves to Hibhi 
ing. Moral lessons— theoutcomftofthO' 
cumstances of the school anil the tea 
own thoughts — to enforce tlic now 
cleanliness, punctuality, induntry, ol 
ence, trutlifuhieas, liuneEl^, and 
tion for others, must be ^veu ; but 
text-book is specified. The scal« of 
ries of teachers is determined by tbe BatH 
ster. and lixed salaries are pMd to tbca 
by the treasury, 

ZuricA (Cniito7i^. — Theschool syst»« 
of Switzerland, of which that in forae i 
tlie canton and city of Zurich is tokui tf 
an example, beitrs a close resf mblanca ^ 
many respects to that of Germany. 
elementary and higher el«Dientary C 
in Switzerland secondary) edooation 
free, and attendance is oompnlMry aj 
all children between six and fovrtcen 
of age. They must remain in the di 
tary school antil the age of twelve, m^ 
then they m ust eithwattend the iMondai^ 
school, pr, if they enter into practical li{L| 
they must attend a supplcmentuy sclioci 
(ErganKungsachuic) for four years. Hm] 
latter school is held on two half-dajpf 
a week, and its chief aim is to act MBi! 
continuation scliooL Elementary iostmo'i 
tion in private schools is jicrmittcd, butw 
very small proportion of tbe populatiw 
(barely 3 per cent.) make ubr of *wh\ 
schools. Tliis plan of supplemental^. 
schooling is. however, fouuil tn work na- 
satisfactorily, and a law is about to hd 
passtxl making attendance at the ovxlinaiT 
elementary school compulsory up to (oor^ 
teen years of age. Even now no child 04 
be employed in a factory until the otM* 
pletion of the fourteenth year. The sfK 
called secondary — really higher ftlem«i' 
tary^school has a course extending onr| 
four years, and those entr^ring such scboolf i 
and remaining in them for two ye.irs (nft- 
til fourteen years of age) are exompt froo 
further school attciidanco. The Ili|,h0i| 
schools consist of the gymnasiain siwl 
classical school, and the induKtrie**ctiilB 
or trade school, which prejnrcA for the 
polytechnic or for direct i-ntrnnee into. 
trade, Thegyninaaium isenl«mlat twalw,: 
years of ag«, after an cxamiiwlion, aal 
caiiaists of six classes, corresponding M>' 

ymr cnch, m that tliP pupils would 

bloiti the liMving-cfirtitioato nt ciglit*en 

ninftiH-n.whicli qunliKr's t.hoin to ent«r 

Je uiiiviTsity or polyU-plmic. The jn- 

ti-iL- sohult- w rntiTi-d At fourbipn, and 

of (our clnKsra, ext<--n(Iing owr 

' and & Iia-lf yeiu's. The t'lrst clniw is 

pparat^ry. From tlie sct'onii cliiw on- 

srds lli« school bi(urt!u.t*s into n Uiohni- 

I Knd a cnmiue^icial seotiiw, tliR funni-r 

|lgMD dividing in tli« third luid fcmrtli 

into « mathematiciLl and a Diitunil 

DC* section. The coitimer(.'iul si-ctinn 

with the third year. The etluca- 

vole of the canton of Zurich ali- 

nparty onn-third of the total ex- 

I of thi' cnnton. 

law relating to Schools and School- 

L — As Itutwen pnn^iit orguardian 

rad the sch«>l proprintor the kw has long 

I aeitleil lliat the pupil cnnnot bs rc- 

witbout giving a full quarter's 

or paying a quurt^r's fws, unJeas, 

Fwam\ tliere has Ikwu a spHt'iul agrne- 

l to the contrary. If the pupil n-.niattiH 

I only four days of the new tenu, mid 

lis obliged to retaru horns oit acuount 

■IUdcss, the parent is bound not only to 

' for the incompleted quarter, but also 

prtfao subsequent one (Cul/inn v. Price, 

fKng. 132). Indeed, without notice, 

fni in th" absence of special a),Teeme!it, 

1 [lupit can only be removed when there 

. clear bubc of negligence on the part 

rthe miutcr (Citwwik« r. May, 7 C. 4 

■ 6T8). Even in the cose of a parent's 

iptcy, th<! hanlti-uptcy docs not bar 

I naster'ti claim for the accruing quar- 

lAorgcs {ITiOTiui* V. HnpHiiK, 6 Jur. 

• 30l)i The prospectus constitutes the 

nt between the parent and the 

. in the absence of Bpei'ial agree- 

The schoolajaster, however, can- 

tcaethe parejit or Kuanlian for cloth - 

i wpplied or extiiu tuiiirht thu pupO in 

We ahionceof agreement ((7/f^j™?ji( v. ifay, 

a). Again, the mastiir will be Hiible 

daotagm if he knowingly permits a 

[ftptl to indulge in diiiigerous games, 

kherpky the pupil receives an aoaitlerit, 

I ijortiori, be cannot sue for the niedi- 

ttpmsos connectod with the child's 

which he may have discharged 

jC»ff V. Firrk, I Stark. 433). As to the 

ricea of tuton and governesses in the 

KOce of spncial agreement, tutors and 

ranesMS uvontitled to a year's notice, 

! Uring being a yearly one (Todd v. 

J^mtrick, 8 Ex. IJil ; Todd v. Ketlatje, 17 
Ju.r. 1 1 U). As to engagements in schools, 
on the other hand, a quarter's notice is 
nuoessiry to lie ^ivpn prior to one of the 
four ustuil quarter- days. Thus will 
not tjike plaj« as from the time at which 
it is given, if given any time <luring the 
quarter, but three months after the ex- 
piration of the current quartnr /.V«t«sti«a 
V, Jariii>»on). But ininiediate dismissal 
may take place where the te,ichcr uses 
profaTie or seditious langtiage liefore the 
pupils, speaks disrespectfully of his era- 
ployer to his pupUa, is guilty of drunkcn- 
ncfts, or acts in disobedience to the rea- 
sonable orders of his employer. Eugnge- 
ments for a longer period than a year 
should be in writing, in accordance with 
the Statute of Frauds. Doard schools are 
governed by the Elementjiry Education 
Act 1870. The law wirefully protects 
pupils fi'om being cruelly treated, but 
teachers may chastise them in a reason- 
able manner for disobedience to reason- 
able orders. Each case of alleged cruelty 
must be considered on ita own uierits, and 
touchers must ever use their own discrn- 
tion. This, however, may be said, that 
the pupil must not be hit about the hmid 
or face, there must be no wounilitig or 
disnolourisation of any part of the body, 
and no such treatment as might tend to 
injuriously affect tlie health of the child. 
For any such maltreatment the teacher 
may l>e liable in tine, imprisonment, or 
damages. In the case liohrrts v. Ful- 
iiw^ilh Urban Sanitary Authority, tried in 
the Queen's Bench Division Pebniary 6, 
188S, it was decided that a head-master 
of a public elementary school cannot secure 
compemiation for loss of school fepa when 
the school is closed by order of the autho- 
rities during an ejndeluic. 

Learning. See Acquisition or 

Lesson. Sfii- Notes op Lkssokb, Ob- 
ject LussosB, iuid Metuod. 

Liberal Education. — This term is fre- 
quently used synonTmously with collegiate 
or university education, but there is no 
good reason for thus restricting its mean- 
ing. It signifies gnnorally an education 
which embraces n fair knowleilge of litera- 
ture', scipnce, and art, acquired for itd own 
sake rather than for annlijcctive purpose. 
It is (liHicnlt, however, to define the terra 
iMjciiratiily. According to Lord Brougham, 
the lilM-nvlly iiducat:i'd man is he wbo \\tt& 


)««mt 'something of everything and evtrry- 
thing of something,' and according to Pro- 
fessor Husley, he 'who litis learnt to 
love all benuty and his nuighbour m him- 

Iilbrariei. — Ingivingahrief n«countof 
some of the hirgwt eclucutioiial luifl rpfer- 
ence Hbnirie; in Knglund of the present 
djty, it may be interesting to trace the ear- 
liest known approaches tu such iiLslitulions 
iliaiieientdaya;au<l toiiidiuatec'orre^pond- 
ing uollectioiiA of valuable maauscripts and 
t)ooks ill the neighbouring citie« of Europe. 
To Osymandyas of Memphis is ascribed 
the honour of being tlie earliest librarian 
on record, while Pisistratii.s tirtit founded 
a library among tJie Greeks at Athens. 
Aloxandrin hoast-ed of one of the most 
tnmoUK liliniripji of antic^uity. Both Julius 
and Augustus C'R'.sar fiiuiiile<l libraries at 
Bomfl ; nnd no leas than twenty-eight 
public libraries existed in that city prior 
to tho inroads of the barbaric tiurdea, 
Charlemagne was the patron and founder 
of the public libraries in FVance ; and Pope 
Nicholas V. of the priceless treasures of 
the Vatican library. ThecJipitals of nearly 
all Kuropoan countries bnast of splendid 
public and private libraries, containing 
precious manuscripts and historicftl re- 
cords : those of Gottingeit, Munich, Paris, 
Vienna, St, Petersburg, Berlin, Bologna, 
and Prague, having an average of 400,000 
volumes. Onr own country is not far 
behind, having the valuable ooUectionB of 
ancient manuscripts and books depotiited 
both at the British Miit-eum and Bodk-ian 
I,ibrn.ry at Oxford, in fulditicm to which 
an? thi? spliindiii pO!«es.^ions of the Oxford 
and Cambridge universitiea, bestowed on 
the variciuB college Ubniries of either city. 
Tliere are also iuiitien»e educational refer- 
ence libraries at Uiched to the universities 
of Edinburgh, Dublin, Glasgow, I^indon. 
Si. Andrews, There are the libraries of 
Lamljelh, the f louse of Commons, Foreign 
Office, tJuildhall, Inner Temple (founded 
1540), Lincoln's Inn (1 497), Patent Office, 
London Library, Sion College, Thames 
Embankment, ikiuth Kensington (which 
includes education, science, Dyce L., and 
Forster L.). the University Library, and 
over forty others, contviining over ten 
thousand volumes each. Tlio libraries 
attached to the various hoBpituU, Bcientific 
institutdonn of London, and other large 
cities, constitute an iroportjutt factor in 
the (idacBtional Mtatiatica of tlie day, wliile 

many places are rapidly »dnpting thel 
Libr.iry Act, hy me-ans of which liimiiq 
ham has alre-ady (18^7) accumulativli 
100.000 vtilume^ Birkenhpnd tH),(MO, ! 
MuiichesUrr Free Public Libnuy IXji 
The university libraries tor tbtt most i 
are acceavsible only to men studente, I 
the books they contain are to sotneext 
obtainable by resident women stu 
South Kensington libraries are open 
students' tickets to eligible persoiuof ett* 
se.i, as also the firitish Muwum vid 
Libraries. The College of Frecepbmi 
the Teachers' Guild Liltrary, botb 
small modem institutions, ar« 
adapted to the wants of school 
thouffh they should perha|u< tind mimt 
here us supplying a want long M\ In tlMj 
world of eiliieation. Tlie immenw n- I 
sources open to English, Scotch, and IrcA i 
students may lx» better appreciatnl wbetl 
we consider the fact that a list of no I 
than 160 libraries, each eontalning 
10,000 volumes, is given in tlte Encye 
Brit., eleventh edition, trnd most of wh 
contain nearer 20,000, some aa nuaorj 
1)0,000 and 90,000 volumes. AfwtlMrl 
is given of 170 other libraiieB, coot 
under 10,000 volumes in each caee. 

In Great Uritatn any attempt (hati 
been made at the formation of element 
and secondary school libraries hasbecn^ 
chiefly to purely voluntaiy effort, no i 
ance being given by the State. In 
of the States of North America, aa 
as in some other countries, legislativsj 
vision has been mode for supptyings 
and school districts with libmriea, 
first grant that was made for that 
pose in America was in 1837. The 
of such libraries depeuda wholly upon : 
ventitious circum8taDC«a ; l>ul to be 
real use they should be oomponed of 
structive books and those ititt^restio 
children. They should be infonua^ 
and should be such as would incite ti>) 
pupil a taste for rcAding. Tliey will I 
train the pupil's mind nvm U lOT6 oC] 
I 'penny dreadful,' and aMiai the 
, and moral training. TeAchers can | 
bf^lp in popularising school libroriea-j 
illustratiuf; the subject of instructions 
reference to somi" work in the libraryJ 

Licenee |Teacher's).— Such a lie 
is a legal ({ualification to five instrnc 
It is conferred aft«r examination, and] 
t«st«d by a diploma or ocrtiScste. 



Mer become* a certificated teacher. 
w> object of the licence is to 'protect 
l» inleresta of th« community against 
le prils arising fmm the emplnvment of 
eonip''ij>nt piTsoriK by tlioae who miglit 
pt Iw nble totiwt tlie <|unili<iuiU<inB of up- 
icKnt*, or who might, from fuvouriliBin 
' oomipt motivt-a, Ijb willing to eniploy 
\ tMictif^rs {KTBons not poHSi^ssiiig tJie 

BtiiHto ijualificJitiotia.' The Elementary 
ncfttiou Act. 1870, provides for Eng- 
nrl that ' before any grant is made to n 
hool tlie Education DepartmoDt must 
) sAttsfied that the priacipnl ij?acher is 
>tiSc»t«d ' ; and that teacheis, in order 
I obtain certificates, must ' be r^xnminuH 
id most unHer(ro pmhfition hy actual 
rvicie in school.' The Act furthiT pro- 
dcs that 'after successfully passing tJioir 
[luninntion* tht-y must ili twichera con- 
nocusly mgagi- in tlin sani« schools, ob- 
iin twij favoumble reports from an in- 
icctor wiUiin an interval of one year 
!Cir«eD them, am] if the first of these 
ports be not preceded by service of tliree 
entlis (at the least) since the examina- 
on, & tliird report must bo made at an 
itcrval of one year after the second re- 
Mt, ftnd, if favourable, a certiiic^te is 
meA.' 'Teachers uuder probation satisfy 
le conditions which require that schools 
i kept by oertiticated t^ichors." The 
DOttish Education Act, I87S. provides 
lat ' no person shall be appointed to the 
Bee of principal twuiher who i* not the 
older of a c»rtiCicate of competency,' 
hich is ohtjiincd after «xnini nation. 
Vo yntrs' attendance at any one of the 
•ormal schools is u condition preci-Jent 
i such examination. The Scottish uni- 
enjtiei confer thu dr^ree of Literutt? 
I ArtA(L.A.), a tMclier'sdegree, on those 
1)0 have been studenta lu the faculty of 
la for two se«siofia, and have attended 
m eluaea in tbat fa^^ulty, so a^ to include 
or at least of the seven subjects for 
sduatiou to arts. Tlie University of 
dinburgh granta a school master's diploma 
I graduatea in arts on passing exnraina- 
Mt ill educsition and kindred subjects, 
id tlie University of Ixmdon grants ccr- 
to those who, being gradoates of 
uivernty, have passed the examina- 
the art, theory, and history of 
The (Nil lego of Preceptors 
nts diplomas, for which principals 
\iirm of privnte schools are eligible, 
joint ncamination board of the 

Froebel Society, and the Kindergarten 
Association of Manchester, grant certifi- 
cates after examijiation to students and 

teachers of the Kindergarten system. 

Lichtenberg, Oeorg Chnstoph {b. 
1742, rl. 17il9), a Oernian man of letters, 
was the eighteenth diilfl hy tlie same 
marriage of the pastor of Oher-Rarastadt, 
wear Darmstadt, From an early ago 
Liclitenberg had been intert^sted in tliu 
system of education prevniling in Oerman 
schools and colleges. He had witnessed 
some changes introduced on account of 
the writings of Rousseau and his French 
followei'S, and of Basedow of Hamburg. 
Of some of these he approved, but to the 
greater part lie applied the unsparing 
ridicule with which he always assailed 
the pedantic aiiectiitioiis of originality 
and the Bi-nseless love of change. Al- 
though fully awan' of tlie advantages of 
a re^iUar education, he never forgot that 
the substantial improvement of the cha- 
racter depends upon artificial instruction 
to a very small e.ttent. The must careful 
educntion, he perceived, cannot create a 
single new faculty ; and in a civilised 
age no neglect can prevent the develop- 
ment of the faculties that exist ; their 
growth may be retarded by unfavourable 
circumstances, but their vigour may be 
more radically injured liyexcessivecultiva 
tion. Education should not he mechanical 
or coercive, and discipline should not ba 
bookish. His dictum was that ' the object 
of all education is to fonn virtuous, intel- 
tigeut, and strong-minded men'; and he 
maintained tliat true education coneiated 
ill tieveloping the body by exorcise, the 
mind by fitful and varied ease, and the 
morals by a gi-and simplicity. In 1777 
Liclitenberg discovered tite electric dust- 
tigurea; in 1778 he published a work 
against the physiognomists ; and in 1794 
he began the Explmiation^ of Hogarth'* 

Lighting of Schoolrooms. Sw Archi* 
TEcruRB nv ScriO'>LS. 

Ling. Peter Henrik (6, 17CC, 4 1839), 
the Swedish gymnast, a native of Sma- 
land, and graduate of Upsala University, 
was, on account of his weakened consti- 
tution, led to direct his attention to fenc- 
ing and gymnastics at, a means of cure 
for rliiiimiittani .in<l partial paralysis with 
which hi- was jitljicked in his right arm ; 
and hill success was the first incentive 
to the exertions he aftcrwa-TAa wvwl* Xft 


establish ti trpiitnu-nt of iliKcjisf-B hy these 
nienns. He w;is nt th" University of 
Lund in I'lO.'i, wlmro Iih lecturml on 
Norse iii>'t!i(ik>iy. (»tL;'lit nimlprn lun- 
gun^ea h.ii(I feiioiii^. w)jtli? lie at thu saitie 
tiiHu wrote poetry of uo voiiiiuoii merit. 
As lie saw that tli« boily and bouI of men 
reacted upon other, he aimed at ' the 
perfection of tlie organism by means of 
the couihinftd and harmonious action of 
these two principlps n^stoHng 1>y bin 
Kystom tho (ypiilibriiim which indolcncn, 
diam^H, or ti too uxdusivo cultivation of 
tlie iiit«llf?(!tu:il fauultii^N mrty hnve dis- 
turlmd.' Thus hiii nystein led him to in- 
quire into the laws of tlieriipoutiis, and 
by studying tlie motury fiction of the 
body Im was led to tlevise a systein of 
movements, varied liotli in their character 
and in the de;^rce of strength, lie con- 
tended that the mechajiical agency of the 
body, equally with the chomicjil and men- 
tal actions of rcrijiiii orgnns, should he 
considpred in thi> trciitmcnt of disc-iis", 
and hn helievcd thiit tothn nc.gloct of this 
side of th« question many of the itilmniits 
of the liody wero to litt iiltrilmtod. He 
was nn ardent iidvocute of his aystem, and 
Ilia T)i«iiry and Prirwiplrii <ij' (J i/mniiHtca 
(Stookliolin, 1810) is uonitidered u, work of 

Litera Homamores. See Schools. 
Literature. See E.vaLfsn. 
Literature for Childroa.— It is neces. 
eary to distinguish between books tcbout 
cUildi-en and books/or children. The for- 
mer are numerous, the latter comparatively 
few. Not many wi-iters of children's books 
have the art of looking at the world 
-with a child's eyes, feeling u-ilh a child's 
heart, «iiciikiiig with a child's ideas and a 
child's wiird.H. Morn oftrn than not, situ- 
ation*, pxiMrriences, idciis, fiielings, are iii- 
troduoiMl c[uite out of kr^ping with the 
littlt! actors in the story, and tpiite l)eyonil 
the mental nwch and sympathy of young 
readers. False and unreal views of life are 
given, and wliat is in its esannce wroti^ is 
unwittingly rendered auiusiiig anil attrac- 
tive. A thorough scapegrace is made a 
charming hero ; and the tales are strongly 
iH!iisational.orfu11 of morbid sentimentality 
or mere goodiness. The reverse of all this 
in what is wanted. Literature for children 
may be divided inta /airy (al^e, /abten, 
and taU» leith a morni ptirpote. doirtestir. 
I'llfs, taUg offidiieniiiiv, tn/r^ q/"»ini-»ce and 
utf/til ir^onrmMion, kUtorieal taUa, tm.v«U, 

and hiagrnphU*. Fairy tait» are the 
of tile t^arly world, and of childhooi:!. 
are a^lmirable in their imaginati' 
simpHcily, and manner of talking. 
they require caution, for they are «}* ! 
be full of old prejudices, nnd to intfMi 
matters not projier for children. All 
brothers and sisters, nnd n.11 stepmi 
are not selfish and wicked ; Ja/rk t«k« I 
keen a delight in slaughtering, and Ftu* 
Itonts lies, and makes otliers lie, with 1«0 
charming an ease. But many are whollj' 
unobjectionable, and all are deli f,'hl nil ; 
while thfi exercise they aObrd to li« 
imagination is of great value. Fabhtui 
frequentlyamti^ng if told withreAlhnmniir 
as are some of /Esop's ; and if the inani 
be not too prombient. and the cfastvetM 
fairly in keeping with those of tJieanimsllk ' 
in:., which are introduced. TW'* fiA » ' 
mirral jmrpom are usually dull and h«aTy. 
Hans Andersen's, however, ore detightfal 
exceptions ; and some of Miss Bdgewcrtfa^ 
can still be read with pleasure by chtldtm 
Domestic UiUa for the young arc apt l> 
Iw morhid and sentimental ; iHTVi-rtielex. 
many good ejcamples exist in Eii^liib. OT 
these tlm l>est of the more recent exami 
are hy Mrs. Ewing and Mrs, Moles' 
Both of these writers, liowever, ha' 
strong tendency to write nioiU, rather 
/or, cliildren. Tales o/ailmntttre are 
verbiftUy delightful to cbildreit, who |i 
ite.tinn above all things ; but ind 
in them is dangerous. Many are 
'nightmare' class; nearly all abouod 
unjustitiable and even wicked doings hidi 
in a glare of romance; and all ore WiH* 
to be too exciting, and to render thi- Ki«[J* 
doings and duties of every-day life lUl* 
and distasteful. Taken in modentwti 
however, tho best of them Pompcn»le f« 
the harm they do hy the widnning ol ifr 
terests, the manliness (not to be coni 
with mere fierceness and rr<nklejsn«tt) 
the fidelity which tliejr t*'nd to procii _ 
often serve to create and to fwnl a viMTf v»!»- 
able curiosity. Historical talr^, when Of* 
wholly of blooil and murder, will do tla 
for the special department of history. TW 
best are too well known to need mentioB- 
7Va«r/» and tw)<p^tpAte», when the sobitdi 
arewell chosenand worthy of at tenlion,«rf 
when they are well told, have long ciiorHf^ 
and will never cease to charm both 
and old ; and it b difficult bo i 
bfitter way of ]^Liu^» general kno 

letortb and of man's doings on it than 
rRndinfc tha numberless flno examples 
c( bocli which we pfussPSB in Kngliah. 
LiUratute of Pedttjo([y- ■^''"^ Pb"*- 


'little Go.' Six Piibvwcs Examisa- 

ZiOCbI Examinations art< exAmisnlions 

if boya and girls uonductvil by tlio SL-venil 

uuv«r«ities and kiiidred inatitutioiis on 

he T»rioaa subjcL-ta which Iniid to test 

Jw general knovWge and culture of the 

andidatft. The examiuatJoua are con- 

ItMted by the universities of Aberdeen, 

bridge, Dublin, Durham, EdLiburgh, 

Oxford, and i^t. Andrews, the 

Society of Arts, the College of 

cptors, wid Trinity CoUe^ London. 

c uniMTsity of St Andrews confers the 

_ of LL.A. in connpction with thean 

ixuuinatiODH. The cxiLtuinntiniis are held 

local centres, mkI ci^rtilii^ttfs of hitving 

these extuniuiittons ilu for n pass to 

the pre liiui nary exiiiiiiuntionK of soine of 

lUieuiiiversi ties and utlii-rexaiiiiuiugbudit-s. 

^•ch nnirersity has its own rulea fur ooii- 

filMttng the ex&Tuuialiou, but the subjeuls 
r exaraiiiAticiti are nearly the same at all 
tbo nnivoraties. There are some valuable 
Iburaaries and scholarships awarded at 
tbete examinations, The examinations in 
connection with the universities of Oxford 
mod Cambridge consist of two divisions, 
|uiuor and senior. {.">*« Oxford akd Cau- 


, Locke, John (U>:>2-1704), the author 

El thi- Ennaif (en the Iluii}jm Underatandi'ng, 
nd Um- foundrr of the Knglisli school of 
^«yduil<:W}r, oUiiiui ntt^cntiou aJso ns the 
vriter of a slitirt trPiitise on education. 
SliiB work, entilitrd Smnr. Tluni//!i.tx roii- 
^tmtttff BJtieatitrn (pub. Ifi93), grew out 
*nn>tca<^ luttera which Lcickfi, during his 
int «tay in Ilotliind, lnul written to Ids 
Edward CInrkp, on the bpsl wiij of 
£ up his eliildren. Liicke had tht; 
adrautagu of SjH-iiking on cduc-ation 
the double |tiatform ti psychological 
and pemoiuil cxperieiife. Ab the 
great KngUith psythologist who syste- 
"ly aU«mpt«d to aualyae niind into 
elements, and wlio, rejettiug the hypo- 
lesi^ of iniiat« ideas as unuec-essary, ti'aced 
.1 intelleL-lual produL-ts to experience (sen- 
,tM>n and reHectiun), ZiOcke naturally 
ittarhed a new importjuioe to education. 
'o him the infant miud is a bhi.nk sheet 
raaa) ou which experieuoe has to 

writ«, and be is consequently disposer! to 
ascribe the maiufold ditt'f rencea of intelli- 
gnitop and character that we gee amonj i 
inim much more to diversities of circuui-{ 
■tjLncrfi and eduention than to any original] 
ilitTcreiices of riptitudc and disposition, 
He may, as UiiUnin maintains, gre-atly 
oxaggcnite the etfoct of uxtemal influences ; 
and rtiad in the light of the new evolution 
psychology, which accentuates the fact of 
individual variation and tlie part played 
by heredity, Locke's account of the pro- 
cess of mental growth seems almost naive 
in its siuiplicity. At the same time his 
psychological standpoint compelled hiiu 
to trace out in a much more careful and 
thorough wny than is usually done the 
many less obvious efl'ects of circumstances, 
example, and hahita of life on the growing 
mind. WhiUi Locke was thus particularly 
well ([ualitied to deal witli mlucation from 
the theoretic side, his own experience, both 
as pupil and teacher, supplied hini with 
ample material for attacking its practical 
problems. Like other independent youtlia, 
he was wearied and disguj^ted by the luirri'ii 
pedantries of tlie scholastic system under 
which he was hronght up (at Weatmiiistfl^r 
and Osford), and was first stimulated by 
these experiences to reflect on the right 
metJiods of education. To tliis there suu- 
ceeded a fair amount of experience as 
tutor, of which that in the Shaftesbury 
house was the roost important. This per- 
sonal contact with the work of teaching, 
combined with the decidedly practical bent 
of mind which makes Locke so typical an 
English thinker, (iccounta for the thoroughly 
])nictical character of the TItom/h'ii. Thn 
inlluence of previous writers on education 
seems to have been very slight, that of 
Montaigne being tlie only one which is 
distinctly traceable in tlie Timiif/JUa, Tlio 
little treatise; is faulty enough in point of 
arrangement und style, a fact to be au- 
uounted for by the manner of its production. 
Aa its title suggests, it consists rather of 
stray reflections than of acaref ully reasoned 
llieory. At tlie sa'me time, it desen'es the 
place it now firmly holds among educational 
classics. Il must be rememl>erod that 
Locke is avowedly dealing with the cir- 
cumscribed, if higlily complex, educational 
problem of fashioning a gentleman. II enee 
it is home'training by a tutor, such rh 
Locke had himself carried out in Lord 
Shaftcsbury'a family, that is cxcluwvely 
discussed. Fhyucal educatiotit iacl'it&^ 


thir f iirth«ninoe of health and boJily vijpur 
lu w<>H OS Uie aciui&iiioii of pllyHii^at aiN 
cooiplitihiueittA, naturally receives a large 
tliaru of attention, the more ao as Locke 
had not only stu'lied medicine, but held 
tlie double post of pfiysieian nnd tutor in 
the Shaftesbury home. Nrxt to bodily 
health, corae as csstrntial requirements of 
the gentleman, virtue, wisiioin, breeding, 
and learning. With rc^inrt to intellectual 
educntion Locki- lias Um!Ii aooiised of i:n.rry- 
inghis utilitarianism too far, by infiistiug on 
ratinmtiii^ knowledge only by it* b<>aring 
on the work of Ufi*. But this is to do 
Rcaut .jiistii-« to his teauhiitg. No writwr 
IB moi'e profoundly impressed with the 
value of intellectual training itself. Tliis 
may be seeu by the emphasis he lays on 
the general or varied culture of the facul- 
ties, both in the ThnuQht* and in the short 
rasay Co^idwt nfthe Ffcirc^fl.Krfjjjp, which 
should be read with the first. In truth, 
as a recent eilitor of Locke puts it, he 
undpratoml by educ-iitinn 'rather the train- 
ing and disciplining of the mind into g<)od 
habils, than tlie mere tradition of know- 
lodgB.' With respeut to moral aduciition, 
Locke aimed at the production of a dis- 
passionate being in whom reanon is suprenie. 
Lockir's ideal of pliysical and of moral 
training may alike be criticised as orriiig 
by excess of severity. Uia recoranietid.a- 
tions (or hardening the bodies of uiiildreu, 
as wall as his counsels against indulging 
children's wishes, were actually objected to 
by his friend Molyneux : yet it is curious to 
note that tlie greatest of German thinkers, 
Iramanuel Kant, follows Locke pretty 
closely in both these particulars. The 
contral principle of the 77iouff/iU is that 
the pnd of the educator is to settle in the 
pupil, by steady unremitting pmrMce, iii- 
tellectunl and moral habits; and, though 
the render may now and again he disposed 
to resent the repetition of the dictum, he 
can hardly complain that ita importance 
has hL>en exaggerated. Although adopting 

Jirivtttn tuition as preferable to Kchool, 
M'cause of its more complete suiiervision, 
Locke fully n-coguiswl the influnnce of 
companions on thi- mind and chanicter of 
th(! young ; and he seeks to evade tiie 
dinirulty of s')litary edui'atioii byexarting 
the maximum in the way of att<^ntion fnun 
the fiithiT and the tutor, Tlie value of 
liOcke'a ThoughU resides partly in the 
fort* witli which he iUustrales the funda- 
mental principle of hia Ui«)ry already 

indicated, and parlTjr in tJ>e good senae i 
impartiality with which he handlee 
questions of detail. Uifl renutrin <m 
way to deal with children's w«akn«me«,| 
their timidity, on praise aad blame, on | 
ishment, on satisfying curiomty, andi 
otherpresaingproWenmof everyday) 
tion, will always hi^ worth acoreful per 
by all who have to guide and control i 
dren, whether in tlitt home or in the i 
(See Sfime Thoii'jhiii eoneemitv/ EdufO 
with introduction and not«?s by the 
R. H. Quick, M.A.; also. Conduct o, 
Untieriit'iniiinff, edited by Prof. T. Fowli 
The Germau reader may oouauli 
ijchuster's introduction to the tr 
of the Thoiiffhts in Karl Utcht«r's , 
gogi^r-hf iVMialbfJe.) 

Log-Book. — The log-boob ia ■ dU 
or journal, the beeping of which u i 
pulsory in all public elementary sch. 
It must be stoutly Imund, and conb 
not less than 300 ruled pages. It tt T 
by the head teacher, who is rnaoirrd 
record in it such events as the intrudu 
tion of new books, apparatus, o*- cocr 
of instruulion, tJie visits of the insp 
or of managers, absence or failure of i 
on the part of any member of the Sta^ I 
any incident or circoinstanoe to which i 
may be useful or interesting to rtlw : 
some future time. Entiiea must be too- 
hned to matters of fact ; ' r«d«cUons or 
opinions of a general character ' aiie nc 
pressly forbidden. All reports made bj 
the inspector, whether after a ' snipnM 
visit' ' or after the annual inspection, niait 
be copied ' verbatim,' and signed by tie 
correspondent of the managers. \Vb« 
the annua! report has been roceimd th* 
Ecltonl staU' must also be entrred, and sD 
changes afterwards occurring in it mnit 
he recorded. 

Logic. — Logic is commonly defined 
as tlie science of reasoning, or of Uw 
' laws of thought ' which underlie rauOK- 
ing. As employed kbuut the raMOnilC • 
process it is coiiuected with, and indSM 
JHised on, Psychology (which K«). ItdilliM 
from psyehology in tliat it seeks to deUr* 
mine the necessary conditions of jowtrfor 
correct reasoning. Logic, in short, ts Mt 
only the scienee but the art of rawa*' 
ing. It is now commonly divided irti 
two parts, (1) deductive or fomuJ, aol 
(3) inductive or material Ic^c For 
logic is concerned with the formal 
I'ectness of our thinking proc wa e i^ MHl i 

^idu uA in w-Tiiiig Rltnrly nil that is 
rily iuiplii^c] iti imr pro[ioKitions. 
'AetlM nK)ce«uv«lj witli tnrni!!, proposi- 
ftnd tjUogman, tliul i> to suy, tb? 
irbaJ toeatu in which IJifi thriH> (trowingly 
iplex products o( thouKbl, ooiiuapla, 
L«nte, and reasouiuKti vuilxMly Uiein- 
\vf*. Tbo fonnul»tioii of tlie truepriii- 
lr« of inductive resimrch ia an exceed* 
•\y liiflicalt mntter ; and, in spite of 
recMit contributions of J. S. Mill, 
l«v jRvnni, niid others, it is far from 
ing firmlly xrttlrd. Hence the study 
ioiluctive logic ou^ht to follow that of 
uctive. Very diHVrent opinions have 
n Iield fta to tbi- practicnl value of 
;ic. but it is ii;;r«fd by roost writprs 
it tbe study of the SL-ience, by supplying 
with a simple method of ajiiilyaiiig and 
igoiirivasoiiing prooeaaea, euablea us 
piry tbcsp out with greater certainty 
To the teacher the study of de- 
logic, connecting itself so closely 
it doc« with tha science of Grammnr 
[fl.r.), amy be sitid to bo of tho highest 
oiv Faniilinrity with the logical dis- 
ictiona fttnoiig t<Tnis, propositions, and 
uuicnta will sc-rvi- not only to ctcjir up 
own tJiou^bbf, but to giitdr him in 
iPOWnLing fiicts nnd truths in the clfarest 
ly to tbe ItiHTtiiT's mind. This applies 
ilh partiuular force to certiiin portions, 
icb a« the doctrino of logical division 
delinilioii, juid of tlm obversion and 
version of propoiiitionB (imini-diata in- 
ncea). Tlie doctrine of luethod, or tbe 
ntilic arr&ngement of tbuuglitB, which 
been proposed by some writers as iin 
itknift] division of the subject^ hus 
wjy close bearing on the teacher's 
>orfc (tm Mktiioh). The study of the 
iplia of inductive logic, by rendering 
mind fiunilinr wilh the methods of 
aentific iiiVMtigntion and the grounds 
•cicntific oiTrUiinty, will be found very 
'ul to all who hnvn to teach Eciencc, 
It ia worth conwdrrinjr whether certain 
nrtiona of logic might not with odvjint- 
If^e be iutrodueed «t tlii? end of the school 
nrrionluRi- (For anncoount of the nature 
tad scope of lof^e mm Jevomc, El. I^nrninn, 
.: Baiu, Dnbiet., Lot/ie, Intrijd., p. 30, 
folloving ; Bnct/pliijiadia Hritann. 
>b *d.), article ' ly.igic.') 
Irondon University. S«e UMiTBit- 
aad Pboviscial Cou.rgsb. 

1M^ Si^bt Ste ErEtllOHT. 

Long T&cation.— At both Oxford and 

Cambridge the mnjority of the men are 
down bffore the end of June, and do not 
come tip again until tJie second week in 
October. The intervnl ia the ' long varia- 
tion.' At Oxfonl the men who keep 
Trinity term remain up until tbe Satur- 
day after the first Tuesday in July. At 
Qitubridge, men reading for a tripoa may 
obtain permissioa to bo Ui residence dur- 
ing July and August. It is not counted 
as n. X/^TBi, but it is a most valuable op- 
portunity for coaching free from tho du- 
ti-aptiona of t*rm time. 

Lo»k - and - Say Method. — This ia a 
method of tiyiching rcjiiiing without spell- 
ing; children lieiug tjiught to recognise at 
sight, nnd to pronounce, wiirds as wholes. 
A child is given a general impression of 
the look of a word, and then lliia ' visual 
iuipresB ' is made vivid by analysis and 
lasting by repetition. An ensy sentence 
is written on the black board or exhibited 
on a tablet, The teacher points to the 
words and pronounces them one after the 
other, the children sevrrnl time« rejieat- 
ing the sounds simultaneously after tbe 
teacher. Then the teacher points to tbe 
words and requires the children to pro- 
nount-e them without help— forwards, 
backwards, and tjiken anyhow. Then 
aingle children are called on to pronounce 
the words pointed to in any order. Then 
comes the (inalysis. Tbe teacher asks the 
children tbe number of letters in each 
word ; tells tliem tlie names and Boundsof 
eacli letter; calls on them to pick out the 
same tetters on an alphabet card ; and sets 
tlnfm to print the woi'ds on their alat*a. 
The eye, bke the ear, nioi* readily takes 
in thingn as wholes, remembers a word as 
a whole, and associates its meaning with 
its form^ust as the ear associates its 
moaning with its sound. The method has, 
therefore, much to be said in its favour. 
No one can really be said to read until ho 
takes in words at a glance. This method 
loaches him to do so froni the very first. 
It likewise helps liim considerably to learn 
how to spell English words^for in thii 
the memory of the eye, the ' look ' of tlio 
word, is generally our chief practical aid. 
I'nless care be taken, however, the pro- 
nunciation — which depends on the dis- 
tinct articulation of every sepurate sound 
— is very likely to suft'er. 

Inther. Kartin (h. Hi&telien 1483; d. 
1546), WHS t!ic son of a miner and melal 
worker. His parents gave liiia il ^gicA 

eduaatton. At th« ase of fourteen they 
Boiit him to study liiliii at Ma^^^^-^)u^g 
autl at EiBeuacli. His faliit^r dcBignml litiu 
fur law, l>ut his piety led liiiii to Joiu the 
order of St, Augustine. We have not here 
to dwii with his long search after truth in 
thn ISiblc-, his fparless quarrel with the 
popish ftuthoritic*, and his work as a reli- 
giouK rRfanuur, hut mnr<>Iy with his views 
aa a prautlcfil «iduciitioni)it. ' IS 1 were 
not a ■nioiiitAr uf the Gusiirl,' he said, ' I 
■Iioold like to lie u ttchoolniaster.' He 
boldly proclaimed tJie nnceaiiity of educa- 
tion for all, aud exposed thealiHurd uiethodB 
of ' darkening kuowledf,'e ' in vogue in 
schools previous to the Uefoniiatiuii. In 
1R20 he came out boldly oti the question 
in his Xe'/flJ- to the O'erimm Arinloernfy. 
and in 15^4, in his Letter to the Governing 
Bodieii of all tlif Titwnt of (r'er^iiany, In 
tlie former ho demanded the n^irgnnisa- 
tjoit of thp universitii^ and schools, whilst 
iu tliB latter he urged that it whs tlie duty 
of tlie authoriliea to amehonite the con- 
dition, iulellectua! and moral, of the people. 
In 1525 he e^'en organised a Kehool al liin 
native Eislcben, AiiiaKed at the ignorance 
of the people, he drew up in ir>'29 Ids Great 
andSmall Catcchisins,aiid introduced tlieiu 
into the schools for i-eligiouK iimtruetiou. 
In ln30 he puldiwhed a sermon On tlf, 
Jff.resinly of gendiiu/ Children to Sdiool, 
These were followed hy various other sepa- 
rate works, iiesides the numerous passngeB 
which ahound in his writings in favour of 
sound education. Whilst he maintained 

tliat pareiita ought to edoiMte thrir < 
drf 11. lie openly ai'owed tlmt^ whero 
failed to do so, it was the duty of the i 
giBtratea to interfere, and t«ke the mM 
into their own hands. He advocated I 
Ixiys and girls should not be taught i 
than two hours n day, as the former c 
to have tim« to learn a trade. Mid the I 
to learn domestic duties. In his inst 
tiona to inspectors he gave a detailed i 
count of the work to be done, and 
authors to be rend, ic. The list is full 4 
sound sense and sound religion. Sfn ali» 
Lxw (Educational), section Saxony. 
LyceaDi(Gr.Xuic<uic = the wolf-slajr 
Tliis term has assumed varioua 
in different ages and countries, 
the Greeks it signified the gymnadu 
with covered wnlka in the cafitem subotb. 
of Athena, where Aristotle taught, 
naTUPii from the neighbouring t«Diple I 
Apollo Lyccu*. Among the Rcimandi 1 
signified an educational e8tnbti«bn 
such, for instance, as that in the Tu 
nuni of Cicero, or in the villa of 
at Tikur. Kowadaya it geneiuUy ilenotti' 
a secoud-ela^ training school, a school v 
lil«rary seminar)' between a common schod 
and a college. In France it is the lu^Mt 
cksa of secondary school, coittaintnff ««|^ 
classes, while In Italy it filta tlie plantf 
the liigher cUsses of the Genuan gjniM' 
slum. In English -speaking communiti4 
the term is applied to an ossociatioD fur 
literary improvement by means of lectu 
OD science and literature. 


Xadiu System. 5m MonTosiaL 


Haintenon, Harqaite de {h. 163.5; 
d. 17iy). — ^The fimiily name of this re- 
markable woman wntiFnLn>;oised'Aubignc. 
She was the graiulduii^fhter of a, distin- 
guished French ProteatiLnt writer, Theo- 
dore A. d'Aubign^, and was boi'U in a 
pri»on, where her fatier was incarcerated 
for his heretic-al opinions. After ber 
father's death Fran^ise was converted to 
the Catholic faith, and at sixteen mar- 
ried the poet Scarron. Un his death in 
1669 she was reduced to poverty, and utti- 
mat^ily becAme gnvemesa to the two sons 
of Louis X I V. by ildadame da Montespan. 

Tlie devotion with which she dischargtd 
I the duties of this |>ositton mailc the tint 
her friend for life. He gavrherahundwl 
thousand livres, with whidi she pnrchasii 
the Maintenon estate, and CTent«d be ■ 
Marchioness. Her induenceoverttiekiiig 
gratlually increased, and in 1683 she «M 
privately married to the Grand ilonarqiA 
Her ascendency, which remaineid uDitiiiii- 
nished down to the king's death in ITl^ 
alie employed, among other purpo8r% w 
found at 8t. Cyr an important scJiool it, 
poor girla, which she supported and s<a| 
intended with the greatest devotwn fi 
168S down to her death there in 
Mer letters, edited by lAvoUeei ore 

most chftrming in the French language, 
ixl thow tiwMiiHTp iiittTRst nlie tifidk ill h(*r 
lUCationkl work. Sec ( I ) h^r Lr.ttra f ui* 
'iitifaticm dfM fiUet ; (i) Enfrrlteitt mtr 
"rtini^lion deafilU* ; (S) CarmpilK our. de- 
■Urt ; (4) Mitnovrea den Dame» lie St. 
Cyr, A<.-. 

Management Sea School Maxaob- 


Kaoagers.— Evpry voluntary aohool is 
Older the direclioD of a liody of manngnrs, 
irlioae doty it is to make all neix-senry 
Knnflements for it« eflicient working. 
Ic^iool Boards an> the mnnngera of nil 
nboola pTXividfNl by them, but thi-y tniiy 
Megtttv the clinrgd of any prtrticulur school 
lo T""""g-™ Mppointrd by lliein. Every 
body of luiiiiiigpn must uuiisist ri[ at Imst 
lluvt! ucreoiiH, aiiO if tlit? ihJkiuI ha not pro- 
rided Dy a Itounl, a form Hi^'ned by three 
muafiBn must be fient to the Ei:lucation 
bepvtmenty autlioriuiig one of the three 
lo ai^ the receipts for grants. Managers 
»re aI»o reqiiiiefi to appoint a Cf-rrespon- 
deait with the Department, Manjigera are 
lu^ld rrsponiibUi for the conduct, of their 
■chnola, for their tnaint«nnnce in eHiciency, 
lor tlio cnro of thi^ heiiUli of individual 
■cbolnni who loay ncr^ to be withli<-ld frotii 
exAminntinn or rclii^cd from tu^me part 
of thn school work throughout Ihc yuiir, 
and for thii provixion of all needful fur- 
Iiiturt!, biioka, und npjuiratus. 

Kann. Horace (l796-IS.'i9), a nativr 
of MatMchuimtu, WHS tlie most eminent 
and raoceuful promoter of popular educa- 
tion in the TTiiiUal States during the niiie- 
t««DtJ) ce!Utu''y. After acting as classical 
t«acher at Providence, he, in 1821, took 
sp tiM ttvdy of law, and for a few years 
ponued tlie profeeuon of atlvocate. In 
1827 he was elected a member of the Le- 
gislative Asspiubly, and hx years later of 
tim wnat« of Ma^i^ach tisstts, becoraing pre- 
kidmt of thp laH^er borly in IS3B. His 
carlirst public laliours were in the cause 
oE mtigioua tiborty, the Eiippr['.^sinii of lot- 
teries the promotion nf temperance, and 
inbTOur of the introduction nf milways. 
As a lawyer, ttalnunan, n.nd philanthro- 
pin, he hiul achicrrd a great reputation 
HDOtig hill fidlow countrymen, and wax 
■Ifwdy aclectcd for the iuiportruit work 
tf todifyiTifc til* KtatutcH of his native 
Btace, wb«i, in 1837, he abundonrd all his 
itlior public and jirofcstiioniiJ pursuits in 
wder to a«cept the il]-rrmuiicrat«d post of 
■Bvetarj of the newly cetublialiud Bureau 

of Education, and to devotfl himself thence- 
forward enciusively to the promotion of 
popular education. In this office, which 
fie filled for twelve years with untiring 
energy, working as a rule sixteen hours a 
day, he ri-miprod to the cause of education 
aervicea for which Americans will never 
ceaae to be grateful. In the performance 
of liis taakof spretuling elementary educa- 
tion and improving tlie methods of teach- 
ing, Mann had recourse to three agencies : 
(1) he instituted a series of periodical 
conferences of teachers ; (2) h© published 
a monthly periodical, I'/ie Comiiton .School 
Joiimal, and (3) he wrote Annual R«port« • 
to his committiie of the progress made from 
year to year in the work of education, iit 
tht" nature of the subjects discussed in th« 
perioiliciil conferences, a volume which lift 
publislied in 18-10 presents a sample. The 
subjects of the seven conferences therein 
reported are: 1. 'Means and Object of 
Po'pular Schools.' 2. 'The Professional 
Preparation of Teachers." 3. ' The Neces- 
fiityof Education in a Republic' 4. 'What 
Ciiid does, and what He leaves us to flo in 
Education.' .'i. 'Historical Survey of Edu- 
cation ; its Dignity and its Degradation.' 
fi. ' District School Librariea.' 7. ■ Scliool 
Piinisliments.' On the third of the pre- 
ceding subjects Mann <!eiivered a stirring 
speech, in which ho contended, with con- 
vincing eloquence, that the safety of society 
under a rejjublic (and therefore under any 
form of governiuent where tlie suffrage is 
practically imiverBal) depends on tlie moral 
and mentjj education of the masses. In 
his Common School Jovrnal, which he 
editod for ten years, he dealt with the 
school topics of the day, and urged Ids ideas 
in detail on teachers. Histwelve Annual 
Eteports to the Board of Education are a 
collection of real historical value. In 1843 
Mann paid a visit to Europe for the pur- 
pose of making himself personally familiar 
with the conditioD of elementary educa- 
tion in the most advanced countries in this 
quarter of tlie glol>e. The results of this 
journey he em l>odied in his seventh Annual 
Report, which attractfid unusual attention, 
not only in America, but also in England 
and other parts of the world. The subjects 
dcitlt with by Mann in his Annual Reports 
enibniced school architeeture, school li- 
bmries, the syntiictic method of teaching 
Rswling, school hygiene, school singing, the 
uniformity of school text-books, the or- 
dinary faiilts of scholars, and school ^ lui- 


isbmonta, ha. The proft^onnl traininx 
of t«Mclu.-rfi And tlici qncAtimi of the ud- 
miMioin ai wnmun ils ti-achi-ni in huyn' 
-adMola aI>o largely eiigugnl Mann's »l- 
tciilion. He waa, iu fuel, Uie r™,l founder 
of llie first NoriuuJ School iii Ameriua^ 
that wliit-'ii w£L8 o)>eiied at L«xiijgU)u in 
1830, aud to wlikh fn-males vere adiiiitt«d. 
In the mauiteiiauce of discipline in Bcfaools, 
and ui the formation of the personal chA- 
ractcTB of tho scholars, Mann attached 
Tory great valuo to thp influence of reli- 
^on, in the senae of the spirit of unaec- 
tarian Christianity, aTid to this end lie ad- 
vocates the rending of the Bible in schools. 
On the death of John Quincy Adams in 
1848, Horace Mann was elected by a large 
majority to represent Massaohaaetts in the 
seimte of the United States, whereupon Le 
resigned Iiis position as seeretary of the 
Massachusetts Edueatioiml Bureau. At 
Washington he advocated the creation of 
a IJational Educational Olfice for the whole 
of the United States, similar to the insti- 
tution which he had conducted with such 
salutary re-Kults in his native Statri ; but 
he was not destined to see the realisation 
of this idea, which was not CArried ant 
until the year 18(57. Towards the end of 
his hfe he accepted the rectorship of the 
unfortunate AntiochCollegein Ohio, where 
he died in IS.')9. His widow wrote a life 
of Mann, and edited his correspondenoe. 
In llltdSnEtAtuowas erected to hie memory, 
the expimse Ijeing defrayed by a. general 
subscription of all the tciichcrs and pupils 
in tlie schools of Massachusetts. 

Hannal lustmction is a vagae phrase 
for tlie dillereiit schemes wherein pupils 
are to be taught : (1) to use their hands 
as veil as their hea^ls, and (2) not to be 
ashamed of manual lalniur. In this sense 
writing, tlie mechanism of arithujetic, and 
drawing, form parts of all ordinary Eng- 
lish education, whilst (.lymnastics, Modeb 
ling, Turning, 81ojd (g.v.), Ac, are grndn- 
ally being introduced. Colonel Parker 
(School Journal, New York, December 
10, IfiHT) defined manual training as 
' one of several modes of thought- expres- 
sion.' 1'he Diode of expression by means 
of hvnguago and symbol is nioKt largely 
taught in schools. A second mode of ex- 
pression by forms which exhibit the idea 
or ideal to some extent is Keen in drawing, 
The third mode would use actual niodrla, 
specimens, and things aa fri^e aM [mnsiblo 
mm oonventions. It would use these for 

itji own pnrpow* only, lent w« 
luvve the reverse -notion &alt wluch 
a jontJi todfdtne'anatom' as'rouad 

of wood iiivriitffil by l)r. Xlullon.' 

plana aaaumi? (1) tliat the preaeut 
of primary Mlucatton are too ' bool 
and uDstiiuuJating ; (2)that tfa« educat 
begun in the primary scliools should 
continued in some form, more or less 
tiona], and supplied, either from \'oi±\ 
national funds, after the youth has |xix»j 
the standards or ha* gone to work, usniJij 
without any knowledge of tJic moct ele- 
mentary &ctB and principles which uniltt- 
lie his work. A useful article in Vi» 
Spectator, January 1>1, 1888, staLw lUt 
manual instruction 1ms be«n nootameaiti' 
from three standpoints : (I) The incnMi 
of skill on the part of Uie vrdrknMb 
(2) Tlie nevesnily of 'praelical t«aduii^' 
not ' boob learaing.' for the labounsg 
classes. Tliis is somewhat akin to ibi 
common answer of the Lancashire work* 
man to his apprentice, 'Tha wants te 
know ta mich. Tha do exactly what * 
tell tha and thall do reet' (3) Thr w- 
eessity of teaching by means of thinp ■* 
well as by notions. This standpoint issi 
course part of the general platform tat 
the teaching of science, willi experiiDvota 
when possible, and with the object d 
training the faculties of obsf^valion ood 
manipulative skill at the same time B«tlM 
mentlil faculties. In this n'spnct gocd 
work has long been done at a few Eagjiifc 
public schools, and notably Clifton OdI- 
lege. In practical chemistry and phyncs 
the little manuals by ^lessrs. Shenstoa* 
and Worthington (Eiviuglonii) are in* 
stances of good pioneer work in our fir* 
gnule schools. The univeraity colkfo* 
are making wonderful strides, and «<« 
at Oxford and Cambridge nianoal instm^ 
tion, not only in physics but in engioeif- 
ing, may 1k> obtained by the nndeigia- 
duates. 'i"hring le<l the way by instttat- 
ing a carpenter's 'shop' at Uppiii^hun, 
Itut theconeral lack of pmvinion for prac- 
tical worK with mantnl discipline in paUat 
in the majority of our scbnols. To l»«»i' 
masters it mmna trouble (fispedaUy until 
more teachera arn traiood), and to jwrsr 
□ors expense. Hence misappn-heniuoiu ex- 
ists. In the United Btatea the cause t( 
manual training is wannly litk<-n up. Tift 
centre of activity is tlie InJuiiriiu JMs" 
ralinri AtniKialWH, 9 University Flaoit 
New York : resident and first beaci tf 


Tratning CoUcise (18S7), Dr. Nioholu 
ButliT. nie iiuportaiioi- of the niovi>- 
:l im *evn by tliK {ii-el timt in iU tliinl 
of L'siateiico it toulci take tli« olJ 
biMi ThAj|o)i.-ii-al SuiiiiinLry at a rent of 
liOOL a vrar. Its fuudnuwiital article 
itb U, 'Tliat tlis coiofilete deveJop- 
of all the faculties can l>i> I'tactied 
ilj tLrou^h a systom of education which 
biu«« tiio training found in the usual 
lUrso of study with the element* of 
.nunl training.' The A^nociation cininis 
a fact grrni^rnlly riM^ngniHi^d, that the 
.ioilDrgBrten Kystcni (q.v.) i>r(Hluc'!S tht^ 
result* wttJi youn^ chiidnm, and it 
combiiK! a modified di^vulupiaeiit of 
syst«ui with onliuary bouk-lwiming. 
Qstrial wJucatiou oomprises (l)teiihtii- 
edut-'.Htioii, (2) manual traiiiin;;. The 
rtiou dnsirvs to remove the wrong 
that luauual instruction meaiia 
lingtrades. 'The argumentispsycho- 
i and educatioiial. It is not ccono- 
ic or Dtilittmnn.' It taktts no account 
tbe soci&I and ciconomic iicncfits known 
nraJt from manunl training. The 
lb are not rstnhiinhcd fur the pur- 
of tMiching jiiipiis how to make n 
bat to tench tlieni how to live. 
«Ml»-«pIWu] disincliiiatinu I'or maniiiLl 
mr ia conft»»Ml ; hence this supple- 
itoiy, or rnthnr conipk-tnt-ntary, move- 
it ia expi-ctud, in the words of the Ite- 
&oni Spriiiglii-lil, Muss., 'tofoetnra 
*rapj>Tt«iatiouo( Uievalueajiddi^iity 
LutvllH-tuul iahijur, and tht- worth and 

lability o£ laliuurJiig meti.' 
ductfio has not ouly a Manual Train- 
ig School, but a ' Womeu'a Institutti of 
'tthiiical Design.' Oeuerally spetikiiig, 
kVre the manual feature has been inti'o- 
dao«d *tlie kitchen and the sewing-room 
tbe girls have h«ld su equal place 
ith Um bench and the forgo for the boys ' 
I^Aany Jf.Y. Ilffort, October 3, imi). 
AiDericans seom to have hepn par* 
fcalarly impressed by the rniperinl Tech- 
nical N;]iOol at Moscow, the pioneer in 
lW8,andf.iovrmmnntr<iniinissiniiers have 
•*(»irtnd in the wake of the English Tech- 
kittl CocnmiMion. The^e repoHs, the 
kiolutjc joamals, Find the above Asincin- 
tMn, whose nbject is t)i« creation of public 
■tikrat aiul licticf in thn value of Jndus- 
lniJ«ducation, should be n-f erred to. The 
paition of many thoughtful public mm 
thn* given by tlw Governor of the 
of New York in his la«t miswiage Co 

tlie Le(rts1aturc(t877): "The prment *yM- 

tem li insufficient for the foture needs of 
our Anierifan youth. I would thereforu 
recommend niakiug manmil Iniiniiig.with- 
iu certain timita, a part of the pul..!ii- school 
system, ceirtaiiily in tlie atiea and hu^er 
towns of ttiis Stat«.* ('^'f^ Bain, Seimce 
nf £dnaHion, pp. 169, 236-36, 272-80; 
Oeorgo Coml>e, Ediicntiim, : its I'rindpUi 
and i'raclu-f, p. 313 (Macmillan &Cc, 
lti(i!j)— a posthumous edition hyMr, Jolly ; 
and R. tialloway's Sducafion, Hcirnt^c 
a,ul Technical {Tnibnrr & Co., 1881). 
Mr. Galloway gives many practionl hints.) 
Kaps. — Tlie rapidly increasing popula- 
rity of maps in jiewsjmpei'a, school text- 
books, Ac., is intimately coniiect4*d with 
the development of geographical teiiuhing. 
It ia a general fault that text-buoks are 
usod too much, and maps too rarely. Kven 
in distingui sited schools it is too commonly 
supposed that the use of an atlas is quite 
analogous to the use of a dictionary. Yet 
all teachers are aware that to teach pupils 
t<t read a map intelligently involves con- 
siderable training, great pains, and the 
use of applianceK. A map (from mappa, 
I^atin, napkin, c.f. the old titles mappit 
mtnidi, ic.) ia not so much a pictonal 
representation of a portion of the earth's 
surface viewed from above, as a record of 
tlio larger and more permanent features of 
parts of the earth's surface which is the 
standpoint of geography. Tliese features 
are primarily recoriled on physical maps, 
and they slioutd be first used. The conven- 
tional distinctions between c/iarU, viapg, 
ti.nd plaiut slioutd be noticed. It la not 
possible to classify the different gorta of 
maps here ; the teacher must make the 
selection for his own purpusea, basing 
subsequent meteorological, political, and 
hist^oriotl investigations upon the physical 
and geological ma|)s accessible. It is 
always unfortunate for pupils to have 
ordinary politically -coloured maps ('full- 
coloured' as publishers call them) placed 
before them in the first instance. This is 
a fault encouragied by limiting pupils to 
the use of one ntlaiii ; it serves to keep up 
tli« artificial barriers between 'political' 
and 'physical' geography, and produces 
bad ert'ects in the study of hiatorj-. Sepa- 
rate maps should be bought as they are 
neeiled. Teachers and pupils shoula aliso 
prepare maps for their own purposes. It 
in uftt-n most advisable to make a graduated 
series of maps in the same scale of «.n>] 


important country. The at&tiffram loapa, 
i.v. those tujirkiiii; stalistics of a complex 
or political tinture upon the ordinary pliy- 
eicui foatui'cs, would then natnrall}' follow 
tJie latter. The logical order is well illus* 
trated lij Ilaxky'strentinentof theThnmes 
ha^in in his P/itfuiogmpliy (MiLcmiiliin, tin.). 
l)etiiilml suggentinuE on the physical side 
of luFipa, i-c, wiD lie found in Gtiki^'a hook 
on The Teaehiiui of Gf-ograjihy (Muuniiltan, 
1887, -li. Gd.). ' 

Miipaan-- tlie cbiimut«ristio iustnunenta 
of the geographer, juat as much aa intra- 
niolecular alructure ia the special field of 
the chemist, Maps are also iiiecLsures of 
the progress of geographical science. They 
should not, therefore, he hastily thrust 
upon the beginner, any more than they 
should be overlooked at later stages. 
From the topography of the neighbourhood. 
is to proceed in the most natural way 
from the known to the unknown, t^imple 
plans IjiLsed on (i.) fuiuiliur lioarings, (».) 
the carilinal poiiita, should lead to further 
knowk-dj^ 'out of hounds.' 

Sciile should be atu^iuled to at a very 
early sttige, The maps of the Government 
<.>rdnance Survey (agents: Stauforda, 
(-Iiaring Cross, London, S.W., or loc^il 
map publishers) atiould be used by the 
teacher, and introduced to the elder stu- 
dents. The usual English metliod of 
a scale of one inch to the mile is a re- 
duction of ^^ These representative 
fractions are oonvenienlly given on Coiiti- 
iiBntal nmjjs in e.xact round numbers, e.g. 
1: 20,000,000 for a eniftU map of Europe. 
The metric ayatem should not be neglected, 
and a table of conjparison sCH,le8 kept for 
use. It is well worth remeuiberiiig that 
thirteen square, or eight liueiir kilometres 
equal ainut five English statute miles, 
Tlie distinction between statute miles and 
gengniphical miles or knots should be 
carefully taught, an<l the latter preferred, 

Loculisntion by means of meridians and 
pftmllplsahould coniB Iat«r, and theaniount 
of geometry and astronomy to be taught 
is a matter of circiimatoncea. The reading 
of maps as a Helection of geographical 
mattfrr is the lirst thing to be aimed at, 
and the couatant reference of the geogra- 
pher's material to jilacm and to maps 
involves a supply, variety, and wloction 
of the latter in si'IkkiIb which is not yet 
(1888) recognised by thtt niBJority of th«m. 
T!ie public have alnn to team to disurimi- 
nsta hetwMm good and bad maps. The 

publiiJiers of good maps in Britain 
few in nimiber. Teachers should thi-i 
enoouTttge those who make cartogra 
BpeciaJity, and it will soon be fouud 
British publishers are prepared to 
with tlie leading Continental ones. 
education of teachers id Uiis mattof 
soon react on thr^puHi^erB'atocki. 31' 
while the teacher should alwaysnuk* 
use of the blackboard, globed, pjctora, 
occasionally, at least, of the magic-Iu! 

Map-tlrawirif/ is U>o much trMtcd •! 
drawing, not a, geogniphical exerciite. 
and common sense ivre both ogaiiui 
rate home leseon maps drawn on 
paper. The insertion of meridauis 
the outline defeats one of the objeeU 
the lesson. Outline maps for 'filling il^ 
either inor out of school, can be purclMMw 
The 'blank projections* sold are very uaiM 
in testing knowledge, or for use in ackod 
lessons on contours. Much gr«at«r varid^ 
with more intelligent srsiem ia ndtdeft. 
The chief object here should he to ^ 
pupils to know the main outline of tba 
world as they know tlie nmltiplioaliM 
table. Advanced students with tiem 
knowledge of inatheniatics may wittMf 
aci|uire some of the elements of surveyingj 
checking their results by the iiidiwiMl 
maps. Provided that principles and W0- 
tliods are studied, the work has Biufc 
educational value, and is tiiudi pmotiaed 
in militaty schools. The Prooetdingt i^ 
the Jioyal Geuffrafihital Sveiety conUiAil 
papers by eminent travellers dMCtilugl 
how their observations were made. Youigl 
men likely to visit compaiatively uukuon 
regions should learn the use of the chitf , 
instruments before they go abroad. Fad- 
lities are provided by the Society (Addrect: 
The Secretary, I Sa vile Row, London, ltC^ , 
Intending travellers can now, by arraiig*' 
ment, be instructed in (1) surveying ud' 
mapping, (2) geology, (3) botany, (4) pho- 1 
togniphy ; fee, 2t. 6d. an hour. The msg- ! 
nilicent collection of maps is open fm U ' 
teuchers from 10 to 5, on Saturdays froM 
10 to i' p.m. The Teachrtra' Guild (IT 
Buckingham St., Strjind, W.C.)hu5 a U3*- 
ful circulating library' of Ixxiks, Ac, Cor ttl ' 
meinbcrs. [See also AIatiikmatical Ggo- 


Map Projectloni. See Matbbuatkul 


Harking. .?w School SlA^AaKHrrr. 

Mr son College, Btnuingbaia. Sm 

Pbotixoial CoixBon. 


flthomEiHeBl Geography is an eka- 
ic tomi. ]| does not meuu 'tL(lew.Ti|)tiuii 
the rarth on mathemntical |>i-iuci|>lea,' 
«!vrn such portion of the tielj of gpi>- 
ly »* involves loiithpmatics, hi the 
r oMin it woiiM trciiH upon much pby- 
geogntptiir nfiri gro-phygic8, and upon 
advKnciid tri?<itmont of pnlitjpiil gfio- 
pliy by the dixcu.-uiinn of compnrative 
itulics. TIu! idiuinrt uniform milKlirkion 
g«0|{raphy, lik« Ant'innt Haul, ' in tres 
,' is f&miliur to every tiuiclior. The 
ling chapter of t«xt-booka is usually 
p»wot«l to matheuiattfttl geofrriiphy. On 
ir.prinriplcof prcweedingfivimthe known 
latlM unknown this nictliMl is uuscienti* 
It hogins by asking a young student 
dixbelicvc his sunses, and then to accopt 
crude summnry of whut are strictly as- 
iDmical fucts. 'riiis(Nlucationn.lGxtroniB 
exKIbitud in thr oldiir grnoratinn by 
•the use of the glolHa' as an ndvertise- 
int for « ladies' school. Wo hnve the 
extreme now in lh» infrciju<'nt use 
lobes. Tlie true work of gi-ogruphy is 
give answers to the ijuestion. Where 1 
Tbrae soon lead to (I) th<- n^udingand (2) 
thvnukiogof M.tps(^.('.). Teaolung about 
riduuisand parallels leads to inijuirlea 
■boat (1) »Aa/w and {2) nuttitm* of the 
•trtli. This may, of course, be indefinitely 
axpanded into the domain of Aatr/nwmi/. 
Etut the problems involved in the invest!- 
ptioD of th*i r-nrtli's shape have conve- 
nimtly bwti fooiiis«od around the subject 
of GeoJfty. Tlin ntjin'lard book is Col, 
R. CUrkft's G'.niUtij (Claronflon Press. 
1882). Tills sulijcct involves advanced 
HKthematic>,uiitn)nomy,nn(l practical sur- 
raying. In coitm-ction with the mnlitim 
of Uie eartli, tliu main facts first and then 
tbe QzplauBtioa of th« facts of (i.) day and 
night, (iL) th« seasons, (iii.) nir and water 
dUTents should be taught, (i.) and (iL) 
»Tv usually given in ■ niathenwticiil gco- 
hy,' and (iiL) in ' physical geography.' 
are, however, very laiithematicat, 
•vm the bare explanations usually 
IDVolfo a knowledge of the solar 
and dynamical laws. &tf Prof. 
BUghftn'c Maniuil on 7'idfM (Ciissell &, 
Co.). Hencn the importance of teaching 
■ome titnplt! i-lcmpntnry physics and me- 
clianiai bnfom thnse matters are discussed. 
Thn tue at orrerin* and other mechanical 
contririuice* to t^icb planetary motions 
h a vex«I qaeation. if not dangr^rous in 
the hantb ola akilful teacher, they are oer- 


tainly very expensive and liable to easy 
derauffemeiit. Itis better tojspt-nd money 
firat on globes and inapti. The mathenia- 
tical principles of (iv.). climate, are closely 
connected with (i.)aud(ii.). The advanced 
discussion has usually l>eon claimed by 
goological text-books. The teacher who 
is niso a student will enjoy Croll's ClimntA 
and Time, where the controversiea l>f;twoeB 
the ast.ronoraers and geologists are sum* 
tnariswl. IJut they procewl o'utside tho 
apliere of Uie scienlilic geographcir, cxci-pt 
£41 far as the tatter can cleal with tlie jiro* 
blems of terrestrial physics. 

Piuctically it will be found thatcorto- 
'jraphy and nuip projfciiunB are more 
closely allieil to geography, for they in- 
volve tlie most scientific answers to the 
question. Where 1 A very brief account 
of the principal projections is given in 
many text-books. Grove's /'rini'ro/fJflO- 
grnphi/ (Macmillan it Co., 1*.) shows what 
is jiossibte for young pupils when the 
teacher begins to deal with a large portion 
of the globe at one view. Theie are somo 
in^niouB thread und wire models on sale, 
but ample scope exists for the ingenuity 
of teachers. The notions of projectiona 
do not come easily to most minda. The 
various schemes for 'projecting' the w)iol& 
or leas of the